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Full text of "History of Luzerne, Lackawanna, and Wyoming counties, Pa. : with illustrations and biographical sketches of some of their prominent men and pioneers"

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|l  Ilttstrafi0n^t  and  IMiogmjhtcal  ^ketche^ 



W.    W.    MUNSELL    &    CO. 

36    Vesey    Street. 





■J,  10 


15,  16 


'riiu  Discovery  ot  the  Delaware -IVnnsyl- 
vaiiia  (iranted  to  ami  I  )rffani/.eil  by  Wil- 
liam Penn         

THAPTEll   11. 
(icrmaii     Immigration— The     Administra- 
tions of  William   Penn  and  Sir  William 


The  Question  of  Ta.xinfr  the  Pro|n  ictary  Es- 
tates— Wars  with  the  I'reneh  an<l  Indians 

Mason  and   Di.von's  Lint — Causes    of    the 
Kevolntion— Patriotic  Action  of    Penn- 

devolution  in  the  ProvinoialGoverinnent — 
Pennsyhania  a  State— Hattles  of  1776  and 

1777— Indian  Warfare     

Later  Events  of  the  Hevoliition  — War  with 
the      Western      Indians— Constitutional 


The  PeniianiiteWar— Whiskey  Insurrection 
—"Molly  Maguire"  Outrages-The Riots 


Harrisliurjr  made  the  Capital  —The  War  of 
1812    Internal  Inipnuenientji— Schools 
Patriotic  Action  in  the  Mexican  and  Ci\'il 






Kelics  and  Theories  of  the  Earliest  Inhabi- 
tjuits  of  Xorthcastcrn  Penns>ivania     — 
Opening: of  tho  Historic  Period— The  liuli- 

ans  of  Wyoming  

Operations  of  the  Siisiiuehanna  Company— 
The  "  Pennamite  and    Yankee  "  Contest 
The  Pioneers— How  lliey  Came, .Settled  ami 
Developed  the  Resources  of  the  Country 
Tho  Condition  of  the  Pioneers— Their  Ways 

and  Means  of  Li  vine      

Old  Luzerne  County  in  the  Revolution   — 

Civil    History— Houndaries,    Organization, 

County   lluildings  ami  Civil  List         

Local   Military   Organizations— Service  in 
Canada  and  Mexico  and  at  Homo         — 
Early  Wagon  Roads  and  Mail  Rou  tes      .... 

30  ;i7 





History  of  the  Coal  Trade  in  Luzerne  and 

Lackawanna  Counties 

River    Navigation— The    Construction    uf« 


Tlie  Construction  of  Railroads  in  Luzerne 


Historical.  Agricultural,  Medical.  Religious 

and  Sport.smen's  Associations 

Opening  of  the  Civil  War— Patriotic  Spirit 
in  Luzerne.  Lackawanna  and  Wyoming 


Luzerne  in  the  Civil  War— TheSlh.  Ilth  and 
15th  Regiments  of  Three  Months  Men     . . 

The  2.Sth  Regiment         

The  36th  and  list  Regiments  (7th  and  I2th 

Reserves)         —  

Histories  of  the  Wth  and  Wth  Reginn/nls 

History  of  the  52nd  Regiment       


History  of  the  .T3d  Regiment      


The  5«th,  .)7th  and  .5sth  Regiments  


Tho  01st  and  64th  Regiments         

The  74tli,7fith  and  77th  Regiments  — 


The  81st.  92nd  and  SUlth  Regiments        

The  in7th,  108th,  1.32nd,  i;i«th  and  I42nd  Regi- 


'I'he  I43d  Regiment         

The  U'Jth,  101st,  102nd.  liJW.  177th.  I7sih  and 

194th  Regiments         —  — 

.\n  Outlinoof  tlieGeoIosry  of  the  Wyominif 
Coal  Field  

'.CI  W! 



Ktl  11)7 













I  in 






182  mi 

Wilkes-Iiarre   Cily   and  Township         ....  IBBSIfi 

Bear  Creek  Township        2;I7 

DIack  Creek  Township      237-231) 

Buck  Township     Sin,24« 

Ilutler  Township 240  243 

Conynghum  Township      243.244 

Dallas  Township 244.215 

Dallas  llorough     245  247 

Denison  Township  247,248 

Dorrance  Township  248 

ExcttT  Township 249-2.52 

West  Pittston  Borough 2.52,253 

Fairmount  Township 

Foster  Township 

White  Haven  Itnrongh     .. 
Freeland  Borough 
Franklin  Township 
Hano\er  Township 

.\shlcy  Bonnigh 

Nanlieoke  Borough 
Sugar  Nolch  Borough 

Ilazle  Township 

Hazleton  llorough 
Hollcniiaek  Township 
HiHiloek  Township 
Huntington  Ttiwnship 
.laekson 'i'ftwnship 
.lenkins  Township 
Vatesvllle  llorougli 
Kingston  T'lwnship 
Kingston  II«irough 

Lake  Township     

Lehman  Township 

Marcy  Township 

Neseopeek  Township 
New  Coluinhus  Borough 
Newp(trt  Township 
Pittston  Township 
llughestown  Iltirough 
Pittston  llorough 
Pleasant  \'al)ey  Borough 

Plains  Township 

Parsons  llortiugh 
Plymouth  Township 
PlymiMilh  Borough 

Ross  Township      

Salem  Township 

Slia-um  Township 
Sugarloaf  Township 

I'nion  Township 

Shickshinny  Borough 
Wright  Townsliip 

....  2.VI.255 
....  2.V>  2.5H 
....  2,58-3S4 

....  2111  2H7 
....  2tlM,2<)U 
....  2ai»-273 


....  278-280 
....  28lh2M2 
....  282  2'.« 
....  2!fi.2!W 
....  21W  21W 
....  .Ml. 301 
....  :iil  -Mi 

....  ■.m..*H 

....  :I04  311 

....  311  317 

....  318,3111 

....  3111  »21 

....  XH.Xii 

....  323.3S4 

....  :is4-;b7 
....  :t>;.:i2H 
....  :c.ii  3:18 
....  :i:i8;i40 
....  :l40,3«o 
....  :i«.v.34» 

....  ;i48-.l.54 

....  :Rv:)a2 

....  3KI.3llt 

....  :iii4  -.tsn 
....  ■.»-A.:%sn 
...   :«7-;ni 

....  .171-373 
....  »73^;i70 
....  .T7«,:C7 


NauH*     First   Inhal>ilaiit8— County  '  Uv.iiii- 

zatlnn    onicials 


The  Delawari*  ami  Hudson  Canal  Company 

Railroads  of  Ijickuwanna  County      .... 


The  13lh  Regiment  of  the  National  Gnurrl 

of  Pennsylvania  

:i7i'.  :I80 



Sennitonand  Dunmorc    


.\liington  Township         

North  .Xhlngton  Township 
.s<iuth  .Vltington  Township 

(tienburn  Borough  

Waverly  Borough  .... 

Benton  T<iwnship  

illakely  Township  .... 

.\rehbald  Borough  

Illakely  Borough 

Dickson  City  llorough      .... 

.lermyn  Borough 

Olyphant  Borough  .... 


;il  lIL-iTOKII-^S. 

:|81  4.311 















Winton  Borough 

Carbondale  Township 
Clifton  Township 
Covington  Township 

Fell  Township        

Greenfield  Township 
Jefferson  Township 
Lackawanna  Township    .. 
Lehigh  Township 


Madison  Township 
Newton  Township 
Old  Forge  Township 
Ransom  Township 
Roaring  Brook  Township 

Scott  Township    

Spring  Brook  Township   .. 

....  473,474 
....  474,476 
....  476, 477 
....  477,478 
....  478-480 
....  480,481 
....  481,483 
....  483-486 
....  486-489 
....  489,490 
....  490-493 
....  492,493 
....  493,494 
....  494,495 


Relics  of  an  Earlier  Race— Organization  of 
Wyoming   County— Officers  and    Repre- 
sentatives   496,497 

Wyoming  County  Officers  and  Represent- 
atives, continued  499 

CHAPTER    in. 
Canal    and    Railroad    Communications   in 
Wyoming  County  ■'jOO 

Agricultural  Societies— Wyoming  County 
Bible  Society— Military  Companies        ...  .500, 501 


Braintrim  Township         

Clinton  Township  

Eaton  Township  

Exeter  Townshij*  

Falls  Townshiji  

Forkston  Township  

Lemon  Township  

Mehoopany  Township      

Meshoppeu  Township       

Meshoppen  Borough         

Monroe  Townshiii  

Nicholson  Township         

Nicholson  Borough  

North  Branch  Township 
North  Moreland  Township 

Overfiekl  Township  

Tunkliannock  Township 
Tunkhannock  Borough 

Washington  Township     

Windham  Township  







513,  .514 

.  ..  514,515 















The  Wyoming  Monument— M.   E.  Chapel, 

Pleasant  Valley— Sheldon  Reynolds    539 

Lackawanna  Iron  and  Coal  Company  (W. 
W.  Scranton's  Resignation)— Minislerial 
and  Official  Changes— Scranton  Fire  De- 
partment—Borough  Items       539,  .540 

Keystone  Academy,  Factory  ville 



Abbott,  .Tohn 

Ackerli'N',  .\.  I 

Allen,  \V.  E 

Apgar,  .lonathan  

Bardwell,  H.  W 

Barnes,  W.  II 

Barthe,  E.  D 

Bauman,  .\nthony 
Baun,  Itobert  — 

Beamish,  F.  A 

Benedict,  G.W 

Benedict,  S.  S 

Benner,  Samuel    .... 
Bennct,  Charles    — 

—  facing 

344  A 
454  A 
438  K 
5:34  A 
516  A 
3.54  A 
236  A 
236  .V 
438  I 
4:iS  L 
4.53  A 
348  A 
3.3(!  H 

Bennet,  D.  S 

Bennett,  Ziba        

Birkbeck,  Mrs.  Elizabeth 

Bishop,  William     

Bogert,  J.  K.  

Bradley,  W.H 

Briggs,  C.L 

Briggs,  J.  F.  

Brown,  S.  L.  

Brundage,  A.  R 

Brundage,  F.  M 

Bryden,  Andrew 

Burgess.  A.  P 

Bunnell,  F.C 

Camp,  Cyrus  D 

Campbell,  John     

Carey,  J.  M.  

Carpenter,  James  S. 

Clarkson,  James    

Connolly,  D.  W 

Connolly,  John  F. 

Cook,  A.  W.  

Coon,  J.  C.  

Copeland,  David 

Courtright,  Benjamin      . . . . 

Crippen,  Martin    

Dana  Family 

Dana,  C.H.  

Dana,  Anderson 

Daniels,  W.  G       

Davis,  S.D.  

Day,  Alvin  

Dekin,  John  

De  Lacy,  Patrick 

Denison,  J.  W 

Dershuck,  Peter 

Dewitt,  D.  D 

Dickinson,  Miss  Susan  E.  ... 

Donop,  August      

Dorrance  Family 

Doty,  A.  H.  

Drum,  G.  W 

Eaton,  .\lver  and  James  M. 

Edwards,  B.W 

Ellithorp,  E.  L 

Engle,  S.  D.  

Evans,  Benjamin 

Evans,  D.J.  

Evans,  R.T.  

Everhart  Family 

Eynon,  Thomas     

Fassett,  John 

Ferris,  William       

Fisher,  C.H.  

Flick,  R.J.  

Foote,  John  

Foster,  C.  D.  

Frear,  James  

Gardner,  A.  P 

Gibbs,  J.  W.,  Jr 

Gordon,  Lewis        

Green,  A.  L.  

Green,  J.  D.  

Hahn,  J.  L.  

Hakes,  Harry         

Hancock,  E.  A 

Hand,  D.  B 

Harding,  G.M 

Harding,  Henry 

Harding.  Daniel    

Hart,  Theodore,  Jr. 
Hartnuui,  Mrs.  M.  L.  T.     ... 

Harvey,  .A.N 

Ilcndrick,  E.  E 

nice,  George  

Hitchcock,  Elisha 

K{)llister,  Horace 

Hopewell,  J.  U 

Hosie,  John  

Hoyt,  H.  M 

Hubler,  P.  F 

Hughes,  George    

Hull,  William         

Hunt,  A.  E.  

Hutchings,  W.S 

Ingham,  S.  D 

....     236H 

Jenkins  Family     

....      236M 

Jenkins,  William 

....     256 

Jenkins,  Jonathan 

....     464A 

Jennings,  Wm 

....    236A 

Jermy n,  John        .... 

....    236  B 

Jones,  Edward       

....     454A 

Jones,  W.  S.            

....     373  A 

Jones,  H.  I.             

....    236  B 

Jordan,  James        

....     236F 

Kearney  Family    — 

....     248A 

Kenyon,  J.  B 

....     330A 

Kern,  J.  T. 

....     538A 

Kiefer,  N 

....     5.34A 

Kintner,  J.  C 

....      534E 

Kisner,  E.  P 

....      452  B 

Koons,  William      

....      524A 

Kulp,  G.  B. 

....     516A 

Ladd,  Horace         

facing     229 

Lampman,  J.  S 

facing     400 

Laning,  A.  C 

facing    437 

Lathrope,  T.  R 

....      452  B 

Law,  William         .... 

....     236  B 

Lee,  Washington, 

....      306A 

Lee.  Andrew          — 

....      236H 

Le  Grand,  Lewis   .... 

....      470  B 

Lewis,  E.R 

....      336N 

Little,  R.R 

....      ,534  B 

Loouiis.  0.  H 

....     .506  A 

Lott,  Ziba               — 

....      333A 

Lo\'e,  Henry           — 

....      468  B 

Loveland,  William 

....      534F 

Lynch,  J.  J.            

....      438  1 

McMillan,  James   — 

....     438A 

Macknight,  O.B 

....     516  .\ 

McKinstry,  A.  B  .... 

....     248B 

McMurtrie,  Alfred 

....     .534  B 

Merrifield,  Edward 

....    330A 

Merrifleld,  William 

....    248  A 

Miller,  C.  P 

....     306  .\ 

.Miner,  Charles        

....     516  A 

Miner,  W.  P 

....    248A 

Miner,  C.  A 

....     464  A 

Mitchell,  John        

....     538A 

Mitchell,  H.H 

....     330A 

Money5>enny,  W.  B. 

....    248  A 

Monies,  W.  N 

....    333  A 

Nelson,  Reuben     — 

....    438M 

Nicol,  Helen          — 

facing    433 

Nicol,  Andrew       

....    438A 

Nivison,  Mrs.  M.  C. 

facing    535 

O'Donnell,  James 

....    538A 

O'Haran,  Dennis   

....    470A 

Osterhout,  P.  M 

....     333E 

Osterhout,  Mrs.  Sarah 

....    336H 

Parke,  N.G 

....     464  A 

Parsons,  Calvin      

facing    194 

Patten,  Andrew    

....    506  A 

Paine,  Lewis  C 

....    483  A 

Payne,  W.G 

facing    431 

Payne,  H.B 

....     330F 

Pell  Family, 

....     468  B 

Pellam,  S.  H 

....    3:30  A 

Pettebone,  Payne 

....    516A 

Pier,  W.H. 

....    2:56  0 

Pierson,  C.  T 

....     344  A 

Pike,  Gordon         

....     438  B 

Price,  C.B. 

....     236  0 

Pughe,  Lewis        — 

....     330B 

Pursel,  Peter         .... 

....      330A 

Raber,  Michael      .... 

....     a30F 

Reap,  Michael       — 

....      373.V 

Rejnolds,  Sheldon 

....     398  B 

Ripple,  E.H 

....      453  C 

Koat,  B.  B. 

....     330B 

Roberts,  Henry     

4:58  B 

Robinson,  Philip,  Jr. 


Robinson,  S.  B 


Ross,  W.S. 


Russell,  A.  H 

236  S 

Scliimpff,  Leopold 

486  B 

Schoolcy,  William 

....     248  A 

Schoonmaker,  U.  G. 

....      470A 

Scranton,  J.  A 

....      438C 

Scranton,  Mrs.  J.  H. 


Seacord,  S.  H 

516  A 

Seamans,  G.  B 


468  B 


516  B 

468  A 

470  A 





470  A 


464  A 

470  A 




516  B 

248  C 

372  A 

446  B 

4.38  C 



236  0 

44<)  A 



236  S 

236  T 

236  E 



534  B 

.534  A 


.516  A 


470  A 



486  A 





392  A 







.534  A 


393  B 

306  C 








336  E 


.534  C 





470  B 

3:56  F 

306  G 

306  C 



4.54  A 



4.38  H 

4:58  C 

,520  A 

3:56  P 

438  D 




3:50  C 


4:58  D 


400  A 

333  D 



236  P 

524  A 




3:30  c 


438  E 


438  S 

5.34  D 


:530  C 



Searle.  Jt)hn  and  Mary 
Shaw,  William  S. 
Sherwood,  C'hauncey 
Shive,  P.  C. 
Shoemaker  Family 

Shuinaii,  J.  L 

Simpson,  George 

.Simrell,  K.  W 

Sloeum  Family      — 
Slocum,  Joseph     .... 

Sommers,  Henry 

Snowden.  E.  H 

Snyder,  Nathan     .... 

Speneer,  Edward 

.'^tark,  Samuel        .... 

Stark  Family  

Stemjjles.  William 

Stephens,  A.  W 

Sterlinitf,  Norman 

Stevens,  Asa  II 

Stevens,  C.  A 

Stoeker,  Thomas  .... 

Stokes,  J.  C 

Sturdevant,  E.  W. 

Stutzbaeh,  U.  ¥ 

Stutzbaeh,  .Viigust 

Swetland,  W.  H 

Swetland,  William 

Thruop.  li.  H 

Trescott,  Luther  

Tripp,  Ira  

Tul)lis,  K.  M.  .   .. 

Turner.  S.  (i.  — 

Van  IJertjen,  J.  U. 

Van  Siekle,  Lewis 

Vose,  T.  L. 

Wadhanis  Family 

Wakcman.  U.  E 

Walker,  A.  li 

Waller,  C.P 

Weaver,  P.  V.        

Wchlau,  Ludwig, 

Well*,  E.  H. 

Wells,  J.  C 

W^ells,  Natlian 

Wernet,  Xavier    

Whipple,  1.  E 

Williams  ?"amily  

W'illiams,  J.J 

Williamson,  J.  P 

Winton,  A.  H 

F.  P.  W'oodward    

W^oodward,  S 

Wright,  H.B 

Yates,  Fnineis        

Yost,  S.  D. 

Y'ost,  A.  F. 



524  A 
500  A 

SM  C 

i:»  E 


....  3U«  F 

....  S48A 

....  438  F 

....  534  D 

....  330  J 

....  51BA 

....  524  F 

....  534  A 

....    4;i«  F 
....    4y«  G 

....  344  B 

....  248  E 

....  236  J 

....  248  F 

....  4.18  8 

....  516A 

....  306  E 

....  438  G 

....  2!l»  C 

....  438H 

....  372  B 

....  230  K 

....  452  E 

....  iTAA 

....  516  A 

....  2;j6  K 

....  .538  A 

....  .t24.\ 

facing  200 

....  -USA 

....  4:(8  I 

....  524F 

....  268B 

....  534  G 

....  268  B 
464  A 
330   S 

4:38  U 

336  H 

336  1 

..  facing  303 

348  A 

438  r 




AVilkes-Barre  City  and  Township  .... 

Black    (reck,  Butler    Foster,   Hazle  and 

Sugarloaf  Townships,  Frecland,  liazle- 

ton,  .Icddii  and  White  Haven  Horouglis 
Hanover  Township,  and  .\shley,  Nantieoke 

and  Sugar  Notch  Boroughs     

I)alla.s  Fairmount,  Franklin,  Huntington, 

Lake  and  Ross  Townships,  DalliU!  and 

New  Columbus  Boroughs        

Kingston  Township  and  Borough  

Conyngham,  Uorrance,  Hollenback.  Loh- 

nian,  Neseopeck,  Newiiort,  Sloeum  and 

Wright  Townships        

Exeter,   Marcy  and  Pittston    Townships. 

Hughestown,  Pleasjuit  Valley,  I'ittston 

anJ  West  Pittston  Boroughs 

Jenkins  and  Plains  Townships,  Y^atesvillo 

and  Parsons  Boroughs  

Plymouth  Township    and    Itorough  and 

Jaekscni  Township        

Hunloek,    Salem    and   I'nion    Townships 

and  Shickshinny  Borough       

Scrantonand  Dunmore 

Carbondale  City  and  Township,  Fell  and 

Greenfield  Townships 

236  A-T 

248  A-F 
268  A,  B 

298  A-D 

Benton,  North  Abington  and  South  Ablng- 
ton  Townships  Glenburn  and  Wavorly 

Archbald   Borough  and  Scott  TowDsbip 

Jermyn  Borough  

Blakely,  Dicksou  City  and  Olyphant  Bor- 

Clifton,  Covington,  Jefferson,  lA-high, Mad- 
ison, Boaring  Brook  and  Spring  Brook 
Townships,  and  Gouldsborough  

Lackawiuma,  Newton,  Old  Forge  and  Itan- 
som  Townships  

Clinton,  Eaton,  Falls  and  Ovorfleld  Town- 

Mehoopany  Township     

E.\eter,  Monroe  and  North  Moreland 

Lemon,  Meshoppcn,  Nicholson  and  Wash- 
ington 'I'ownships,  Meshoppenand  Nich- 
olson Boroughs  

Tunkhannock  Townshipand  Borough  .... 

Bniinlrini,  Forkston,  North  Branch  and 
Windham  Townshii)s 

322  A-C 

344  A-C 
354  A,  B 

4M  A.B 
404  A-I> 
468  A,  B 

470  A-D 

483  A,  B 

486  A-D 

508  A-D 
516  A,  B 

520  A,  B 

524  A-G 


538  A-D 


Benner,  Samuel,  Conyngham.  Kes 345 

Bennet,  Mrs.  Charles.  Wilkes-Barro,  Hes 210 

Birkbeek,  Mis.  Joseph,  Foster,  Homestead 517 

Bishop  Bros  ,  .Archbalil.  Store 517 

Briggs,  C.  L.,  Dalton,  Bes.  and  K.  H.  Station..    4.W 
Brown,  S.  L.  &  Co.,  Wilkes- llarre.  Warehouse.    531 

Brundagp,  F.  M.,  Conyngham,  Ues 345 

Burgess,  A.  P.,  Forkston,  Ue.s.  and  Store 506 

Bunnell,  F.  C.  &  Co., Tunkhannock,  Bank. .     .    532 
Carpenter,    James   S.,   Mehoi)pany,   Kes.    and 

Fact  ory 533 

Coal  Chart 84a 

Court  House.  Scranton.  Lackawanna  County    378 

Court  House,  Wilkes-Barre, frontispiece 

Court  House,  Tunkhainiock,  Wyoming  Co 498 

Dana.  .Anderson.  Eaton,  Hes ^iXi 

Dekin,  John,  Dunmore,  Hotel 470 

Dickson    Manufi(x;turing    Co.,  Wilkes-Barre, 

Works 236?^ 

Donop,  .\ugustus  Von,  Frecland,  Ues 517 

Dorrance,  Charles,  Kingston,  Kes 316 

Doty, -V.  H..  Mehoopany,  Kes.  and  Factory...    470 

Edwards,  I!.  W.,  Laceyville,  Store 310 

Ellilhorp  \-  Co.,  Pittston.  Factory 331 

Empire  Breaker,  Wilkes-Barre 341 

Engle,  Mrs.  John,  Sugarloaf,  Kes 413 

Evans,  Benjamin,  Neseoi)e<^k,  Ues.  and  Mill. . .    351 

Fairchild,  J.  .M.,  Nantieoke,  Ues 5:n 

Ferri.s,  Mrs.  Anna,  < 'lyphant,  Kes 470 

Frear,  I.,  Factory ville.  Keystone  Academy...    506 

Hancock  &  Mackiiight,  Plains,  Block 306  }Hi 

Harding,  Mrs.  Sally.  E.xeter,  Kes 249 

Hazard    Manufacturing     Company,   Wilkes- 
Barre,  Works 318 

Heller,  Samuel,  Wapwallopen,  Hes 344 

Hcndrick,  E.  E..  Carbondale,  Ues 4411 

Hice,  George,  Exeter,  Ues 2.'il 

Hughes,  George,  Butler,  Kes... 240 

Hunt  Brothers  4:  Co.,  Sermiton,  Block 413 

Hunt,  C.  P.  A:   Brother,  Wilkes-Barre,  Store.. 3;»?4 

Jenkins,  Jabez,  runkhaiinoik,  Kes .'>30 

Jennings,  J.  T.,  .Mehoopany aJ2 

Kennard,  George  L.,  Laceyville,  Hotel 310 

Kern,  J.  T.  &  Ellen,  Exeter,  Kes S4» 

Lee,  Andrew,  Wilkes-Barre,  lies 1«8 

Lee  Arms  Company,  Sturmervillo.  Works —    251 

Le  Grand  Lewis,  Wilkes-Barre,  Factory 379 

Loomis,  O.  H.,  Meshoppcn,  Kes 498 

Loveland,  William,  Kingston,  Kes 311 

Mahon,  William,  Olyphant,  Hotel  and  Store..    517 

.Mallinckrodt  Convent.  Wilkes-Barre 334 

McKinstry,  A.  B.,  SchulUvlUe,  Farm  and  Tan 

Miner,  CharlcsA..  WIlkes-Barro,  Res 217 

Osterhout.  P.  M.,  La  flrange,   Honuiitcud BOB 

Osterhout,  P.  M.,  Tunkhannock,  Hea &28 

Paine,  U'wisC.  Wilkes-Barre,  Kes 217 

Patterson  Orovo  Cump  Ground,   Fairmount 

following 254 

Payne,  W.  G.,  Kingston,  Kes 311 

Pellam,  S.  H.,  North  Ablngton,  Kes 455 

Pettebone,  Payne,  Wyoming,  Kes 316 

Price,  C.  B.  i  Son,  Wllkes-Uarre,  turning  and 

planing-mlll 238H 

Kaber,  .MIchncI,  .Neseopeck,  Ki-s 454  II 

Uelchard's  Brewery,  WIlkes-Barro 230)» 

Kobinson,  K.,  Semnlon,  Brewery 411 

KOS.S,  W.S.,  Wilkes-Barre,  lies 216 

.''ehimpfr,  L.,  Scninton,  Kobinmn's  Brewery..    411 

Schooley,  William,  Exeter,  Hes 350 

.SchoonmakiT,  V.  G..  .Scranton,  Hotel 3S7 

Seacord,  S.  H.,  Tunkhannock,  Hotel (28 

Shaw,  William  S,,  I-jist  I.emon,  Hi's 533 

,Shlve,  Peter  C,  Plains,  Ues,  and  Olllce 340 

Shunian,  J.  L.,  Wapwallopen,  Kes 4M  D 

Simpson,  O.  and  A.,  Grecnili'ld,  Hotel 300 

Sketches— Luzerne  Cimnty '. 378 

St.    Mary"8  Academy,  D.  O'Hnran,    Wilkes- 
Barre 342 

St.  Mary's  Chureb,  D.  O'Haran,  Wllkcs-Uarro    234 
St.  Mary's  Church  and  Parsonage,  Pleasant 

Valley ,t;» 

St.  Patrick's  Church,  Olyphant 470 

St.  Thomas'  Church,  X.J.  .McManu.s,  Archbald    507 

Stark,  Mrs.  James  F.,  Plains,  Hes 210 

.Stark.  Mrs.  Samuel.  Tunkhannock,  Kes 628 

Sterling,  Norman,  Meshoppcn,  Ues 528 

Slocker,  Tammie  H.,  Plains,  Hes 343 

Sturdevant,  E.  W  ,  Wdkes-Barre,  Hes 216 

Snyder,  .Nathan,  Sugarloaf,  UcB 308 

Tripp.  Ira,  .^^cranton,  Hes ggs 

Union  Stove  Works,  I'ittst^in 381 

Van  Bergen  &  Co..  Carbondale,  Foundry  and 

Shop 442 

Van  Sickle,  L.,  Waverly,  Ues 450 

\'ulean  Iron  Works,  Wllke»-Barre 2389^ 

Wadhams  House,  Plymouth 458 

Wakeman,  B.  E.,  I.aci'yville,  Kes 310 

Wells,  .lohn  ('.,  Ashley,  Cnlon  Hall 270 

Wernet.  .\avier.  .Nantieoke,  Hotel .507 

Whipple  I.  E.,  Scnuiton,  Hotel 404 

Wilkes-Barre  in  ISW frontispiece 

Woodward,    S.,    Wilkes-Barre,    Lord    Butler 342 

Wyoming  Valley  Knitting  Mills,  West  Pittston    331 
Wyoming  Seminary,  Kingston,  D.  Copoland 

Principal 313 

Wyoming  Valley   ManufH<-turlng   C<impany, 

Kichard  Sliarpe  President,  Wilkes-Barre 238>i 

Yost,  S.   D.,  Sugarliaif,  Hes 388 

nery . 


McMurtrie,  .\lfred,  Sugarloaf,  Kes 345 

.McNeish,  Alexander  and  Snyder,  Block,  Nan- 
tieoke   •'^' 

372  A,  B    Map  of  Luzerne,  Lackawanna  and  Wyoming 

438A-1'        Counties * 

Map  of  Wyoming  Coal  Fields 1st 

t52A-F    .Mitchell,  li.  H.,  Lemon,  Ues 517 



AblxUt.  John.  Plains 

.\ckerley.  A.  I.,  South  Ablngton 

.Vckerley,  Mrs.  .-V.  I.,  South  Ablngton 

.•\llen, W .  E.,  Scnuiton 

Ai>gar,  ,lonatluui,  Dunmore 

.Apgar,  Cornelia  D 

Bardwill,  H.  W.,  Tunkhannock 

Barnes.  William  H.,  Mehoopany 

Bennet,  Charles,  Wilkm-Barre — following 
Bennet,  Sarah  S.,       "         "      ....preceding 

Bennet,  D.  S.,  "         "      

Bennet,  Ziba  "         "      

Billings,  Paul,  Tunkhannock 

Birkbeek,  Mrs..  Foster 

Briggs.  C.  L.,  Dalton 

Briggs,  .Mrs.  C.  L.,  Didton 

Briggs,  J.  F.,  Shlek«hinn.v 

llrundage,  .\.  U.,  Wilkes-Burre 

Bryden,  .\ndrew.  Pittston 

Bunnell.  F.  C..  Tinikhannock 

CamplK'll,  John,  (  arbondale 

CamplMll,  W.  A.,  Shickshinny 

Carey,  J.  M.,  Meslu  ippen 

(^hirkson,  .lames,  Carbondale 

Connolly,  D.  W.,  Scranton 

Connolly.  John  F..  Scranton 







322  A 


238  I 




5,14  A 









Courtright,  IJenjamin,  Plains 

Crippcn.  Martin,  Olypliant 

Dana,  C.  H.,  Tunlshannuck 

Dana,  E.  L.,  \Vill<e*-Barre 

Daniels,  \V.  G.,  Scran  ton  

Davis,  Sumner  D.,  Jenny n 

Dekin,  John.  Dun  more 

De  Lacy,  P.,  Scranton 

Denison,  J.  W.,Mehoopany 

Dewitt,  David  1).,  Tunkhanniick 

Dickinson,  Susan  E..  Pittston 

Dorrance,  ('.,  Wilkes- l!aire following 

Drum.  Abraham.  Uutlor 

Drum,  George  W..  Conynjfham 

Eaton.  Alver.  Archbalii 

Engle.  Stephen  D..  Hazleton 

Evans,  lien jamin.  Xeseopeck 

Evans.  Keese  T.,  Scranton 

Everhart,  ,rames  M..  Scranton.... following 

Everhart,  I.  K..  Scranton preceding- 

Eynon,  Thomas.  Scranton 

Fassctt.  John.  Scottsville 

Fas.set t,  Mrs.  John,  Scottsville 

Ferris,  William,  Olyphant 

Fisher,  <'.  H.,  Scranton 

Flick,  K.  J.,  Wilkes-Harrc 

Footp,  John.  Archbald 

Foster.  Charles  D..  Wilkes-Barre 

(Jardnc'r.  A.  P..  Uoarin;;  Brook 

Gibbs,  J.  W.,  jr.,  Scranton 

Green,  .VU'rccl  I,.,  Jermyn 

llahn,  .lohn  L..  Mehoopany 

Hakes,  II  ,  Wilkes-Barre 

Hancock,  E.  .\.,  Plains 

Hand.  1).  B..  Scranton 

Hardin;;.  Daniel.  K.\eter 

Harilintr,  Garrick  M.,  Wilkes-Barre 

}lartnuin.  .Mrs.  M.  L.  T.,  I'nion 

Harvey,  .\.  X..  Harveyville 

Heller,  Samuid,  Wapwallopen 

Heller.  Mrs.  Samuel,  Wapwallopen 

Hitchcock,  Amanda,  Scranton 

Hitchcock.  Kljcnezer,       "        

Hitchcock.  Elisha  "        

Hit!  h<ock.  Maiion,  "        

Hitchcock,  Ituth,  "        

Hollistir,  Horace.  Providence 

Holmi'S.  KIkan  di 

Ilosic.  John.  Scranton 

Hoyt.  Henry  M.,  Wilkes-Barre 

Hubler,  P.  F..  Xewton  

I ! ut'hes,  George,  Butler 

Hu;f lies,  Barbara,  Butler 

Ingham,  Samuel  D.,  .Mchoopany 

Ingham.  Thomas  J 

Jenkins,  .lonathan,  Tunkhannock 

Jenkins,  Steuben,  Wyoming 

Jenkins.  William,  Jermyn 

Jennings.  William,  Mehoojiany 

255        Jermyn,  John,  Jermyn 

387        Jones,  Edward,  Olyphant 

529        Jones,  H.  Isaac,  Scranton 

236  N    Jones,  William  S.,  Scranton 

332  A    Jordan  James,  Olyphant 

38"         Kearney,  Patrick,  .Vrchbald 

282         Kenyon,  J.  B.,  Olyphant 

■tl8  A     Kintner,  J.  C,  Mehoopany 

413         Kisner,  Elliott  P..  Hazleton 

5Ifi  B    Koons.  William,  Shickshinny 

innA     Kulp,  George  B.,  Wilkes-Barre 

306         Ladd,  Horace.  Scranton 

369         Lampman,  John  S.,  Wilkes-Barre 

36g         Laning,  A.  C,  Wilkes-Barre preceding 

454  A    Lathrope.  Thomas  K..  Carbondale 

369         Law,  William,  Pittston 

322  A     Lee,  Andrew,  Wilkes-Barre following 

433         Lee,  Washington,  Wilkes-Barre.. preceding 

438       I  Little,  K.  U..  Tunkhannock 

vm  A  I  Lott.  Ziba,  Tunkhannock 

.52)       !  Love,  Henry,  Mehoopany 

51il       i  Lynch.  James  J.,  Olyphant 

.">1U         Macknight,  O.  B  .  Plains 3 

3:30  K    McMillan.  James,  Pleasant  Valley 

322  E    Marcy.  .\bel,  Tunkhannock — 

208         Mcrrifleld.  E.,  Scranton 

38"         Merrilield.  William,  Scranton 

int         Miller.  C.  P.,  Tunkhannock 

4T0  .\     .Miner,  Charles,  Wilkes-Barre 

421       j  .Mitchell,  John.  Plains 

470  A  !  Moneypenny,  W.  It.,   Eaton 

51K       ]  Monies,  Colonel  William  N.,  Scranton 

236         Xclson.  Heuben,  Kingston 

306  UVj    Nieol,  Andrew,  Scranton 

398         Nicol,  Mrs.  Andrew,  Scranton 

330  A    Nivison,  Mrs.  M.  C  Scranton 

2360    O'DonncIl,  J..  Pittston 

4117         Osborne.  E.  S..  Wilkes-Barre 

21.")         Osterhout,  P.  .\I.,  Tunkhannock.. following 

244        Osterhout,  Mrs.  I'.  M..       "  preceding 

244       I  Osterhout,  Saiah,  Tunkhannock 

Ml       !  Parke,  N.G.,  West  Pittston 

391         Parsons,  Calvin,  Parsons  Station 

^H         Patten,  Andrew,  01yi)hant, 

391         Payne,  Hubbard  B.,  Kingston 

.391         Pell.  Sanujel,  Wilkes-Barre 

40(1  !•<;    Pell.  Margaret,  Wilkes-Barre 

241         Pellani,  S.  H.,  .North  Abington 

438  J     Pellam,  Mrs.  S.  H.,  Xorth  Abington 

236  S    Pettebone,  Payne,  Wyoming following 

4."j4  A    Pier,  William  H.,  Scranton 

210        Pierson.  Charles  T..  Scran  ton 

240        Pike.  Gordon,  Xorth  Moreland 

24.S  F    Price,  C.  B.,  Wilkes-Barre 

'.16         Puiscl,  Peter,  Wilkes-Barre 

.    ."):«!      !  Heap,  Michael,  Pittston 

.    :!ll(i  B  I  Hippie,  Ezra  H.,  Scranton 

.     4.'>4  .\     Kobcrts,  Henry.  Scranton 

.    :i22      I  Kobinson.  Phili)!.  jr..  Scranton 











446  B 

4:38  C 


306  A 

446  A 


236  T 


248  F 




116  ny. 

392  A 

:i44  A 

:)92  B 

:J3U  B 

.534  B 
.534  C 
3.31)  B 
470  A 

■M)  r 



:iCB  D 

4:38  H 
330  C 
4:38  D 
400  A 
322  D 

Robinson,  Silas  B.,  Scranton 438  E 

Ross,  William  S.,  Wilkes-Barre. . .  .following  236  P 

Ross,  Mrs.  William  S preceding  236  Q 

Russell,  A.  H.,  Washington 413 

Schimpff,  Leopold,  Scranton 411 

Sehooley,  William,  E.\eter 250 

Sehooley,  Sarah  A.,  E.\eter 250 

Scranton,  J.  A.,  Scranton 400  IS 

Scranton,  J.  H.,  Scranton 408 

Seamans,  George  B.,  Pittston 497 

Search,  George  W.,  Shickshinny 2.54 

Search.  Lot.  Shickshinny : 254 

Searle,  John,  Plains 255 

Searle,  Mary,  Plains 255 

Sherwood,  C,  Falls 248  F 

Shive,  Peter  C,  Plains 340 

Shoemaker,  Elijah,  Wilkes-Barre 196 

Shuman.  J.  L.,  Wapwallopen 214 

Shuman,  Mrs.  F.  E.,  Wapwallopen 2U 

Simrell,  E.W.,  Scranton 405 

Slocum,  Joseph,  Scranton :388 

Sloeum,  Laton,  E.\eter :5:30  D 

Sommers,  Henry,  Dim  more 410 

Spencer,  Edward,  Scranton following  438  F 

Stark,  A.  M..  Tunkhaimock 518 

Stark,  Henry,  "  .319 

Stark,  James  F.,  Plains a30  J 

Stark,  Samuel,  Tunkhannock 534  D 

Stemples,  William,  Mehoopany 516  13 

Stephens,  A.  W.  Xicholson 529 

Stevens,  A.  13.,  Scranton i)reeeding  438  G 

Stevens,  Charles  A.,  Scranton 4.38  G 

Stneker,  Thomas,  Plains :343 

Sturdevant,  E.  W.,  Wilkes-Barre.  following  236  J 

Sturdevant.  Mrs.  E.  W.,    •'  lueceding  236  K 

Swethind,  William,  Kingston.  ...preceding  :306  E 

Swetlnnd,  William  H..  Mehoopany 316  B 

Throop.  Benjamin  H..  Scranton 426 

Trcscott.  Luther.  Huntington 497 

Tripp,  Ira,  Scranton 4:)8  H 

Turner,  S.G.,  Wilkes-Barre 2:36  R 

Van  Sickle,  L.,  Waverly 459 

Vose,  Thomas  L.,  Mehoopany 248  F 

Wadhams,  E.  C,  Wilkes-Barre :a6  L 

Wakenuin,  B.  E.,  Laceyville 310 

Walker,  A.  B..  Xicholson 470  A 

Waller,  Charles  P..  Honesdale 200 

Walsh.  J.  J.,  Pittston 282 

W'eaver,  Philip  V.,  Hazleton :(6H 

Welilau.  Ludwig,  Scranton 4:58   I 

Wells,  John  C,  Ashley 268  IS 

Wells.  Xathan,  Meshoppen 516  B 

Whiiiple,  I.  E  ,  Scranton 404 

Williams.  .lames  J.,  Archbald :!17 

Williams,  J.  H.,  Plains :t02 

Williamson,  J.  Pryor,  Wilkes-Barre 213 

Winton,  A.  H.,  Scranton 406 

Wright,  H.  B.,  Wilkes-Barre :;20 

Yates,  Francis,  Yatesvillo 303 



In  preparing  for  publication  the  following  work  the 
publishers  have  not  been  ignorant  of  the  fact  that  several 
excellent  histories  of  the  region  embraced  in  Luzerne, 
Lackawanna  and  Wyoming  counties  liave  already  been 
published.  Most  of  these  liave  long  been  out  of  print, 
and  a  portion  of  them  are  exceedingly  rare.  In  none 
of  them  is  the  range  of  topics  as  extensive  as  in  this 
work,  which  embraces  not  only  histories  of  these 
counties,  but  of  each  city,  borough  and  township  which 
they  include. 

In  gathering  the  material  for  this  work  not  only  have 
these  books  and  others  been  consulted,  but  information 
has  been  sought  from  every  available  source;  and  it  is 
believed  that  many  of  the  facts  recorded  have  been  pre- 
served from  oblivion  by  being  thus  rescued  from  the 
failing  memories  of  those  who  will  soon  pass  away. 

It  is  hardly  possible  that  in  a  work  like  this  no  errors 
will  be  found;  but  it  is  confidently  hoped  that  if  inaccu- 
racies are  discovered  the  great  difficulty  of  preventing 
their  occurrence  will  be  considered,  and  that  they  will  be 
regarded  in  a  charitable  rather  than  a  censorious  spirit. 

The  publishers  desire  to  acknowledge  the  kindness 
and  courtesy  with  which  their  efforts  to  obtain  the  facts 
recorded  here  have  been  almost  uniformly  met.  To  the 
press,  for  free  access  to  the  files  of  their  journals;  to  the 
county,  city  and  borough  officers,  for  assistance  in  ex- 
amining their  records;  to  the  pastors  of  nearly  all  the 
churches  in  the  three  counties  for  assistance  in  preparing 
the  religious  history,  and  to  secretaries  of  numerous 
lodges  and  societies  for  data  furnished,  their  grateful 
acknowledgments  are  due. 

The  following  books  have  been  consulted:  Sherman 
Day's  and  Doctor  Egle's  histories  of  Pennsylvania, 
Annals  of  Philadelphia,  Ruttenber's  Indian  Tribes  of 
Hudson's  River,  Heckwelder's  Indian  Nations,  Stone's 
Life  of  Joseph  Brant  and  his  Poetry  and  History  of 
Wyoming,  Chapman's,  Miner's  and  Peck's  histories  of 
Wyoming,  Miss  Blackman's  history  of  Susquehanna 
county,  Parkman's  France  and  England  in  North  Amer- 
ica, Pearce's  Annals  of  Luzerne,  Wright's  Sketches  of 
Plymouth,  Hollister's  History  of  the  Lackawanna  Valley, 
the  History  of  the  Lehigh  Valley,  Clark's  Wyoming 
and  Lackawanna  Valleys,  and  others.  For  our  very 
complete  and  valuable  rolls  of  the  soldiers  of  the  Union 
from  Luzerne,  Lackawanna  and  Wyoming  counties  we 
are  indebted  to  the  exhaustive  History  of  Pennsylvania 
Volunteers,  prepared  under  the  authority  of  the  State,  by 
Samael  P.  Bates,  LL.  D. 

Of  those  who  have  aided  in  the  preparation  of  the 
work,  or  furnished  valuable  information,  the  publishers 
desire  to  mention  Hon.  Steuben  Jenkins,  who  contrib- 
uted the  article  on  post-Columbian  Indians  and  kindly 
furnished  many  facts  from  the  large  and  valuable   store 

of  unpublished  historical  matter  that  he  lias  collected  for 
future  publications;  Hon.  William  P.  Miner,  who  wrote 
the  chapter  on  the  coal  trade;  Doctor  C.  F.  Ingham, 
author  of  the  chapter  on  geology;  Hon.  Peter  M.  Oster- 
hout,  who  furnished  valuable  written  and  oral  informa- 
tion; Hon.  R.  R.  Little,  who  contributed  the  chapter  on 
the  bench  and  bar  of  Wyoming  county;  Hon.  Hendrick 
B.  Wright,  who  gave  efficient  aid  and  encouragement; 
Doctor  Horace  Hollister,  Hon.  Edmund  L.  Dana,  Hon. 
Harry  Hakes,  dovernor  H.  M.  Hoyt,  the  octogenarian 
Jameson  Harvey,  the  veteran  attorney  James  A.  Gordon, 
Allen  Secord,  Dilton  Yarrington.  Benjamin  Evans,  Doc- 
tor Nathan  Wells,  Rev.  D.  D.  Gray,  Major  John  Fassett, 
Douglass  Smith,  Captain  James  B.  Harding,  B.  F.  Dor- 
rance.  General  Edwin  S.  Osborne,  Hon.  A.  W.  Stephens, 
N.  P.  Wilcox,  William  Green,  E.  D.  Gardner,  James 
Frenr,  Major  II.  W.  Bardwell,  Hon-.  James  M.  Pratt, 
Edward  Jones,  D.  M.  N'oyle,  George  Simpson,  Hon.  Pat- 
rick Kearney,  Hon.  John  Jermyn,  Hon.  William  H. 
Richmond,  Dr.  S.  D.  Davis,  Rev.  Andrew  Brydie,  Rev. 
Father  Crane,   Rev.  A.  Griffin,  N.- J.  Rubinkam,  Rev.  A. 

D.  Willifer,  Rev.  George  H.  Kirkland,  very  Rev.  John 
Firman,  Rev.  Dr.  I,.  W.  Peck,  Cyrus  Straw,  George 
Drum,  William  Shellhamer,  John  Carey,  Thomas  Mc- 
Millan, Miss  Mary  Dale  Culver,  John  Pfouts,  J.  P.  Sal- 
mon, Hugh  McDonald,  John  Stokes,  David  Whitebread, 
Francis  Yates,  William  Loveland,  Thomas  J.  Laphy,  Cal- 
vin Parsons,  Hon.  George  W.  Drum,  Stephen  Drumhel- 
ler,  Samuel  Carey,  Mrs.  M.  L.  T.  Hartman  author  of  the 
histories  of  Union  township  and  Shickshinny  borough), 
Hon.  James  McAsy,  David  Dale,  David  Haines.  Jacob 
Hornbacker,  Jacob  Kizer,  A.  P.  Gardner,  M.  D.,  Deacon 
Berry,  Harrison  Finn,  H.  S.  Cooper,  M.  D.,  Miss  Sue 
A.  Neyhart,  Chauncey  Sherwood,  O.  A.  Smith,  Hon. 
Henry  Love,  William  A.  Shaw,  Colonel  W.  N.  Monies, 
Lewis    Pughe,    John  T.   Howe,    E.    Merrifield,  Hon.    J. 

E.  Barrett,  B.  H.  Throop,  Joseph  C.  Piatt,  Wesley  John- 
son, F.  C.  Johnson. 

The  publishers  are  etiabled  to  present  the  steel  plate 
portrait  of  Governor  Henry  M.  Hoyt,  of  Wilkes-Barre, 
which  appears  in  this  work,  through  the  generous  co-op- 
eration (as  a  testimonial  of  their  esteem  for  Governor 
Hoyt)  of  Hon.  Charles  Dorrance,  Payne  Pettebone,  Hon. 
Charles  A.  Miner.  Allan  H.  Dickson,  T.  H.  Atherton, 
Douglas  Smith,  Hon.  L.  D.  Shoemaker,  George  B  Kulp, 
E.  P.  Darling,  General  E.  W.  Sturdcvant,  Hon.  E.  C. 
Wadhams,  W.  H.  Bradley,  Benjamin  Dilley,  J.  W.  Hol- 
lenback,  Richard  Sharpe,  sen.,  Joseph  A.  Scranton, 
Colonel  W.  N.  Monies,  Hon.  Lewis  Pughe,  Major  U.  G. 
Schoonmaker,  Major  D.  S.  Bennet,  W.  L.  Paine,  Olin  F. 
Harvey,  Oscar  J.  Harvey,  and  others  of  his  well-known 
fellow  citizens  of  Luzerne  and  Lackawanna  counties, 
irrespective  of  party  affiliations. 


.U   N    T    Y         i 

^i -sv— rST— i  S  U  S  Q  UEHA^NA  C 

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GR/EENFIEL^/     J-     ^     .       i 

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/.,.        ,  I,,    IraMondale 

I  oinfykiiwvirilr  j        ^igif^j 






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S  C  O^^C/T 

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l.\OV^  J^^       J^^^HrVr-PH   L  S  p)r  1  K^  B  ROOK        o  O  V  I  n'?W  0  NI   5 


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cH  \i'1'i-:r  1 

ORANTEU    TO    ANU    ORCANlZEl)    I'.V     Wll  I.IAM     I'ENN. 

Y^llt^  HK  lirst  discovery  of  Delaware  bay,  and  ihc 
'  'S  river  which  forms  a  portion  of  the  eastern 
boundary  of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania  ap- 
pears to  have  been  made  by  Hendrick  Hud- 
son, an  Englishman  in  tlie  service  of  the  Dutch,  in 
1609.  In  August  of  that  year  he  entered  the  bay, 
and  after  a  short  cruise  in  it  left  and  i)roceeded  to 
the  mouth  of  the  Hudson  river,  which  stream  he  ascend- 
ed as  far  as  Albany. 

It  is  said  that  Lord  Delaware  visiteti  the  bay  in  ii>io; 
hence  the  name  by  which  it  and  the  river  are  known.  It 
was  called  by  the  Dutch  South  river,  the  Hudson  being 
termeti  by  them  the  North  river. 

Another  Dutch  navigator.  Captain  Mey,  visited  the 
bay  in  1614;  but  Captain,  or,  as  he  was  termed,  skipper 
Cornelius  Hendrickson  first  ascended  the  river  as  far  as 
the  mouth  of  the  Schuylkill,  in  1616. 

.\  short  lived  settlement  was  made  on  the  east  bank  of 
the  Delaware  under  the  auspices  of  the  Dutch  West  In- 
dia Company  in  1623,  under  the  direction  of  Captains 
Mey  and  Tienpont.  Another  settlement  was  made  on 
the  bay,  farther  down,  in  1630;  but  this  was  soon  de- 
stroyed by  the  Indians,  whose  enmity  the  colonists  had 
indiscreetly  incurred. 

Maryland  was  granted  to  Lord  Baltimore  in  1632,  and 
the  territory  on  the  west  side  of  the  Delaware  was 
claimed  by  him,  and  the  disputes  arising  out  of  this 
claim  remained  unsettled  durir.g  many  years. 

In  1638  a  settlement  was  made  on  the  west  bank  of 
the  Delaware  by  a  colony  of  Swedes,  under  the  patron- 
age of  Queen  Christina.  This  colony  was  under  the 
direction  of  Peter  Minuit,  a  Hollander,  who  had  been  a 
director  in  the  colony  of  New  Amsterdam.  Several 
Swedish  gcernors  followed  Minuit  in  succession;  pros- 
perous settlements  sprang  up  along  the  west  bank  of  the 

river,  and  .1  thriving  trade  was  carried  on  by  the  Swedes. 
They  were  w, itched  with  jealousy  by  the  Dutch,  who  set 
up  the  claim  of  jurisdiction  l)y  reason  of  former  occupa- 
tion, and  instituted  intrigues  and  plans  to  dispossess  the 
Swedes.  In  1655  a  force  of  seven  vessels  and  six  hun- 
dred men  was  sent  up  the  Delaware  for  that  purpose. 
The  Swedish  government  had  been  kept  in  ignorance  of 
this  expedition,  and  it  was  easily  successful. 

On  the  restoration  of  Ch.irles  the  Second  to  the  throne 
of  Great  Britain,  he  gr.mied  the  territory  now  including 
New  York  and  New  Jersey,  and  afterwards  that  of  Del- 
aware, to  his  brother  the  Duke  of  \'ork.  Th-r  latter  im- 
mediately sent  a  fore  e  to  fake  possession  of  the  country 
thus  granted.  New  .\insterdam  and  Fort  Orange  on  the 
Hudson  were  at  once  possessed,  and  rechristened  re- 
spectively New  York,  in  hcnoi  of  the  Duke  of  York,  and 
.Albany.  .\  |)ortion  of  the  force  was  then  dispatched  to 
take  possession  of  the  Dutch  colonics  on  the  Delaware, 
which  was  ac<:<>in|)lished  almost  without  resistance.  This 
dis|)ossession  of  the  Dutch  by  the  Hnglish  led  to  a  war 
between  dreat  Britain  and  Holland,  at  the  conclusion  of 
which  the  title  of  the  former  to  these  territories  was  ac- 
knowledged by  treaty-  The  Duke  of  York  continued  in 
possession  of  this  region,  undisturbed  except  by  the 
.Vlarylanders,  who  resorted  to  occasional. acts  of  violence 
in  order  to  assert  the  claim  of  Lord  Baltimore,  until,  in 
1663,  war  again  broke  out  betwen  Great  Britain  and 
Holland,  and  Dutch  privateers  visited  the  coasts  and 
plundered  the  inhabitants;  and  during  that  year  a  Dutt  h 
scpiadron  of  vessels  arrived  an»l  repossessed  the  domin- 
ions which  had  been  granted  to  the  Duke  of  York.  These 
were  lestored  by  the  treaty  of  Westminster  in  1674,  and 
in  the  same  year,  by  a  new  patent,  the  title  of  the  Duke 
of  York  was  confirmed,  louring  eight  years  following 
these  events  great  changes  took  place  among  the  propri- 
etaries of  the  region,  in  the  course  of  which  Williaiiv 
Penn,  by  reason  of  being  a  trustee  of  one  of  these  pro- 
prietaries and  a  |>urchase  of  a  portion  of  the  territory, 
became  ipiile  with  the  region,  as  well  as  with  the 
plans  for  its  col'iiii/.ition. 

William  Penn  was  the  son  of  Sir  William  I'enn,  an  ad- 
miral in  the  royal  navy,  who  at  his  death  left  a  claim  of 





sixtL'cn  thousand  iiounds  against  the  government  of  Great 
Britain.  Though  in  early  life  he  was  a  soldier  of  some 
distinction,  he  afterwards  became  a  Quaker,  and  was 
several  times  imprisoned  because  of  his  religious  faitii. 
Having  become,  as  before  stated,  familiar  with  the  re- 
gion on  the  Delaware,  and  with  the  schemes  for  its  colo- 
nization, he  conceived  the  plan  of  founding  a  colony 
there  on  the  broad  principles  of  equ.ility  which  his  faith 
taught.  Accordingly,  in  1680,  he  petitioned  King  Charles 
the  Second  for  a  grant  of  a  tract  of  land  west  from  the 
Delaware  river  and  south  from  Maryland,  in  litiuidation 
of  the  claim  which  he  had  inherited  from  his  father.  Af- 
ter ihi  discussion  and  arrangement  of  the  preliminaries 
the  petition  was  granted,  and  a  charter  signed  by  the 
king  in  16S1.  Penn  at  first  desired  that  the  province 
might  be  called  New  \Vales,  and  wnen  objections  were 
raised  against  this  he  suggested  Sylvania.  To  this  the 
king  and  his  counsellors  jjrefixed  Penn,  for  the  double 
reason  that  the  name  would  appropriately  mean  high 
woodlands,  and  that  it  was  the  name  of  a  distinguished 
admiral,  whose  memory  the  king  desired  to  honor.  A 
royal  atldress  was  at  once  issued  informing  the  inhabit- 
ants that  William  Penn  was  the  sole  proprietor,  and  that 
he  was  invested  with  all  the  necessary  governmental 
powers.  A  proclamation  was  also  issued  by  William 
Penn  to  the  people  of  his  province,  setting  forth  the 
policy  which  he  intended  to  adopt  in  the  government  of 
the  colony.  .4  deputy  was  sent  in  the  spring  of  the 
same  year,  with  instructions  to  institute  measures  for  the 
management  of  affairs  and  the  temporary  government  of 
the  province.  In  autumn  of  the  same  year  he  sent  com- 
missioners to  make  treaties  with  the  Indians,  and  arrange 
for  future  settlement. 

South  from  the  jirovince  of  Pennsylvania,  along  the 
Delaware  bay,  the  Duke  of  York  was  still  the  proprietor 
of  the  country.  Foreseeing  the  possibility  of  future  an- 
noyance to  the  commerce  of  his  [irovince,  Penn  was  de- 
sirous of  acquiring  this  territory;  and  accordingly  en- 
tered into  negotiations  with  the  Duke  of  York  for  it,  and 
in  the  autumn  of  1682  he  became  the  proprietor  of  the 
land  by  deeds,  which,  however,  conveyed  no  political 
rights.  In  the  autumn  of  16S2  Penn  visited  his  ])rovince 
in  the  new  world,  took  formal  possession  of  the  territory 
along  Delaware  bay,  proceeded  up  the  Delaware  and 
visited  the  settlements  along  that  river.  During  this  year 
the  celebrated  treaty  between  William  Penn  and  the  In- 
dians was  made,  it  is  said  by  some  historians,  under  a  large 
elm  tree  at  Shakama.xon.  Hy  others  it  is  insisted  that  no 
evidence  exists  of  any  such  treaty  at  that  ])lace;  but 
that  the  accounts  of  it  that  have  passed  into  history  were 
drawn  largely  from  the  fertile  imaginatons  of  early 
writers.  Whether  a  treaty  was  held  there  or  not,  it  is 
almost  certain  that  during  that  year  treaties  were  made 
between  Penn  and  the  Indians,  and  it  is  a  historical  fact 
that  between  the  Indians  and  Quakers  perfect  faith  was 
kept.  Voltaire  said  of  the  treaty  which  was  said  to  have 
been  made  at  Shakumaxon:  "  It  was  the  only  one  ever 
made  between  sa\ages  and  Christians  that  was  not  ratified 
by  an  oath,  and  the  only  one  that  was  never  broken." 

The  three  principal  tribes  of  Indians  which  then  in- 
habited Pennsylvania  were  the  Lenni  Lenapes,  the  Min- 
goes  and  the  Shawnees.  Their  relations  with  the  Swedes 
had  been  of  a  friendly  character,  and  the  pacific  and  kind 
jiolicy  of  Penn  and  his  Quaker  colonists  toward  them 
bore  fruit  in  strong  contrast  with  that  which  the  dishonest 
and  reckless  policy  of  other  colonies,  and  of  the  United 
States   government  in  later  times,  has  brought  forth. 

The  plan  of  the  city  of  Philadelphia,  which  had  been 
laid  out  by  the  commissioners  that  had  preceded  the  pro- 
prietor, was  revised  by  him,  and  the  present  beautiful  and 
regular  plan  adopted,  and  even  the  present  names  given 
to    the  principal  streets. 

In  the  latter  part  of  the  year  1682  the  first  legislative 
body  in  the  province  was  convened  by  the  proprietor, 
who,  though  he  was  vested  with  all  the  powers  of  a  pro- 
prietary governor,  saw  fit,  in  the  furtherance  of  his  original 
plan,  to  adopt  a  purely  democratic  form  of  go\ernment. 
This  body  was  a  general  assembly  of  the  peojale,  and  was 
held  at  the  town  of  Chester,  which  was  first  called  by 
the  Swedes  Upland.  This  assembly  continued  in  ses- 
sion from  the  fourth  till  the  seventh  of  December;  during 
which  time  they  enacted  three  laws,  one  of  which  was 
called  the  great  law  of  Pennsylvania.  It  was  a  code  of 
laws  consisting  of  between  sixty  and  seventy  subiects  or 
chapters,  that  had  been  prepared  by  the  jjroprietor  in 
England,  and  it  was  intended  to  cover  all  the  exigencies 
which  were  deemed  likely  to  arise  in  the  colony.  It  se- 
cured the  most  ample  religious  toleration — to  all  whose 
faith  agreed  with  that  of  the  Friends — and  only  punished 
others  by  fine  and  imprisonment;  thus  exhibiting  a  marked 
contrast  with  the  bigoted  and  intolerant  Puritans  in  some 
of  the  New  England  colonies.  It  guaranteed  the  rights 
and  privileges  of  citizenship  to  all  tax-payers,  guarded 
]jersonal  liberty,  secured,  as  far  as  possible,  by  punishing 
bribery,  the  purity  of  elections,  abolished  the  English 
law  of  primogeniture,  discarded  the  administration  of  re- 
ligious oaths  and  affixed  the  penally  of  perjury  to  false 
affirmation,  and  established  marriage  as  a  civil  contract. 
Drinking  healths,  drunkenness,  or  the  encouragement  of  it, 
spreading  false  news,  clamorousness,  scolding,  railing, 
masks, revels,stagc  plays,cards  and  other  games  of  chance, 
as  well  as  evil  and  enticing  sports,  were  forbidden  and 
made  punishable  by  fine  and  imprisonment.  It  is  a  cu- 
rious fact  that  all  these  lavifs  have  cither  been  super, 
seded  by  others  or  become   obsolete. 

The  wise,  just  and  generous  policy  which  the  propri- 
etor adopted  in  the  government  of  his  province  rendered 
him  exceedingly  popular,  and  the  tide  of  immigration  set 
so  strongly  toward  this  province  that  during  the  year  1682 
as  many  as  twenty-three  ships  laden  with  settlers  arrived. 
During  this  year  the  proprietor  divided  the  province 
into  the  three  counties  of  Bucks,  Philadelphia  and 
Chester;  and  the  territory,  as  it  was  termed,  which  he  had 
acquired  from  the  Duke  of  York,  into  Kent,  New  Castle 
and  Sussex.  In  these  counties  he  appointed  officers,  and 
made  jjreparations  for  the  election  of  a  representatative 
Legislature,  consisting  of  a  coimcil  of  eighteen  members, 
and  an  assembly  of  fifty-four.   This  Legislature  assembled 



at  Philadelphia  in  Jaiuiaiy,  16.S2.  One  law  enacted  pro- 
vided for  the  appointment  in  each  county  court  of  three 
"peace  makers,"  to  hear  and  determine  differences.  It 
rnay  be  noted  as  a  matter  of  curiosity  that  bills  were  in- 
troduced in  this  Legislature  providing  that  "only  two 
sorts  of  clothes  should  be  worn — one  kind  for  summer 
and  one  for  winter;"  and  another  that  young  men  should 
be  obliged  to  marry  at  a  certain  age. 


LIAM    PENN     AND    SIR     WlI.l.lAM     KKITH. 

'  '  S  has  been  before  stated,  the  first  settlements  in 
the  province  were  made  by  Swedes,  who  oc- 
cupied the  country  during  about  half  a  cen- 
^.  ^  tury  previous  to  its  purchase  of  William 
"^"  ^f  Penn.  In  all  that  time  they  made  little  prog- 
ress  toward  developing  the  resources  of  the 
country.  In  the  language  of  Watson:  "They 
seem  to  have  sat  down  contented  in  their  log  and  clay 
huts,  their  leather  breeches  and  jerkins  and  match  coats 
for  their  men,  and  their  skin  jackets  and  linsey  petticoats 
for  their  women;  but  no  sooner  has  the  genius  of  Penn 
enlisted  in  the  enterprise  than  we  see  it  speak  a  city 
and  commerce  into  existence.  His  spirit  animated  every 
part  of  his  colony;  and  the  consequence  was  that  the 
tame  and  unaspiring  Swedes  soon  lost  their  distinctive 
character  and  existence  as  a  separate  nation. 

Immigration  was  largely  increased  during  1683  and 
1684.  Settlers  came  from  England,  Ireland,  Wales,  Hol- 
land and  Germany.  Of  those  from  the  latter  country 
many  came  from  Cresheim  and  founded  the  village  of 
Germantown.  They  were  nearly  all  (Quakers,  and  the 
settlement  which  they  made  was  the  nucleus  around 
which  collected  so  large  a  German  ])opulation  in  after 
years  that  Pennsylvania  became  a  German  province, 
notwithstanding  the  large  immigration  from  the  British 
islands  at  first. 

In  1683  and  1684  the  controversy  with  regard  to 
boundaries  was  renewed  by  Lord  Baltimore,  and  the 
Marylanders  were  guilty  of  some  acts  of  aggression.  The 
province  had  come  to  number  some  7,000  inhabitants, 
and  it  was  a  matter  of  importance  that  the  boundary  dis- 
pute should  be  settled.  To  accomplish  this  settlement, 
and  for  other  reasons,  Penn  during  1684  sailed  for  Eng- 
land, after  giving  to  the  provincial  council  the  executive 
power.  Not  long  after  his  arrival  in  England  Charles 
the  Second  died,  and  was  succeeded  on  the  throne  by 
his  brother  James,  Duke  of  York,  between  whom  and 
Penn  a  strong  friendship  existed.  The  proprietary, 
therefore,  easily  obtained  a  favorable  decree.  In  1688 
a  revolution  in  England  dethroned  James  and  placed  the 
regal  power   in  the  hands  of  William  and    Mary.     This 

ehangc  destroyed  the  inlluencc  of  Penn  at  the  Knglixii 
court,  and  the  friendship  which  had  existed  between  him 
and  James  caused  him  to  be  regarded  with  suspicion. 
Slanders  were  circulalcd  and  believed  concerning  him,  and 
he  was  even  accused  of  treason  and  compelled  for  a  time 
to  go  into  rctiremenl.  In  his  absence  discord  and  dis- 
sensions arose  in  the  provint  e,  and  these  were  made  ih. 
pretext  for  depriving  him  of  his  proprietary  governnieni 
in  1693.  He  was,  however,  honorably  acc^uitted  and  ex 
onerated  from  suspicion,  and  reinstated  in  his  proprictarv 
rights  in  1694.  Dissensions  in  the  province  continued, 
however,  till  af'er  the  return  of  the  proprietary  with  hi-^ 
family  in  1699  ;  and  even  his  presence  failed  to  whollv 
restore  harmony. 

Because  of  the  increasing  (Mnvir  of  the  proi-rici-ir) 
governments  in  America,  the  plan  had,  since  the  accession 
of  William  and  Mary  to  the  crown,  been  entertained  of 
purchasing  these  governments  and  converting  them  into 
regal  ones.  In  1701  a  bill  for  that  purpose  was  intro- 
duced in  the  House  of  Lords,  and  Penn  revisited  Eng- 
b.nd  for  the  jnirpose  of  endeavoring  to  prevent  its  pas- 
sage. Before  his  departure  a  new  constitution,  which 
had  been  some  time  under  consideration,  was  adopted, 
and  a  deputy  governor  and  council  of  State  provided  for 
and  appointed.  On  his  arrival  the  project  of  purch.ising 
the  proprietary  government  was  drojiped.  In  1701  King 
William  died,  and  was  succeeded  by  Queen  Anne,  who 
entertained  for  Penn  a  warm  friendship  Though  the 
danger  of  being  dispossessed  of  his  proprietary  government 
was  averted,  affairs  in  that  government  were  not  more 
harmonious.  The  disaffection  on  the  part  of  the  people  in 
the  lower  counties,  which  he  had  endeavored  to  allay, 
led  to  a  separation  in  1703,  and  the  choice  of  a  distinct 
assembly  for  the  territories.  Some  of  the  deputy  govern- 
ors were  indiscreet  men,  and  differences  between  thcni 
and  the  provincial  Legislature  were  constantly  arising. 
Harrassed  by  these,  and  probably  disgusted  at  the  in- 
gratitude of  his  subjects,  in  whose  behalf  he  had  in- 
curred large  pecuniary  liabilities,  for  the  collection  of 
which  proceedings  were  frequently  instituted  against 
him,  he  finally  agreed  with  the  crown  for  the  cession  of 
his  province  and  the  territory  granted  him  by  the  Duke 
of  York.  He  was  prevented  from  legally  consummating 
this  cession  by  a  stroke  of  ajjoplexy.  which  rendered  liiiii 

The  Queen  died  in  17 14,  and  was  succeeded  by  licorgi 
the  First.  Among  the  early  acts  of  Parliament  in  ihi 
reign  of  this  King  was  one  extending  to  the  English 
colonies  a  previous  act  dis(]ualifying  Quakers  from  hold- 
ing office,  serving  on  juries,  or  giving  evidence  in  crimi- 
nal cases.  Charles  Gookin,  who  had  been  provincial 
governor  since  1709,  construed  this  act  to  be  applicable 
to  the  proprietary  government,  and  a  disqualification  of 
the  Quakers  in  the  province.  I'his  construction  of  the 
law  of  course  called  forth  the  indignation  and  opposition 
of  the  council,  the  Assembly,  and  the  people,  and  led  U> 
the  recall  of  Ciookin  in  1717.  and  the  appointment  of 
Sir  William  Keith  in  his  stead.  The  latter  was  alt'able 
and  courteous,  cunning  and  crafty,  and  in  all  matters  of 


difference  between  the  crown  or  pro])rietary,  on  one 
side,  and  the  people  on  the  other,  he  espovised  tlie  popu- 
lar cause. 

William  Penn  died  at  the  age  of  seventy-four,  in  the 
summer  of  1718.  History  will  ever  ]3oint  to  him  as  one 
who  accomplished  more  for  the  cause  f)f  civil  and  relig- 
ious liberty  than  any  other  man  of  his  time,  and  to  the 
])rovincial  government  which  he  founded  and  adminis- 
tered as  the  first  successful  experiment  in  the  broadest 
lihert)'of  conscience  whicli  liad  then  been  conceived,  and 
the  nearest  a])proach  to  a  government  of  themselves  by 
the  people  that  had  ever  been  attempted  He  was  the 
representative  of  a  despised  and  proscribed  sect;  but  by 
his  wise  and  liberal  administration  of  the  government 
of  his  province,  in  accordance  with  the  principles 
of  that  sect,  he  did  more  to  bring  it  to  the  favorable 
notice  of  the  world  than  could  otherwise  have  been 

The  American  colonies  at  that  time  pre.sented  a  curious 
spectacle.  Maryland,  a  colony  of  Catholics,  who  were 
stigmatized  as  the  most  bigoted  and  intolerant  sect  in 
Christendom,  had  been  established  under  a  constitution 
the  most  liberal  and  tolerant  of  all  that  had  been  grant- 
ed by  the  government  of  Great  Britain;  and  Pennsylva- 
nia, a  province  of  Quakers,  whose  tenets  were  almost  the 
reverse  of  the  Catholics,  had  added  to  this  almost  uni- 
versal tolerance  the  largest  civil  liberty  that  had  ever 
been  enjoyed  by  a  people;  while  the  Puritans  of  the  New 
England  colonies,  who  professed  to  have  fled  from  relig- 
ious persecution  in  England,  and  to  have  sought  an 
nsvlum  where  each  could  worship  God,  the  common 
I'ather  of  all,  according  to  the  dictates  of  his  own  con- 
science, in  the  language  of  Egle,  "  excluded  from  the 
benefits  of  their  gcvernment  all  who  were  not  members 
of  their  church,  and  piously  flagellated  dr  hanged  those 
who  were  not  convinced  of  its  infallibility."  .-Mmost  two 
centuries  have  passed  since  Penn  established  his  colony 
in  .-Vmerica,  and — except  in  those  governments  that  are 
purely  secular,  or  nearly  so,  in  their  character — political 
science  has  developed  little  that  is  essential  to  the  wel- 
fare and  happiness  of  humanity  that  was  not  embodied 
in  his  system. 

The  estate  of  William  Penn  passed  at  his  death  to  his 
family,  who  inherited  both  his  jjroperty  and  his  proprie- 
tary government.  He  had  made  a  will,  previous  to  his 
agreement  with  Queen  Anne,  for  the  sale  of  his  province; 
and  his  agreement  was  decided  to  be  void  because  of  his 
mental  incapacity  to  consummate  it.  The  proprietary  gov- 
ernment, therefore,  devolved  on  his  widow,  as  executrix 
of  his  will  and  trustee  of  his  i)roperty  during  the  niinority 
of  his  children,  and  it  has  been  said  of  her  that  she  man- 
ifested much  shrewdness  in  the  appointment  of  governors 
and  general  management  of  colonial  affairs.  It  is  said  by 
Day:  "  The  affectionate  jjatriarchal  relation  which  had 
subsisted  between  I'enn  and  his  colony  ceased  with  his 
death;  the  interest  which  his  family  took  in  the  affairs  of 
the  province  was  more  mercenary  in  its  character,  and 
looked  less  to  the  establishment  of  great  and  ]jure  princi- 
])les  of  life  and  government." 

The  administiation  of  Sir  William  Keith  was  quite  suc- 
cessful. The  favor  with  which  he  was  regarded  by  the 
people  enabled  him  to  promote  among  them  that  harmony 
which  is  so  essential  to  prosperity;  and  the  colony  was 
jir'^sperous.  There  was  a  large  influx  of  p'opulation,  the 
character  of  which  was  more  cosmopolitin  than  in  former 
times.  The  persecutions  of  the  Quakers  in  England  had 
relaxed  somewhat,  and  fewer,  relatively,  of  them  sought- 
homes  here;  while  people  from  other  regions,  and  nota- 
bly from  Germany,  came  in  great  numbers.  The  popu- 
larity of  Keith  was  such  that  he  was  able  to  accomplish 
two  measures  that  had  been  looked  on  with  great  disfavor 
by  the  assembly — the  establishment  of  a  Court  of  Chan- 
cery, of  which  he  was  the  chancellor;  and  the  organiza- 
tion of  a  militia,  of  which  he  was  the  chief.  On  the  other 
hand,  by  his  good  offices,  "the  Quakers,  to  their  great 
joy,  procured  a  renewal  of  the  privilege  of  affirmation  in 
place  of  an  oath,  and  of  the  cherished  privilege  of  wear- 
ing the  hat  whenever  and  wherever  it  suited  them."  He 
was  deposed  in  1726,  through  the  influence  of  James 
Logan,  the  leader  of  the  proprietary  party.  Franklin 
wrote  of  him;  "  If  he  sought  popularity  he  promoted  the 
public  happiness,  and  his  courage  in  resisting  the  de- 
mands of  the  family  may  be  ascribed  to  a  higher  motive 
than  private  interest.  The  conduct  of  the  Assembly  to- 
ward him  was  neither  honorable  nor  politic;  for  his  sins, 
against  his  principles  were  virtues  to  the  people,  with 
whom  he  was  deservedly  a  favorite;  and  the  House  should 
have  given  him  such  substantial  marks  of  their  gratitude 
as  would  have  tempted  his  successors  to  walk  in  his 

Keith's  successor  was  Patrick  Gordon.  His  adminis- 
tration continued  during  ten  years,  or  until  his  death   in 

1736.  Tranquillity  prevailed  in  the  province  during  this 
time;  the  population,  which  in  1727  was  more  than  fifty 
thousand,  received  large  accessions,  especially  from  Ger- 
many; internal  improvements  were  prosecuted,  and  for- 
eign commerce  increased  largely.  Two  of  the  proprie- 
taries, John  and  Thomas  Penn,  came  to  the  province; 
the  latter  in  1732,  the  former  in  1734.  John  returned  to 
England  in  1735  on  account  of  the  aggressions  of  the 
Marylanders  under  Lord  Baltimore,  but  Thomas  re- 
mained in  the  country  eight  years  longer.  The  demeanor 
of  the  latter  was  not  such  as  to  endear  him  to  the 

The  first  public  library  ever  established  in  the  province 
was  projected  in  1731  by  Benjamin  Franklin,  and  was  in- 
corporated in  1742.  During  the  two  years  following  the 
death  of  Mr.  Gordon  the  president  of  the  council,  James 
Logan,  was  the  executive  officer  of  the  province.  The  cele- 
brated fraud  known  as  the  "Indian  walk"  took  place  in 

1737.  That  an  unscrupulous  Indian  trader  should  be 
guilty  of  thus  swindling  ignorant  savages  would  be  no 
matter  of  surprise;  but  that  the  province  of  Pennsylva- 
nia should  be  a  party  to  such  a  transaction  is  almost  in- 
credible. It  is  certain  that  it  never  would  have  received 
the  sanction  of  William  Penn,  and  it  is  ecpially  certain 
that  it  was  the  foundation  of  an  enmity  that  broke  out  in 
open  hostility  afterwards. 




THK   QtiKSTIOX    OF   TiXIVC.    Tlir.    PUOPKI  I;  I  A  !■;  V    I  s  I  A  I  1  : 
WARS    Willi    Mil,    I  UKNl.  H     AND    INDIANS. 

HE  proprietaiics  in  1738  .Tppointed  George 
Tliomas  governor,  and  the  position  was  lield 
by  liiin  till  1747.  In  the  war  between  Great 
Britain  and  Spain  which  was  declared  in 
39  the  .Vssembly  did  not  lake  measures  to  fur- 
"i!^  nish  the  men  required,  and  the  governor  was  com- 
pelled  to  raise  tlie  quota  of  the  province  by  his 
own  exertions.  I.n  1744  war  broke  out  between  France 
and  England,  and  the  aspect  of  Indian  affairs  in  Penn- 
sylvania and  on  its  borders  became  threatening;  but  the 
storm  was  averted  by  the  good  offices  of  the  Iroquois, 
who  held  the  Delawares  in  subjection. 

An  unhappy  condition  of  affairs  existed  at  that  time, 
and  during  some  years  afterwards,  in  the  ])rovince.  The 
proprietaries  iiad  little  sym])athy  with  the  ])eoi)le,  but  as 
lliey  grew  rich  by  the  enhanced  value  which  the  activity 
and  enterprise  of  these  people  gave  to  their  estates,  they 
jirefcrred  the  pomp  and  luxury  of  aristocratic  life,  and 
regarded  the  jieople  with  a  measure  of  contempt.  Un- 
der such  circumstances  it  was  not  a  matter  of  wonder  that 
the  iK'ople,  through  their  representatives,  should  not  re- 
spond with  alacrity  to  the  demands  of  the  governors  ap- 
pointed by  these  proprietaries.  Governor  Thomas  re- 
signed in  1747,  and  after  an  administration  of  two  years 
by  Anthony  Palmer,  president  of  the  council,  James 
Hamilton  became  lieutenant  governor  in  1749.  The 
condition  of  things  at  that  time  cannot  be  better  de- 
scribed than  in  the  language  of  Sherman  Day: 

"  An  alarming  crisis  was  at  hand.  The  French,  now 
hovering  around  the  great  lakes,  sedulously  applied 
themselves  to  seduce  the  Indians  from  their  allegiance  to 
the  English.  The  Shawnees  had  already  joined  them; 
the  Delawares  waited  only  for  an  opportunity  to  revenge 
their  wrongs,  and  of  the  Six  Nations  the  Onondagas, 
(\ayugas,  and  Senecas  were  wavering.  The  French  were 
fortifying  the  strong  points  on  the  Ohio.  To  keep  the 
Indians  in  favor  of  the  colony  required  much  cunning 
diplomacy,  and  expensive  presents.  In  this  alarming 
juncture  the  old  llame  of  civil  dissension  burst  out  with 
increased  force.  The  jjresents  lo  the  Indians,  with  the 
erection  of  a  line  of  forts  along  the  frontier,  and  the 
r.iaintenancc  of  a  military  force,  drew  heavily  on  the 
l)rovincial  purse.  The  Assembly,  the  pojjular  branch, 
urged  that  the  proprietary  estates  should  be  taxed  as 
well  as  those  of  humble  individuals.  The  proprietors, 
through  their  deputies,  refused,  and  pleaded  prerogative, 
charter,  and  law.  The  Assembly  in  turn  pleaded  eciuity, 
common  danger,  and  conmion  benefit,  requiring  a  com- 
mon expense.  The  proprietaries  offered  bounties  in  lands 
yet  to  be  conquered  from  the  Indians,  and  the  privilege 
of    issuing   more  paper  money  ;    the   Assembly  wanted 

something  more  tangible.  The  Assembly  jiassed  laws 
laying  taxes  and  granting  supplies,  l)iit  annexing  con- 
ditions. The  governors  opposed  the  conditions,  but 
were  willing  to  aid  the  Assembly  in  taxing  the  people, 
but  not  the  proprietaries.  Here  were  the  germs  of  revo- 
lution, not  fully  matured  until  twenty  years  later.  Dr. 
Franklin  was  now  a  member  and  a  leader  in  the  Assem- 
bly. In  the  meantime  the  frontier  were  left  exposed 
while  these  frivolous  disputes  continued.  The  picific 
principles,  too,  of  the  Quakers  and  Dunkards  and  Men- 
nonists  and  Schwenckfelders  came  in  to  complicate  the 
strife  ;  but  as  the  danger  increased  they  jirudently  kept 
.doof  from  public  office,  leaving  the  management  of  the 
war  to  sects  less  scrupulous." 

Robert  H.  Morris,  the  successor  of  James  Hamilton, 
became  governor  in  1754,  and  his  successor,  William 
Denny,  in  1756.  The  same  want  of  harmony  between 
the  proprietaries  and  the  people  continued  during  their 
administrations,  but  finally,  through  the  efforts  of  F'rank- 
lin,  the  royal  assent  was  given  to  a  law  taxing  the  estates 
of  the  projirietaries. 

Settlements  were  made  on  lands  to  which  tlie  Indian 
title  had  not  been  extinguished,  especially  by  the  not 
over  scrupulous  Scotch  Irish,  and  the  result  was  a  de- 
sultory Indian  war,  which  kept  up  a  very  insecure  feeling 
among  the  ])eoi)le  f(  the  province. 

Such  was  the  condition  of  the  province  at  the  breaking 
out  of  the  French  and  Indian  war  a  few  years  after  the 
treaty  of  .Vix-La-Chapelle,  which  really  was  scarcely 
more  than  a  temporary  suspension  of  hostilities.  It  is 
well  known  to  every  one  connected  with  American  his- 
tory, that  at  this  time  the  French  attempted  to  connect 
their  possessions  in  Canada  and  Louisiana  by  a  chain  of 
military  posts  extending  from  Presque  Isle,  now  Erie,  to 
the  navigable  waters  of  the  Ohio,  and  along  that  river  to 
the  Mississippi.  In  furtherance  of  this  design  they  sent, 
in  1754,  1,000  men  to  the  confluence  of  the  Allegheny 
and  Monongahela  rivers,  where  they  built  Fort  Du 
Quesne,  afterward  called,  in  honor  of  the  great  English 
statesman.  Fort  Pitt  ;  now  Pittsburg.  Against  this  was 
sent  the  disastrous  expedition  of  General  Braddock,  a 
minute  account  of  which  cannot,  for  want  of  space,  be 
given  here.  It  may  briefly  be  said,  that  by  reason  of  his 
self  conceit  and  obstinacy  General  Braddock  sustained 
the  most  overwhelming  defeat  that  an  European  army 
had  ever  met  in  America,  and  that  he  was  mor 
tally  wounded  in  this  action.  General — then  Colonel — 
George  Washington  greatly  distinguished  himsel  in  this 

The  dispute  between  the  proprietaries  and  the  people 
continued,  notwithstanding  the  country  was  suffering 
from  the  horrors  of  an  Indian  war.  The  proprietaries 
insisted  on  the  exemption  of  their  estates  from  taxation 
and  the  Assembly  yielded  when  the  jiubli'  safety  was  in 
jeopardy.  Several  councils  were  held  with  the  Indians, 
and  efforts  were  made  through  the  interposition  of  the 
Six  Nations,  whose  aid  the  authorities  of  the  province 
invoked,  to  secure  peace,  with  only  jiartial  success.  In 
1756  three  hundred  men  under  Colonel  Armstrong  crosset' 




the  AlleglR-nies  and  destroyed  the  Indian  town  of  Kittan- 
ing  ;  thus  inflicting  a  severe  blow  on  the  savages,  and 
driving  them  beyond  the  Allegheny  river. 

In  1758  a  change  in  the  ministry  in  England  was  made, 
and  under  William  Pitt  the  war  was  prosecuted  with  great 
energy.  .An  e.xpedition  consisting  of  about  9,000  men  was 
organized  and  sent  against  Fort  Du  Quesne.  On  the 
approach  of  this  army  the  French  burnt  the  buildings, 
evacuated  the  fort,  and  blew  up  the  ni.ngazine.  It  was 
rebuilt  and  named  Fort  Pitt.  This  terminated  hostilities 
in  the  valley  of  the  Ohio.  A  series  of  successes  followed 
in  1759  and  1760  at  the  north  and  west,  which  terminated 
the  war,  though  a  feeble  effort  was  made  by  the  French 
to  retrieve  their  losses  in  Canada.  The  result  was  the 
final  extinction  of  the  French  dominion  in  the  Canadian 
provinces,  which  was  confirmed  by  the  treaty  of  Fontain- 
bleau  in  1762.  The  peace  which  followed  was  of  short 
duration.  The  Kyasuta  and  Pontiac  war,  so  called  from 
the  chiefs  who  planned  it,  broke  out  in  1763.  Kyasuta 
was  a  Seneca,  and  Pontiac  an  Ottawa  chief;  and  the 
scheme  which  they  devised,  for  a  war  of  quick  extermin- 
ation against  the  colonists,  would  have  been  no  discredit 
to  the  ability  of  educated  military  chieftains.  The  sava- 
ges had  looked  with  approval  on  the  construction  by  the 
French  of  a  chain  of  forts  from  Presque  Isle  to  the  Ohio; 
for  they  saw  in  them  a  check  ujjon  the  progress  westward 
of  the  tide  of  settlement  which  threatened  to  dispossess 
them  of  their  broad  domains.  When  they  saw  these  forts 
fall  into  the  hands  of  the  colonists,  and  thus  cease  to  be 
a  barrier  against  their  aggressions,  they  became  more 
alarmed  for  their  own  safety;  and  these  wily  chiefs  con- 
ceived the  project  of  attacking  and  overpowering  the 
different  defenses  on  the  frontier  simultaneously,  and 
then  rushing  upon  and  exterminating  the  defenseless  in- 
habitants in  the  settlements,  and  thus,  by  the  terror 
which  they  inspired,  preventing  future  encroachments. 
The  time  of  harvest  was  chosen  for  this  attack,  and  the 
plan  was  laid  with  such  secrecy  that  the  first  intimation 
of  it  was  the  appalling  war  whoop  with  which  it  was  com- 
menced. So  nearly  successful  were  the  savages  that  eight 
of  the  eleven  forts  attacked  on  the  western  frontier  were 
taken.  Scalping  parties  overran  the  frontier  settlements 
of  Pennsylvania,  Maryland  and  Virginia,  and  the  terror 
stricken  inhabitants  fled  before  them.  Fort  Pitt  was  in- 
vested, after  the  Indian  fashion,  during  about  three 
months,  but  was  relieved  by  a  force  under  Colonel  Bo- 
quet.  About  thirty  of  the  settlers  in  the  Wyoming  valley 
weie  killed  by  the  Delawares,  in  revenge  for  the  murder 
of  Teedyuscung  by  a  party  of  Iroquois,  the  latter  having 
persuaded  the  Delawares  that  the  murder  was  committed 
by  the  whites.  Although  there  were,  after  the  first  erup- 
tion of  hostilities,  no  large  organized  bands  of  hostile 
Indians,  thefrontier  settlements  were  continually  harassed 
by  small  parties,  who  came  upon  them  stealthily  and  mur- 
dered the  inhabitants  without  pity.  The  protection  af- 
forded by  the  authorities  in  the  province  against  these 
marauding  parties  was  insufficient.  The  pacific  disposi- 
tion of  the  (Quakers,  who  controlled  the  government,  was 
su'h  as  to  call  forth  the  remark  that  they  were  "  more 

solicitous  for  the  welfare  of  the  bloodthirsty  Indian  than 
for  the  lives  of  the  frontiersmen."  Parkman  says  of  them: 
"  They  seemed  resolved  that  they  would  neither  defend 
the  people  of  the  frontier  nor  allow  them  to  defend  them- 
selves; and  vehemently  inveighed  against  all  expeditions 
to  cut  off  the  Indian  marauders.  Their'  security  was 
owing  to  their  local  situation,  being  confined  to  the  east- 
ern part  of  the  province." 

John  Penn,  a  grandson  of  the  founder  of  the  province, 
came  to  Pennsylvania  in  1763  in  the  capacity  of  lieuten- 
ant-governor. His  father  and  his  uncle  were  then  the 
proprietors  and  resided  in  England.  The  Penn  family 
had  all  ceased  to  be  Quakers,  and  had  no  conscientious 
scruples  against  defensive  or  aggressive  war.  General 
Gage  had  become  commander  of  the  military  forces  of 
the  province,  and  Governor  Penn  vigorously  seconded 
his  efforts.  He  even,  in  1764,  offered  by  proclamation 
the  following  bounties  for  scalps,  Indians,  etc.:  "For 
every  male  above  the  age  of  ten  years  captured,  §150; 
scalped,  being  killed,  $134;  for  every  female  Indian- 
enemy,  and  every  male  under  the  age  of  ten  years,  cap- 
tured, $130;  for  every  female  abox'e  the  age  of  ten  years 
scalped,  being  killed,  $50." 

The  apathy  which  was  manifested  by  the  Assembly  in 
1763,  and  the  insecure  condition  of-  the  settlers  toward 
the  frontier,  led  to  the  formation  of  an  independent  or- 
ganization known  as  the  Paxtang  Boys  or  Paxtang  Ran- 
gers; so  named  because  they  were  mostly  inhabitants  of 
Paxtang,  or  Paxton,  and  Donnegal,  in  Lancaster  county. 
Such  was  the  feeling  of  insecurity  in  advanced  settlements 
that  men  were  compelled  to  keep  their  rifles  at  their  sides 
while  at  work  in  their  fields,  and  even  while  attending 
divine  worship.  These  rangers,  by  their  vigilance  and 
activity,  and  by  the  severe  punishments  which  they  in- 
flicted on  the  savages,  became  in  turn  a  terror  to  them. 
They  were  mostly  composed  of  Scotch-Irish  Presbyterians, 
between  whom  and  the  Quakers  no  very  friendly  feeling 
existed.  The  latter  strongly  censured  what  they  termed 
the  barbarities  of  the  rangers;  and  fierce  dissensions  arose 
between  them.  The  Paxtang  men  finally  fell  upon  a 
small  tribe  of  Indians  at  Conestoga,  in  Lancaster  county, 
and  put  many  of  them  to  death,  because,  as  they  alleged, 
they  had  discovered  that  these  Indians,  while  professing 
friendliness,  were  secretly  harboring  their  hostile  breth- 
ren, and  furnishing  them  with  information  and  supplies 
of  ammunition,  etc.  They  also  insisted  that  the  Christian 
or  Moravian  Indians  were  guilty  of  the  same  treachery, 
and  the  latter  were  compelled  to  flee  to  Philadelphia  to 
avoid  their  vengeance.  These  acts  of  the  rangers  called 
forth  the  still  more  vehement  protests  of  the  Quakers,  and 
even  at  the  present  day  historians  are  not  agreed  as  to 
whether  or  not  their  action  was  justifiable.  None  of  them 
were  ever  convicted  in  the  courts  of  the  province. 

In  1764  General  Gage  instituted  measures  to  drive  the 
Indians  from  the  frontiers  by  carrying  the  war  into  their 
country.  He  sent  a  corps  under  Colonel  Bradstreet  to 
act  against  the  Wyandots,  Chippewas  and  Ottawas,  in 
the  vicinity  of  the  upper  lakes;  and  another,under  Colonel 
Boquet,to  go  to  the  Muskingum  and  attack  the  Delawares. 





Shawnees,  and  other  nations  between  the  Ohio  and  the 
lakes.  Tliis  viijorous  action  had  the  desired  effect. 
Peace  was  established,  and  many  of  the  captives  who 
had  been  taken  were  restored. 

ch.\pti:r  IV. 


il^RlNO  the  ten  years  between  1765  and  1775 
two  questions  of  boundary  were  settled. 
One,  tl)at  of  the  line  between  Pennsylvania 
,,_c>,^  ''^^  and  Maryland,  had  long  been  in  dispute,  and 
^qp^/^  several  fruitless  negotiations  had  been  entered 
^v'W  into  for  its  settlement.  In  1763  Thomas  and 
''•^  Richard  Penn  and  Frederick  Lord  Baltimore  en- 
tered into  an  arrangement  for  the  establishment  of  this 
line,  and  commissioned  Charles  Mason  and  Jeremiah 
Di.xon  to  survey  and  mark  it.  This  work  they  completed 
in  1767,  having  surveyed  and  marked  with  milestones  of 
oolite  brought  from  England)  the  southern  boundary  of 
Pennsylvania,  e.xcept  about  twenty-two  miles  at  its  western 
end,  where  they  were  prevented  by  the  Indian  propri- 
etors. Thus  originated  the  celebrated  "Mason  and 
Di.xon's  line."  The  other  boundary  question  was  raised 
by  Lord  Dunmore,  of  Virginia,  who  claimed  the  territory 
that  now  includes  the  counties  of  Fayette,  Greene  and 
Washington,  and  even  a  portion  of  Allegheny.  He  en- 
couraged settlers  to  take  from  Virginia  the  titles  to  their 
lands  there,  and  even  sent  an  agent  to  take  possession  of 
Fort  Pitt,  when  it  was  evacuated  by  Oeneral  Gage.  The 
settlers  were  a  bad  class  of  men;  and  by  reason  of  the 
lawless  acts  of  some  of  them,  especially  two  named 
Cresap  and  Greathouse,  a  frontier  Indian  war  occurred. 
The  Virginia  claim  was  prom[)tly  repelled. 

At  the  conclus;on  of  the  Indian  war  of  1763  and  1764 
the  old  controversy  concerning  the  taxation  of  the  pro- 
prietary estates  was  revived,  and  Dr.  Franklin  at  once  be- 
came the  champion  of  the  popular  cause  in  the  Assembly. 
That  body  became  so  indignant  at  the  conduct  of  the 
governor  that  they  resolved  to  petition  the  King  to  pur- 
chase the  pro]irietary  jurisdiction,  and  place  the  province 
in  direct  relation  with  tlie  crown.  "  Here,"  says  Day, 
"  was  a  most  important  step  toward  the  Revolution.  To 
break  down  the  feudal  power,  and  bring  the  people  and 
the  crown  in  direct  communication,  is,  in  all  countries,  the 
first  great  step  toward  ])opular  freedom,  and  |)repares  the 
way  for  the  next  step — the  direct  conllict  between  the 
crown  and  the  people.  It  so  hajipened.  however,  that 
in  this  case  the  avarice  of  the  British  ministry  outran  the 
anti-feudal  propensities  of  the  i)eople.  and  brought  the 
colonies  at  once  to  the  last  great  struggle  between  the 
people  and  the  crown."  Dr.  Franklin  was  sent  by  the 
province  to  London  to  urge  before  the  ministry  the  meas- 

ure of  relief  from  the  jiroprielary  dominion;  but  on  his 
arrival  he  found  that  the  conflict  was  with  the  very  power 
the  protection  of  which  he  had  come  to  invoke 

The  w.irs  which  had  raged  in  the  coloni  s,  and  in 
which  the  home  government  had  assisted,  had  called  the 
attention  of  the  ministry  to  the  rjpidly  increasing  wealth 
of  those  colonies.  The  plan  was  conceived  of  making 
wealth  available  to  the  mother  country,  for  the  double  pur- 
pose of  re|)Ienishing  her  exhausted  treasury  and  securing 
the  exclusive  control  of  the  colonial  trade.  The  accom- 
plishment of  this  double  object  involved  the  (jueslion  o.' 
taxation  without  consent  and  without  representation  in  the 
legislative  body  imposing  the  lax.  This  was  the  point  on 
which  the  American  Revolution  turned.  Parliament  in- 
sisted on  its  right  to  tax  any  part  of  the  British  domin- 
ions, and  the  colonies  held  that  they  were  not  safe  if 
they  might  thus  be  despoiled  of  their  property  without 
their  consent,  and  by  a  ])arlianient  in  which  they  were 
not  represented.  In  view  of  this  momentous  question 
the  contentions  with  the  projjtietaries  were  forgotten. 
In  1 764  an  act  was  ))assed  imposing  duties  on  certain 
articles  not  produced  in  his  majesty's  dominions.  This 
was  followed  the  next  year  by  the  odious  stamp  at:t, 
which  declared  instruments  of  writing  void  if  not  written 
on  stamped  |)aper  on  which  a  duty  was  paid.  This  was 
resisted  and  the  pa[)er  refused  in  the  colonies,  and  the 
determination  was  formeil  by  the  colonies  to  establish 
manufactories,  to  the  end  that  they  might  not  be  depend- 
ent on  the  mother  country.  By  reason  of  the  conse<iueni 
clamors  of  I-Lnglish  manufacturers,  and  the  impossibility 
of  executing  the  law  without  a  resort  to  force,  the  slam|) 
act  was  re])ealed;  but  the  repeal  was  coupled  with  a 
declaration  of  the  absolute  power  of  parliament  over  the 

The  next  offensive  act  was  the  imposition  of  duties  on 
goods  imiiorted  from  Great  Britain;  but  this  was  resisted 
by  the  colonists,  who  would  accede  to  nothing  which  in- 
volved taxation  without  consent.  A  circular  was  ad- 
dressed by  Massachusetts  to  her  sister  colonies  recapitu- 
lating their  grievances,  and  the  arguments  against  the  op- 
pressive acts.  Governor  I'enn  was  ordered  by  the  colonial 
secretary  in  London  to  urge  upon  the  Assembly  a  disre- 
gard of  this,  and,  in  c<ise  this  advice  was  not  heeded,  to 
prorogue  it.  T'he  Assembly  asserted,  by  resolution,  its 
right  to  sit  at  its  own  ))leasure,  and  to  consult  with  the 
other  colonies  concerning  matters  pertaining  to  the  wel- 
fare of  all;  and  it  gave  a  cordial  assent  to  the  recom- 
mendation by  Virginia  for  a  concert  of  action  in  order  to 
peacefully  obtain  a  redress  of  their  grievances.  The 
impost  was  reduced  in  1769,  and  in  1770  abolished,  ex- 
cept that  on  tea,  which  was  continued  at  three  pence  per 
|)Ound.  The  colonists,  however,  were  opposed  to  the 
principle  on  which  the  tax  was  based,  and  not  to  its 
amount,  and  their  resistance  to  the  importation  of  taxed 
goods  was  concentrated  on  the  tea  tax.  In  Pennsylvania 
one  chest  was  imported  and  the  duty  i)aid;  but  generally 
the  non-importation  policy  prevailed.  Under  these  cir- 
stances  the  ideal  right' of  taxation  was  asserted  and  no 
collision  was   provoked.     In   order  to  make  a  practical 







application  of  this  right,  however,  the  East  India  Com- 
pany was  encouraged  by  parliament  to  send  a  consign- 
ment of  tea  to  each  of  the  principal  ports  in  the  colonies, 
to  be  disposed  of  by  the  agents  appointed  by  the  com- 
pany, and  thus  to  force  it  on  the  people.  The  colonists 
in  all  the  provinces  were  indignant  at  this  insidious  at- 

"  The  course  of  Pennsylvania  was  from  the  first  firm,  but 
temperate.  A  meeting  at  Philadelphia  passed  resolutions 
denouncing  the  duty  on  tea  as  a  tax  without  their  con- 
sent, laid  for  the  express  purpose  of  estabJishing  the 
right  to  tax;  and  asserting  that  this  method  of  provid- 
ing a  revenue  for  the  support  of  government,  the  admin- 
istration of  justice  and  defense  of  the  colonies,  had  a 
direct  tendency  to  render  assemblies  useless  and  to  in- 
troduce arbitrary  government  and  slavery;  and  that 
steady  opposition  to  tnis  plan  was  necessary  to  preserve 
even  the  shadow  of  liberty.  They  denounced  all  who 
should  aid  in  landing  or  selling  the  tea  as  enemies  to  their 
country,  and  enjoined  the  consignees  to  resign  their  ap- 
pointment." Lender  such  a  pressure  the  con.-ignees  de- 
clined to  receive  it.  In  Charleston  it  was  landed  in  a 
damp  warehouse  and  permitted  to  rot.  At  New  York  a 
vigilance  cfimmittee  forbade  the  pilots  to  bring  the  vessel 
having  the  tea  on  board  into  the  harbor,  and  escorted  a 
captain  who  attempted  to  bring  in  some  as  a  private  ven- 
ture out  of  the  harbor,  after  airing  and  watering  his  tea. 
At  Boston  the  vessel  having  the  tea  on  board  was  boarded 
by  a  party  of  men  disguised  as  Indians,  and  the  tea  thrown 
overboard.  In  consequence  of  these  proceedings  meas- 
ures were  adopted  by  the  British  government  to  coerce 
submission  on  the  part  of  the  colonists.  Upon  Massa- 
chusetts, which  had  manifested  the  most  violent  opposi- 
tion, the  vials  of  British  wrath  were  most  freely  poured 
out.  In  1774  the  act  known  as  the  Boston  port  bill,  by 
which  the  port  of  Boston  was  closed  and  the  custom- 
house removed  to  Salem,  was  passed.  This  was  soon 
followed  by  an  act  vesting  the  appointment  of  colonial 
officers  in  the  crown;  by  another,  authorizing  the  extra- 
dition for  trial  of  persons  charged  with  capital  offences; 
and  by  still  another,  for  quartering  soldiers  on  the  inhab- 
itants. All  the  colonies  sympathized  and  made  common 
cause  with  Boston  and  Massachusetts,  though  in  each 
colony  there  were  some  people  who  sympathized  with  the 
crown.  These  were  termed  tories,  while  the  advocates 
of  colonial  rights  were  called  whigs — names  by  which  the 
two  parties  were  known  through  the  Revolution. 

The  province  of  Pennsylvania  did  not  waver  at  this 
juncture  in  its  adhesion  to  the  colonial  cause.  On  being 
requested  to  convene  the  Assembly  (iovernor  Penn  of 
course  declined,  and  a  meeting  consisting  of  about  eight 
thousand  people  was  held,  at  which  a  general  colonial 
congress  was  recommended  and  a  committee  of  corres- 
pondence appointed.  Subse  piently  a  convention  of  del- 
egates from  all  the  counties  in  the  province  assembled,  at 
which  a  series  of  temperate  but  lirm  and  patriotic  resolu- 
tions were  adopted,  asserting  both  their  loyalty  and  their 
rights,  and  reiterating  the  recommendation  for  a  general 
congress.     The  convention  also  adopted  instructions  to 

the  Assembly  that  was  about  to  convene.  These  were 
written  by  John  Dickinson,  one  of  the  foremost  patriots 
in  the  province.  The  following  extracts  are  quoted  to 
show  the  animus  of  these  patriots: 

"  Honor,  justice  and  humanity  call  upon  us  to  hold 
and  transmit  to  our  posterity  that  liberty  which  we  re- 
ceived from  our  ancestors.  It  is  not  our  duty  to  leave 
wealth  to  our  children,  but  it  is  our  duty  to  leave  liberty 
to  them.  No  infamy,  iniquity  or  cruelty  can  exceed  our 
own  if  we,  born  and  educated  in  a  country  of  freedom, 
entitled  to  its  blessings  and  knowing  their  value,  pusilla;i- 
imously  deserting  the  post  assigned  us  by  Divine  Provi- 
dence, surrender  succeeding  generations  to  a  condition 
of  wretchedness  from  which  no  human  efforts,  in  all 
probability,  will  be  sufficient  to  extricate  them;  the  expe- 
rience of  all  States  mournfully  demonstrating  to  us  that 
when  arbitrary  power  has  been  established  over  them 
even  the  wisest  and  bravest  nations  that  have  ever  flour- 
ished have  in  a  few  years  degenerated  into  abject  and 
wretched  vassals.  *  *  "  To  us,  therefore,  it  aijpears 
at  this  alarming  period  our  duty  toour  God,  our  countr\', 
to  ourselves  and  to  our  jiosterity,  to  exert  our  utmost 
ability  in  promoting  and  establishing  harmony  between 
Great  Britain  and  these  colonies,  on  a  constitutional 
foundation."  "Thus,"  says  Sherman  Day,  "with  loyalty 
on  their  lips,  but  with  the  spirit  of  resistance  in 
their  hearts,  did  these  patriots  push  forward  the  Re\o- 

The  Assembly  appointed  delegates  to  the  Congress, 
which  met  in  September  at  Philadelphia.  This  Congress 
adopted  resolutions  approving  of  the  resistance  of  the 
people  of  Massachusetts,  and  took  measures  to  prohibit 
imports  from  or  exports  to  Great  Britain,  unless  griev- 
ances were  redressed.  It  also  adopted  a  declaration  of 
rights  and  enumeration  of  grievances,  an  address  to  the 
people  of  Great  Britain,  another  to  the  people  of  British 
America  and  a  /<?\'a/  address  to  the  crown.  It  also  adopted 
articles  of  confederation,  which  act  may  rightly  be  con- 
sidered the  beginning  of  the  American  Union. 

A  bill  was  adopted  by  parliament  prohibiting  the  people 
of  the  provinces  from  fishing  on  the  banks  of  Newfound- 
land, and  at  about  the  same  time  an  ingeniously  framed 
act,  which  made  apparent  concessions,  but  retained  the 
doctrine  against  which  the  colonies  contended,  and  which 
was  intended  to  divide  them.  Pennsylvania  was  the  first 
colony  to  which  this  proposition  was  presented,  and  the 
Assembly,  to  whom  it  was  presented  by  Governor  Penn, 
promptly  rejected  it;  declaring  that  they  desired  no  ben- 
efits for  themselves  the  acceptance  of  which  might  injure 
the  common  cause,  "  and  which  by  a  generous  rejection 
for  the  jjresent  might  be  finally  secured  for  all." 

Another  provincial  convention  was  held  in  Philadelphia 
in  January,  1775,  at  which  reLolutions  were  adopted  rec- 
ommending the  strict  enforcement  of  the  non-importation 
pledge,  and  the  production  and  manufacture  of  every 
thing  retpiired  for  the  use  of  the  inhabitants;  enumerating 
many  of  the  articles  to  be  produced  or  manufactured,  in- 
cluding gunpowder,  which  was  said  to  be  necessary  for 
the  Indian  trade. 

END  UF  THE   I'RUl'KlETAKV   GOVERNMrAT— F  \  K  I  \'    U  E\<  "M    IK  iNARV   EXI'NTS 




SVl.VANIA      A      SIAIK BATTIKS     OK      I  776      AM)      1777 


N  1775  hostilities  roininciKod,  'I'lic  battles  dI 
Lexington  and  Hunker  Hill  were  fought,  and 
a  r.ritish  arni\-  invatltd  the  country.  Con- 
gress met  and  organized  an  army,  at  the  head 
of  which  (ieneral  Washington  was  placed.  At 
■*  the  same  time  that  it  tints  provided  for  the  i)ul)- 
lic  defense,  it  adojitcd  a  "  humble  and  dutiful  peti- 
tion to  the  King,"  which  was  presented  but  to  which  they 
were  informed  no  answer  would  be  given.  .\  military 
association,  having  branches  in  each  county,  was  formed, 
with  a  full  code  of  rules  for  its  government.  The  As- 
sembly met  and  made  proxision  for  raising  four  thousand 
three  hundred  troops — the  ((uota  of  the  province.  In 
view  of  the  troublesome  position  which  the  Quakers  oc- 
cupied, the  Assembly  enacted  that  all  able-bodied  men 
who  refused  to  bear  arms  ministers  and  jnirchased  ser- 
vants excepted  should  contrib\ite  an  equivalent  for  the 
time  and  expense  of  others  in  acquiring  the  necessary 

A  committee  of  safety  was  appointed  which  assumed 
executive  functions.  A  provincial  navy  was  equipped, 
and  measures  were  taken  to  jjrotect  Philadelphia  against 
any  naval  force  ascending  the  Delaware  river.  Later  a 
continental  navy  was  established. 

The  Continental  Congress  during  its  session  of  May, 
1775,  recommended  to  those  colonies  where  no  govern- 
ment sufficient  to  meet  the  exigencies  of  the  times  ex- 
isted, to  adopt  such  governments.  It  was  determined  by 
the  whigs,  in  pursuance  of  this  resolution,  to  throw  off 
the  proprietary  government,  by  which  they  were  hain- 
pered.  The  conservatives  and  tories  opposed  this,  but 
the  times  were  revolutionary  and  the  whigs  prevailed.  It 
was  resolved  that  the  new  government  should  emanate 
from  the  people,  and  that  the  Assembly,  the  members  of 
which  were  shackled  by  their  oaths  of  allegiance  to  the 
crown,  should  have  no  voice  in  its  formation.  A  convention 
consisting  of  delegates  from  all  the  counties,  for  the 
formation  of  a  new  constitution,  was  called,  through  the 
committee  of  conference  and  observation  of  Philadelphia. 
In  the  choice  of  delegates  to  this  convention  no  one  was 
jiermitted  to  vote  who  refused  to  abjure  all  allegiance  to 
the  King  of  (ireat  Hritain,  or  who  was  suspected  of  being 
an  enemy  to  American  liberty. 

The  Declaration  of  Independence  was  .idopted  July 
4th,  1776,  and  this  convention  assembled  on  the  15th  of 
tl.e  same  month.  It  not  only  entered  on  the  task  of 
forming  a  constitution,  but  assumed  legislative  powers  and 
aiijwinted  delegates  to  Congress.  It  may  here  be  re- 
marked that  such  of  these   delegates  as  had  not   already 

done  so  affixeil  their  signnfures  to  the  Dcclnraiinn  of  In- 

1  he  work  of  llui  omriitiiin  wn-,  (  onipletedon  I  lit-  i.Sih  of 
Seplember,  and  the  new-formed constitutioncoinniiitcd  to 
the  keeping  of  the  coun<ilfif  s.ifely  until  the  first  mccling 
of  the  (leneral  Assembly  of  the  Slate  The  provincial 
Assembly  met  on  the  J3dof  the  same  month,  nndi|tiielly 
expired,  with  a  feeble  denunciation  on  its  lips  of  the  as- 
sumed legislative  power  of  the  convention.  Thus,  nt 
about  the  same  lime,  the  proprietary  government  in 
Pennsylvania  ceased  by  the  action  of  the  people  in  the 
province,  and  the  colonies  cast  off  iheir  .illcL'i.mi c  lo  the 
crown  of  Great  Hritain. 

The  jioiiulalion  of  Pennsylvania  was  about  300,000  at 
the  time  when  it  became  a  St.ile  and  assumed  its  position 
among  its  sister  States  in  the  .\merican  Ifnion.  The 
Declaration  of  Inde|)cnden<e  had  been  made,  but  that 
independence  was  to  be  maintained  ;  and,  as  subse- 
quently proved,  by  the  sacrifice  of  many  lives  and  the 
expenditure  of  much  treasure. 

The  limits  of  this  sketch  will  not  |>crmit  a  detail  of 
Revolutionary  events  that  occurred  beyond  the  boundaries 
of  the  State,  though  many  of  those  events  were  im- 
portant factors  in  the  history  of  the  Slate  at  that  time, 
and  of  the  events  of  whic  h  Pennsylvania  was  the  theatre 
little  more  than  a  brief  mention  can  be  made. 

December,  1776,  found  General  Washington  on  the 
west  bank  of  the  Delaware  near  Trenton.  He  had 
crossed  New  Jersey  before  the  advan<  ing  army  of  Gen- 
eral Howe,  who  was  ]>osted  on  the  opposite  side  of  the 
ri\  er,  waiting  for  the  formation  of  ice  on  which  to  cross, 
that  he  might  move  on  Philadelphia.  General  Washing- 
ton had  secured  all  the  boats  on  the  river, -and  on  the 
night  of  the  25th  of  December  he  recrossed  the  river 
with  2,400  men  and  twenty  pieces  of  artillery,  attacked 
the  Hessians  in  Trenton  and  defeated  them,  capturing  six 
cannon  and  900  prisoners,  with  whom  he  again  crossed 
into  Pennsylvania.  The  loss  of  the  .\mericans  in  this 
action  was  two  soldiers  killed  and  two  who  jierished  by 
cold.  General  Washington  at  once  returned  to  Trenton, 
where  he  was  joined  by  about  3,600  Pennsylvania  militi.i 
under  Generals  Mifllin  and  Cadwalladcr.  The  battle  of 
Princeton  was  fought  soon  afterward,  and  the  army  went 
into  winter'ipiarters  at  Morristown.  New  Jersey.  The  next 
summer,  after  some  manoeuvring  in  New  Jersey,  eviden 
ly  for  the  purpose  of  drawing  General  Washington  'om 
his  position.  General  Howe  embarked  his  forces  at  New 
York,  intending  to  attack  Philadeljjhia  by  way  of  the 
Delaware  river.  After  entering  Delaware  bay  he  re 
turned  to  the  ocean,  sailed  up  the  Chesapeake  bay  and 
landed  near  the  head  of  Elk  river.  On  the  sailing  of  the 
British  army  from  New  York  General  Washington  moved 
his  army  into  Pennsylvania,  and  encamped  near  German- 
town  to  watch  the  development  of  General  Howe's  plans. 
General  La  Fayette  joined  General  Washington  at  that 
time,  and  shared  with  him  the  hardships  and  privations 
of  the  camp. 

The  army  of  General  Howe  advanced  toward  Phila 
delphia  and  was  met  by  that  of  General  Washington  at 



the  Brandywine,  whtre  :i  battle  was  fought  the  nth  of 
September,  and  tlie  American  forces  suffered  a  defeat 
and  retired  to  Gerniantown.  Wasliington  soon  afterward 
crossed  the  Schuylkill  and  ])repared  for  battle  again,  hut 
a  heavy  rain  storm  prexented  the  a(  tion.  Oeneral  Howe 
entered  Philadelphia  with  a  portion  of  his  army,  and  the 
balance  encamjied  at  Germantown.  Upon  this  force 
Washington  made  an  unsuccessful  attack  while  a  portion 
of  it  was  assisting  the  liritish  shipping  to  effect  a  passage 
through  the  Delaware  river.  This  was  early  in  October. 
On  the  22nd  of  the  same  month  an  attack  was  made  on 
Forts  Mifflin  and  Mercer,  which  commanded  the  Dela- 
ware oijposite  the  mouth  of  the  Schuylkill.  After  an 
obstinate  resistance  the  garrison  of  these  forts  was  com- 
pelled to  evacuate  them.  In  this  affair  the  enemy  lost 
two  ships  by  reason  of  the  effective  service  of  the  Penn- 
sylvania State  fleet.  After  the  surrender  of  General  Bur- 
goyne  at  Saratoga  the  army  of  Washington  was  reinforced 
by  that  of  Genera'  Gates,  and  it  encam])ed  in  a  strong 
position  at  Whitemarsh.  From  this  position  the  British 
commander  endeavored  to  draw  General  Washington, 
but  without  success.  The  American  army  finally  went 
into  winter  quarters  at  Valley  Forge,  a  place  which  will 
e\er  be  noted  as  the  scene  of  the  most  intense  suffering 
which  the  Revolutionary  patriots  were  called  on  to  en- 
dure during  their  struggle  for  independence.  While  they 
were  shivering  barefooted  and  half  naked  in  their  huts  at 
this  place,  the  British  soldiers  were  snugly  quartered  and 
well  fed  and  their  officers  feted  and  feasted  by  the  tories 
in  Philadelphia. 

In  the  spring  of  1778  an  attempt  was  made  by  the  Eng- 
lish government  through  commissioners  to  effect  a  recon- 
ciliation. Whether  or  not  an  honorable  reconciliation 
was  desired  may  be  judged  by  the  fact  that  they  offered 
Joseph  Reed,  one  of  the  delegates  in  Congress  from 
Pennsylvania,  ^10,000  and  the  best  office  in  thecolonies 
to  aid  them  in  their  puri)oses.  His  reply  should  be  re- 
membered:— "  I  am  not  worth  purchasing,  but  such  as  I 
am  the  King  of  Great  Britain  is  not  rich  enough  to  do 

It  was  in  the  spring  of  17  78  that  France  entered  into  a 
treaty  with  the  Americans,  and  sent  four  frigates  and 
twelve  ships  to  the  Delaware.  In  consequence  of  this 
Sir  Henry  Clinton,  who  had  succeeded  Lord  Howe  in 
command  of  the  British  army,  decided  to  evacuate  Phil- 
adelphia, which  he  did,  marching  his  forcts  across  New 
lersey  toward  New  York.  Washington  pursued,  and 
engaged  the  enemy  at  Monmouth  and  compelled  them  to 
give  way.  Philadelphia  again  became  the  capital  in  the 
latter  jjart  of  June,  1778.  Some  trials  were  had  for  high 
treason,  and  several  of  those  convicted  were  executed, 
greatly  to  the  alarm  of  the  tories  and  Quakers.  They 
had  been  emboldened  by  the  temporary  success  of  the 
British  arms,  and  these  examples  seemed  necessary  to 
inspire  them  with  terror  and  prevent  future  treasonable 
acts,  as  well  as  to  appease  the  \engeance  of  the  whigs 
who  had  suffered  at  their  hands. 

By  the  evacuation  of  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania  ceased 
to  be  the  theatre  of  important  warlike  events.  The  Eng- 
lish government  had,  however,  induced  the  Indians  of 
the  Iroquois  nations  in  New  York  and  those  of  the  terri- 
tory west  from  Pennsylvania  to  engage  in  hostilities 
against  the  people  of  the  struggling  States.  This  warfare 
was  waged  in  accordance  with  their  "known  rule."  In- 
cursions were  made,  defenseless  settlements  attacked,  and 
people  "  of  every  age,  sex  and  condition "  were  ruth- 
lessly murdered.  The  settlements  in  many  regions  were 
left  un]irotected,  because  nearly  all  the  men  capable  of 
bearing  arms  had  responded  to  their  country's  call  and 
joined  the  Revolutionary  army.  In  1777  the  northern 
frontier  of  New  York  was  the  scene  of  many  of  these  sav- 
age irru]jtions,  and  the  frontier  settlements  of  these  .'^*",iC3 
were  scarcely  troubled  by  marauding  parties.  They 
doubtless  enjoyed  this  immunity  because  of  the  proxim- 
ity of  troops,  nliich  could  be  quickly  sent  to  protect  these 
settlements.  In  i  778  the  storm  of  Indian  warfare  burst 
on  them.  A  descent  was  made  on  the  \Vyoming  valley 
by  a  force  of  British,  tories  and  Indians,  commanded  by 
Colonel  John  Butler.  Many  of  the  inhabitants  were 
cruelly  massacred  and  the  valley  was  devastated.  A  de- 
scent was  also  made  on  the  west  branch  of  the  Susque- 
hanna by  a  force  of  Indians,  tories  and  British,  under  Col- 
onel MacDonald.  The  frontier  settlements  in  Westmore- 
land county  also  were  ravaged  by  scalping  parties.  A  force 
under  General  Mcintosh  was  sent  to  protect  the  western 
frontier,  which  was  done  by  the  erection  of  forts  and  by 
expeditions  into  the  country  of  the  hostile  savages. 

The  Indian  villages  at  Wyalusing,  Sheseqiiin  and 
Tioga  were  destroyed  by  a  small  force  under  Colonel 
Hartley.  In  order  to  punish  the  most  audacious  of 
these  savages,  and  prevent,  if  possible,  futuie  depreda- 
tions by  them,  General  Sullivan  was  sent  with  a  sufficient 
force  in  the  summer  of  1779  up  the  Susquehanna  into 
the  Genesee  valley,  the  heart  of  the  country  of  the 
Senecas — the  most  powerful  and  warlike  nation  of  the 
Iioquois — with  orders  "  to  cut  off  their  settlements,  de- 
stroy their  crops,  and  inflict  on  them  every  other  mischief 
that  time  and  circumstances  would  permit."  This  work 
was  thoroughly  accomplished.  A  battle  was  fought  on 
the  Chemung  river  at  Newtown  (Elmira),  in  which  the 
Indians,  under  the  celebrated  Mohawk  chief  Brant,  and 
the  tories,  under  Colonel  John  Butler,  were  routed.  The 
valley  of  the  Genesee  was  devastated,  forty  towns  were 
burned,  orchards  were  cut  down,  corn  fields  were  ravaged, 
and  one  hundred  and  sixty  thousand  bushels  of  corn  de- 
stroyed. From  this  blow  the  warlike  Senecas  never  re- 
covered. Though  marauding  parties  continued  to  go 
forth,  they  were  not  afterward  able  to  send  out  any  large 

Colonel  Brodhead,  at  about  the  same  time,  went  on  an 
expedition  against  the  Indians  on  the  west  branch  of  the 
Allegheny  and  destroyed  the  crops  and  villages  there, 
and  cut  off  a  jiarty  of  forty  who  had  started  on  an  ex- 
pedition to  the  frontier  of  Westmoreland  county. 







LATKR     K.VF.NTS    OF     THE     REVOLUTION  —  WAK     WITH      INK 
W  KSTKk  N     I  N  Dl  A  NS CONSTIT  I'  IION  A  I.    C  II  A  .V(  i  KS. 

I'RlNCi  the  year  17S0  nuicli  dirticully  was  ex- 
perienced on  account  of  the  depreciation  of 
the  paper  currency,  which  the  exigencies  of 
f<--i>i  the  war  had  made  it  necessary  to  issue.  Ef- 
'^  forts  were  made  by  the  Assembly  to  relieve  the 

.State  from  this  embarrassment,  with  only  partial 
success.  In  1781,  in  accordance  with  a  plan  of 
Robert  Morris,  who  justly  earned  the  title  of  "  the 
financier  of  the  Revolution,"  the  Bank  of  North  America 
was  chartered  by  Congress,  and  charters  were  also  granted 
to  it  by  Pennsvlvania  and  Massachusetts.  The  effect  of 
this  measure  was  immediately  beneficial  to  the  com- 
mercial and  financial  interests  of  the  country.  The 
Pennsylvania  charter  was  revoked  by  the  Legislature  in 
1785,  but  was  restored  in  1787. 

During  1780  the  Legislature  enacted  a  law  reorganizing 
the  militia  system  of  the  State,  in  order  that  any  sudden 
emergency  might  be  promptly  met.  In  view  of  the  exi- 
gencies of  the  times  authority  was  vested  in  the  execu- 
tive to  declare  martial  law  during  the  recess  of  the  As- 
sembly, so  far  as  should  be  necessary  under  circumstances 
that  might  arise.  It  was  resolved,  also,  that  in  extraor- 
dinary efforts  that  were  found  necessary  to  obtain  sup- 
plies, discrimination  might  be  made  between  the  friends 
of  the  country  and  those  who  liad  shown  themselves  to 
be  otherwise.  To  guard  against  spies,  authority  was 
given  to  arrest  all  suspicious  [)ersons  and  prevent  the  ad- 
mission of  strangers  indiscriminately.  Tiie  horses  and 
other  property  of  domestic  enemies  were  seized,  and  tiie 
houses  of  Quakers  were  searched  for  arms. 

The  entrance  into  New  Jersey  of  the  British  army 
under  Sir  Henry  Clinton  was  the  cause  of  great  alarm, 
but  this  army  did  not  advance  on  Philadelphia.  Soon 
afterward  four  thousand  of  tiie  militi.i  were  ordered  out 
to  assist  in  a  projected  attack  on  New  York,  but  by  rea- 
son of  the  non-arrival  of  the  French  troops  the  project 
was  abandoned,  and  the  militia  force,  which  had  its  ren- 
dezvous at  Trenton,  was  disbanded. 

The  treason  of  Benedict  .Arnold  occurred  in  the 
autumn  of  1780.  While  in  command  at  Philadeljihia  in 
1778  Cieneral  .\rnold  became  allied  by  marriage  with  a 
distinguished  tory  family  in  that  city,  and  the  intimacy 
with  British  officers  into  which  this  relation  threw  him, 
together  with  the  sting  which  his  sensitive  nature  received 
by  being  court-martialed  for  some  irregularity,  may  have 
led  him  to  his  fatal  error.  Soon  after  the  receipt  of  the 
news  of  his  treason  in  Philadelphia,  his  effigy  was  paraded 
through  the  streets  and  hanged,  his  wife  was  ordered  to 
leave  the  city  within  fourteen  days,  and  his  estate  was 
confiscated.  Still  more  rigorous  proceedings  were  insti- 
tuted against  the  tories  and  Quakers,  one  of  whom  was 
convicted  of  high  treason  and  hanged. 

In  January,  1781,  a  revolt  occurred  among  the  Penn- 
sylvania troops,  who  were  in  winter  <)iiarters  at  Morris- 
town,  under  command  of  fleneral  Wayne.  About  thir- 
teen hundred  of  the  disaffcited  left  the  camp  and  cslab 
lished  their  quarters  at  Princeton.  The  causes  of  this 
mutiny  were  depreciation  of  the  currency  in  which  the 
men  were  paid,  arrearages  of  pay  and  suffering  for  want 
of  money  and  clothing,  and  the  retention  in  the  service 
of  some  beyond  the  terms  of  their  enlistment.  There 
was  nothing  treasonable  in  their  revolt.  On  the  contrary, 
I  wo  emissaries  who  were  sent  to  them  with  large  offers 
from  the  commander  of  the  British  forces  were  seized, 
delivered  to  General  Wayne,  tried  as  spies,  convicted  and 
executed.  .Vn  investigation  was  instituteci  by  (leneral 
Wayne  and  President  Reed,  their  grievances  were  re- 
dressed, and  they  returned  to  their  duty. 

In  the  spring  of  17S1  the  Pennsylvania  troops  under 
General  Wayne  joined  the  force  of  La  Fayette,  and 
marched  to  join  the  force  of  General  Greene.  Fearing 
an  attack  upon  Philadelphia  by  the  troops  from  New 
York,  Congress  recommended  the  calling  out  of  three 
thousand  militia.  They  were  ordered  to  rendezvous  at 
Newtown,  in  Bucks  county,  where  they  remained  till  the 
departure  of  the  British  troops  from  New  York  for  the 
relief  of  Cornwallis  allayed  all  fear  for  the  safety  of 
Philadelphia,  when  they  were  disbanded. 

In  October,  1781,  the  army  of  Cornwallis  surrendered 
at  Yorktown,  thus  virtually  ending  the  war  of  the  Revo- 
lution. Pending  the  negotiation  of  a  treaty  of  peace, 
which  was  signed  November  30th,  1781,  the  Assembly  of 
Pennsylvania  unanimously  adopted  a  resolution  disap- 
proving of  a  reunion  with  Great  Britain  on  any  terms; 
against  the  conclusion  of  a  treaty  of  peace  with  England 
without  the  con<urrence  of  France,  and  against  the  re- 
vival of  the  proprietary  family  privileges.  Such  had  been 
the  bitter  experience  of  the  people  of  I'ennsylvania  under 
the  proprietary  government  and  the  British  yoke  that 
they  were  determined  to  guard  against  everything  that 
could  lead  to  a  recurrence  of  that  experience. 

.Although  the  chartered  boundaries  of  Pennsylvani.i 
were  settled  before  the  termination  of  the  Revolutionary 
war,  the  Indian  title  to  all  the  territory  within  those 
limits  had  not  been  extinguished.  Purchases  from  the 
Indians  had  been  made  in  1736  and  previously,  in  1749, 
in  175S  and  in  1768.  These  amounted  to  about  two- 
thirds  of  the  chartered  territory.  The  balance,  lying  in 
the  northwest  part  of  the  State,  was  purchased  from  the 
Iro(|uois  at  the  treaty  of  Fort  Stanwix  in  October,  1784, 
and  the  purchase  was  confirmed  by  the' Delawares  and 
Wyandots  at  Fort  Mcintosh  in  January,  1785.  Not- 
withstanding this  purchase  the  Uclawares  and  Wyandots 
kept  up  a  barbarous  warfare  against  the  settlers,  and  in 
addition  to  the  expeditions  that  had  been  sent  against 
them,  among  which  was  that  of  the  ill  fated  Crawford  in 
1782,  Harmar  in  1791  and  Wayne  from  1792  to  1795 
conducted  campaigns  against  them.  The  last  in  August, 
1795,  concluded  a  treaty  with  them  which  terminated 
hostilities.  "  Besides  these  ex|)editions,"  says  Sherman 
Day,  "  there  was  an  undercurrent  of  partisan  hostilities 




constantly  maintained  oetween  the  white  savaj^es  on  the 
frontier  and  the  red,  in  which  it  was  difficult  to  say  on 
which  side  was  exhibited  the  greatest  atrocity." 

It  has  been  said  that  a  State  constitution  was  ado])ted 
in  1776  to  supersede  the  proprietary  government,  I'nder 
this  constitution  an  assembly  elcc  led  annually  was  the 
legislat've  department;  a  council  of  twelve  ])ersons  was 
chosen  .or  .hree  years  and  by  joint  ballot  of  the  assem- 
bly and  council  a  president  was  elected,  which  consti- 
tuted the  executive  department.  It  also  jirovided  for 
the  choice  septennially  of  a  council  of  censors  to  revise 
the  doings  of  the  Legislature  and  the  executive,  pass  cen- 
sures, recommend  repeals,  etc-  This  constitution  was 
defective,  though  an  improvement  on  the  proprietary 

In  December,  1779,  the  royal  charter  was  annulled  by 
an  act  of  Assembly,  and  the  proprietaries  were  granted 
_;^i30,ooo  sterling  to  compensate  them  for  their  lost 
privileges,  they  retaining  their  real  estate  and  rents.  In 
1780  the  act  for  the  gradual  extinction  of  slavery  was 
passed.  In  recommending  this  action  the  executive 
council  said:  "Honored  will  that  State  be  in  the  annals 
of  mankind  which  shall  first  abolish  this  violation  of  tlie 
rights  of  mankind.  ' 

In  1787  the  convention  which  framed  the  constitution 
of  the  United  States  sat  in  Philadelphia.  It  concluded 
its  labors  on  the  18th  of  September,  and  on  the  12th  of 
the  following  December  a  convention  called  for  the  pur- 
pose by  the  Assembly  ratified  it,  thus  placing  Pennsyl- 
vania first  on  the  list  of  States  which  adojited  it.  After 
the  adoption  of  the  federal  constitution  the  defects  of 
the  State  constitution  of  1776  were  more  than  ever  be- 
fore apparent.  Chief  Justice  McKean  had  said  of  it; 
"  The  balance  of  i:he  one,  the  few  and  the  many  is  not  well 
poised  in  ;he  State;  the  Legislature  is  too  powerful  for 
the  executive  and  judicial  branches.  We  have  now  but 
one  branch;  we  must  have  another  branch,  a  negative  in 
the  executive,  stability  in  our  laws  and  jiernianency  in 
the  magistracy  before  we  shall  be  reputable,  safe  and 

In  accordance  with  a  resolution  of  the  Assembly,  dele- 
gates were  chosen  at  the  October  election  in  1789  to 
frame  a  new  constitution.  They  assembled  in  November 
01  the  same  yeaij  and  after  a  long  session  completed 
their  labors,  and  the  constitution  which  they  formed  was 
adopted  in  September,  1790. 

In  chr:  the  general  plan  of  the  Federal  constitution 
was  followed.  Thv,  executive  department  was  vested  in 
a  governor,  elected  by  'he  people;  the  legislative  in  a 
Senate  and  Assemljly,  while  the  judicial  system  was  not 
greatly  changed,  except  that  the  tenure  of  office  of  the 
judges  of  the  higher  courts  was  during  good  behavior  in- 
stead of  seven  years,  as  before.  The  supreme  executive 
council  and  the  council  of  censors  were  of  course  abol- 

In  1837  the  constitution  was  revised  by  a  convention 
assembled  for  that  purpose,  and  the  changes  which  were 
recommended  were  adopted  the  next  year.  Among  these 
were  alterations   in  the   tenure  of  offices,  an  abridgment 

of  the  powers  of  the  Legislature,  the  taking  away  of 
nearly  all  executive  patronage  and  an  extension  of  the 
elective  franchise. 

Another  revision  of  the  constitution  was  made  by  a 
convention  for  that  purpose  in  1873,  and  the  amended 
constitution  was  adopted  the  same  year.  This  constitu- 
tion abolished  special  legislation,  changed  the  time  of 
annual  elections,  altered  the  tenure  of  the  judiciary,  mod- 
ified the  pardoning  power,  provided  for  minority  repre- 
sentation, for  biennial  sessions  of  the  Legislature,  for  an 
increase  in  the  number  of  both  branches  of  the  Legisla- 
ture, and  made  other  imjjortant  changes. 

In  1794  an  attempt  was  made  to  lay  out  a  town  where 
the  city  of  Erie — then  called  Pres(iue  Isle,  from  the  penin- 
sula whicl;  shelters  the  excellent  harbor  at  that  point — 
now  stands.  The  small  triangle  necessary  to  secure  this 
harbor  was  purchased  from  the  Indians  in  1789,  and  from 
the  United  States  in  1792.  Resistance  to  this  settlement 
by  the  Seneca  Indians  was  apprehended,  by  reason  of  a 
misunderstanding  on  the  part  of  the  latter,  and  the  mat- 
ter was  postponed  to  the  next  year,  by  which  time  mat- 
ters were  arranged  with  them.  The  western  tribes  were 
at  that  time  hostile. 



M.^C.UIKK  "   OUTRAC.KS THE  RIOTS  OF    1877. 

\.'W,  Mup-'H.AT  has  always  been  known  as   the    Penna 


"1     mite     war,    arose    out    of     the     conflicting 
_;,j     claims  of   the  colonies  of  Connecticut   and 

Pennsvlvania  to  the  territory  included   be- 
1^0}       <j     u      tween      the     forty-first     and     forty-second 
jjjwp'     parallels  of  latitude — now  in  this  State, 
fei^  In  1662  King  Charles  the  Second  confirmed  to 

the  colony  of  Connecticut  the  title  which  it  had  previous- 
ly acquired  to  this  territory;  and  in  1681  the  same 
monarch  granted  a  portion  of  the  same  territory  to  Wil- 
liam Penn.  In  1762  settlers  from  New  England  took 
])Ossession  of  lands  in  the  Wyoming  valley,  and  during 
that  and  the  succeeding  year  made  some  improvements 
there;  but  in  the  autumn  of  1763  they  were  driven  away 
by  the  Indians. 

They  returned  in  1769,  but  about  the  same  time  par- 
ties claiming  titles  under  the  Pennsylvania  grant  took 
possession  of  a  jjortion  of  the  same  territory.  An  attempt 
was  made  by  the  Connecticut  settlers  to  forcibly  eject 
these,  and  thus  was  inaugurated  a  contest  and  a  series  of 
conflicts,  which,  though  they  were  suspended  during  the 
Revolutionary  war,  were  renewed  afterward,  and  were 
not  finally  settled  till  about  the  year  1800. 

What  has  usually  been  termed  the  whiskey  insurrec- 
tion assumed  somewhat  formidable  proportions  in  1794. 
In    1684,    1738,   1744,    1772  and    17S0   duties  had    been 





imposed  on  domestic  spirits  liy  the  Asseml>ly  cl  tin- 
])rovince,  but  after  a  time  the  acts  imposing  these 
duties  were  repealed.  In  1791,  by  an  act  of  Con- 
gress, a.i  excise  of  four  pence  per  gallon  was  laid  on  all 
distilled  s])irits.  This  tax  weighed  heavily  on  tlie  people 
of  western  Pennsylvania,  where  in  some  districts  a  sixth 
or  fifth  of  the  farmers  were  distillers,  and  nearly  all  the 
coarse  grain  was  converted  into  spirit  and  this  sent  across 
the  mountains  or  down  the  Ohio  river  to  market.  .V 
majority  o'  the  inhabitants  of  this  region  were  Scotch- 
Irish  01  their  descendants,  and  their  recollections  or  tra- 
ditions of  resistance  to  the  excise  laws  in  the  "old  coun- 
try "  inclined  them  to  follow  here  the  examples  of  their 
fathers.  In  the  year  of  tii:  passage  of  the  act  resistance 
to  its  enforcement  commenced,  and  meetings  were  held,  at 
which  resolutions  were  passed  denouncing  all  who  should 
attempt  the  enforcement  of  the  law,  and  excise  officers 
were  tarred  and  feathered  and  otherwise  maltreated. 
This  resistance  continued  during  the  succeeding  two  or 
three  years.  People  who  were  suspected  of  favoring  the 
law  were  proscribed,  socially  and  otherwise,  and  open 
resistance  to  its  execution,  by  violence  to  the  persons  and 
injury  to  the  property  of  those  attempting  to  execute  it, 
was  practiced.  This  was  the  condition  of  things  in  the 
counties  c'  /-.Uegheny,  Fayette,  \\'ashington  and  West- 
moreland. In  1794  Congress  amended  the  law,  but  noth- 
ing short  of  absolute  repeal  would  satisfy  the  malcon- 
tents, whose  successful  resistance  had  greatly  emboldened 
them.  Armed  and  organized  mobs  assembled,  attacked 
the  houses  of  excise  officers  and  burned  their  buildings, 
and  several  persons  were  killed  in  these  riots.  Finally 
a  large  force  assembled  and  marched  on  Pittsburg,  de- 
termined to  burn  the  house  of  an  excise  officer  there;  but 
by  adroit  management  they  were  prevented  from  doing 
any  harm  beyond  burning  a  barn  These  lawless  pro- 
ceedings were  reported  to  the  authorities,  and  the  Presi- 
dent of  the  United  States  and  the  governor  of  the  State 
issued  proclamations  commanding  the  insurgents  to  dis- 
perse, and  calling  for  troops  to  suppress  the  insurrection. 
In  obedience  to  this  i^roclamation  a  force  of  about  13,000 
was  raised  in  Virginia,  Maryland,  New  Jersey  and  Penn- 
sylvania, and  under  the  command  of  Governor  Henry,  of  Virginia,  marched  to  the  insurrectionary  district. 
This  awed  the  insurgents  into  obedience  and  no  further 
trouble  was  experienced. 

In  1798  the  Fries  insurrection,  or  "hot  water  war," 
as  it  was  ca"ed  because  of  the  method  adopted  by  the 
women  in  resisting  the  collection  of  the  "house  tax," 
occurred  in  Bucks  and  Montgomery  counties.  Troops 
were  called  out  ;  Fries  and  others — leaders — were  ar- 
rested, tried,  and  convicted  of  treason,  but  subsequently 

The  Erie  Railroad  war,  which  occurred  in  the  winter 
of  1853-4,  is  still  fresh  in  the  recollection  of  many.  This 
arose  cut  of  the  opposition  of  the  people  of  Erie  to  the 
action  of  what  is  now  the  Lake  Shore  Railroad  Comjjany 
in  laying  a  track  of  uniform  width  through  the  city.  The 
track  was  torn  up  and  bridges  were  destroyed  by  a  mob 
encouraged  by  the  city  authorities,   and   tra\  el   was  em- 

barrassed during  several  months.  Order  was  finally  re- 
stored, and  Erie  has  since  been  widely  known  as  the 
"  i>eaniil  city." 

.\l)Out  the  year  1862  a  reign  of  terror  was  inaugurated 
in  some  portions  of  the  mining  regions  in  the  State  of 
Pennsylvania,  by  the  discovery  that  there  existed  among 
till-  miners  an  organization  of  desperadoes  who  set  the 
law  at  defiance,  and  aided  and  protected  each  other  in 
the  blackest  crimes  known.  This  organization  is  popu- 
larly known  as  the  Mollie  Maguires,  and  it  was  trans- 
planted in  this  country  about  the  year  1854  from  Ire- 
land. It  was  an  organization  for  resistan<  e  to  the  land- 
lords in  that  country,  and  took  its  name  from  a  des- 
perate woman,  who  was  very  active  and  efficient  in  shoot- 
ing landlords' agents.  In  this  country  it  is  said  that  it 
never  existed  as  a  distinct  organization,  but  that  the  se- 
cret acts  of  lawlessness  and  crimes  that  had  characterized 
the  Mollie  Maguires  came  to  be  tolerated  and  even  sanc- 
tioned and  abetted  by  the  "Ancient  Order  of  Hibernians," 
a  benevolent  institution  which  had  long  existed  and 
which,  in  some  States,  was  incorporated.  When  they 
first  attracted  attention  they  were  termed  "  Huckshots," 
and,  although  troublesome,  they  were  not  considered  very 
dangerous.  Their  crimes  came  to  be  more  fre<|uent  and 
audacious.  They  resisted  the  enrollment  for  the  draft 
in  1862.  Arson,  and  the  assassination  of  those  who  in- 
curred their  displeasure,  came  to  be  more  and  more  com- 
mon, and  were  jierpetrated  with  entire  impunity,  for  an 
alibi  was  always  proved;  and  during  the  twelve  or  thirteen 
years  following  the  influx  of  foreign  miners  into  the  coal 
regions,  which  began  soon  after  the  breaking  out  of  the 
Rebellion,  they  came  to  be  a  real  terror  in  those  regions. 
.\t  length  a  skillful  detective  succeeded  in  gaining  admis- 
sion to  their  order  and  obtaining  a  knowledge  of  its 
secret  workings,  and  of  the  perpetrators  of  the  many 
murders  which  had  been  committed.  The  result  was 
that  many  of  these  murderers  were  brought  to  justice, 
and  the  order  was  rendered  impotent  by  the  exposure 
of  its  dangerous  character. 

In  the  summer  of  1877  what  is  known  as  the  great 
strike  occurred.  This  commenced  in  the  cii\  of  Balti- 
more, among  the  employees  of  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio 
Railroad  Company,  and  rapidly  extended  the  entire  length 
of  the  road.  Three  days  later,  July  19th,  certain  em- 
ployees of  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Company  also  struck, 
or  refused  to  work.  The  immediate  cause  or  pretext  for 
the  strike  at  Pittsburg  was  an  order  from  the  superin- 
tendent of  the  road  extending  the  trip  of  a  "crew  ;  "  thus 
— as  it  was  said — rendering  a  smaller  number  of  men 
necessary  and  depriving  a  portion  of  their  employ- 

The  exigencies  of  the  war  of  1861-65  brought  about  an 
unhealthy  condition  of  things  throughout  the  country. 
The  currency  was  inflated;  business  acquired  an  abnor- 
mal activity;  the  prices  of  produce,  of  manufactured  arti- 
cles, and  of  labor  were  greatly  enhanced,  and  a  general 
expansion  took  place.  This  engendered  among  all  classes 
a  degree  of  reckless  extravagance  unknown  before,  and 
when,  after  the   lai)se  of  a  few  years,  business  gradually 



came  to  be  established  on  a  more  healthy  basis,  jjeople 
found  it  difficult  to  adapt  themselves  to  their  clianged 
surroundings,  to  practice  the  more  rigid  economy  which 
those  surroundings  necessitated,  and  to  appreciate  the 
increased  and  steadily  increasing  value  of  a  dollar. 
When,  therefore,  by  reason  of  a  depreciation  in  the 
prices  of  produce,  a  lessened  demanl  for  manufactured 
goods,  and  a  consequent  reduction  of  the  profits  of 
manufacturers,  it  became  necessary  to  reduce  the  price 
of  labor,  many  laborers,  finding  it  hard  to  submit  to  these 
inevitable  changes,  and  failing  to  appreciate  the  necessity 
for  them,  sought  by  the  e.xercise  of  lawless  force  to  com- 
pel producers,  manufacturers,  or  carriers  to  continue  the 
prices  which  they  paid  in  more  prosperous  times. 

Such  was  the  condition  of  things  at  the  commencement 
of  this  strike.  At  first  certain  railroad  employees,  who 
considered  themselves  aggrieved,  refused  to  work,  and 
sought  by  intimidation  and  force  to  prevent  others 
from  doing  the  work  which  they  refused  to  do.  At  Pitts- 
burg these  were  joined  by  the  idle,  vicious  and  reck- 
less who  were  not  in  the  employ  of  the  railroad  com- 
pany, and  at  once  became  more  and  more  disorderly  and 
defiant.  The  authorities  were  called  on  to  protect  the 
company's  property,  but  the  force  failed  to  control  the 
mob.  The  militia  were  called  out,  and  some  of  the 
soldiers  fraternized  with  the  rioters,  and  others  proved 
inefficient  by  reason  of  a  mistaken  aversion  to  firing  on 
them,  and  finally  allowed  themselves  to  be  driven  from 
their  position.  The  citizens  took  no  measures  to  repress 
disorder,  but  rather  looked  on  approvingly. 

Under  such  circumstances  the  crowd  constantly  ,iug- 
mented,  and  became  more  and  more  desperate.  Li- 
cendiarism  and  pillage  came  to  be  the  order  of  things, 
and  property  to  the  amount  of  millions  of  dollars  was 
destroyed-  Proclamations  were  issued  by  the  governor, 
more  militia  were  called  out,  and  at  last  the  citizens  awoke 
from  their  apathy  when  they  became  aware  that  the  city 
itself  was  in  danger  of  destruction,  and  the  riotous  pro- 
ceedings were  finally  quelled. 

Meantime  the  strike  had  extended  until  it  had  become 
general  along  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad.  Violence  was 
resorted  to  and  property  destroyed  at  various  places 
along  the  line  of  the  road,  but  nowhere  was  there  such  a 
reign  of  terror  as  at  Pittsburg.  At  Philadelphia  the 
authorities  t^ok  such  ample  precautions,  and  the  police 
acted  so  promptly  ana  efficiently  n-hen  the  riot  broke 
out  there,  that  it  was  at  once  put  down.  The  governor 
visited  riotous  localities  along  the  line  of  the  road  in 
l)erson,  accompanied  by  troops,  and  regular  soldiers 
were  furnished  by  order  of  the  President  and  Secretary 
of  War,  on  application  of  Governor  Hartranft,  to  aid  in 
restoring  order. 

At  Reading  riots  broke  out  on  the  22nd  of  July.  The 
militia  were  called  out,  but  proved  inefficient,  though  one 
regiment,  without  orders,  poured  a  volley  into  the  assail- 
ing crowd,  killing  ten  and  wounding  forty  and  scattering 
the  rioters  for  the  time.  The  presence  of  300  regular 
troops  finally  awed  the  mob  and  restored  order 

By  the  24th  the  strike  had  extended  to  the  mining  re- 

gions, and  was  extensively  participated  in  by  the  miners. 
Riots  occurred  at  Pottsville,  Shamokin,  Bethlehem,  East- 
on,  Wilkes-B'arre,  Scranton  and  elsewhere.  Work  in  the 
mines  was  nrrested,  some  mines  were  flooded,  railroad 
property  was  destroyed  and  many  lives  were  sacrificed  in 
the  riots  and  the  efforts  to  quell  them.  The  greatest 
destruction  of  property,  however,  was  at  Pittsburg,  where 
the  citizens  have  since  been  punished  for  the  tacit  en- 
couragement which  they  at  first  gave  the  rioters,  by 
being  compelled  to  p.iy  for  the  property  destroyed. 




^HE  project  of  removing  the  capital  of  the 
State  to  a  more  central  location  began  to 
M,\\  be  agitated  during  the  last  decade  of  the 
eighteenth  century.  In  1795,  1796  and 
1798  efforts  were  made  to  acconi|)lish  such  re- 
moval, but  they  failed  for  the  want  of  concurrent 
action  in  the  two  branches  of  the  Legislature. 
Carlisle,  Reading,  Lancaster,  Wright's  Ferry  and  Harris- 
burg  were  unsuccessfully  proposed.  In  1799  Lancaster 
was  selei  ed,  and  the  Legislature  met  there  for  the  first 
time  in  December  of  that  year.  By  an  act  of  the  Legis- 
lature in  1810  it  was  in  1812  removed  from  Lancaster  to 
Harrisburg;  and  the  sessions  of  the  Legislature  were 
held  in  the  court-house  at  that  place  till  the  completion 
of  the  public  buildings  in  1821. 

The  war  of  181 2  had  its  origin  in  aggressions  against 
the  United  States  by  Great;  Britain,  which  were  contin- 
ued during  many  years,  notwithstanding  the  earnest  pro- 
tests of  this  nation.  The  r'ghts  of  the  United  States  as 
neutrals  were  disregarded  during  the  Napoleonic  wars, 
and  among  other  encroachments  the  English  government 
claimed  the  right  to  board  and  search  American  vessels, 
and  authorized  its  officers  to  examine  their  crews,  seize 
all  those  whom  they  chose  to  regard  as  British  subjects, 
and  force  th;m  into  their  service.  All  remonstrances 
were  unavailing.  The  English  in  enforcing  this  right  of 
search  committed  great  outrages,  and  the  practice  became 
so  obnoxious  as  to  demand  some  decided  measures  for 
its  suppression.  Under  these  circumstances  there  ap- 
peared no  alternative  but  war;  and  Congress  having 
authorized  it,  war  against  Great  Britain  was  declared  on 
the  19th  of  June,  1812.  The  measure  was  not  univer- 
sally sustained.  The  Federal  party,  then  in  the  minority, 
opposed  it;  and  their  political  opinions  being  apparently 
stronger  than  their  patriotism,  they  loudly  denounced  it. 
The  Federalists  in  New  York  and  New  England  were 
most  jirominent  in  their  opi)osition,  and  if  they  did  not 
directly  aid   the  enemy  their  conduct   was  discouraging 




mul  injurious  to  those  wlio  were  periling  their  lives  in 
their  country's  cause.  This  opposition  was,  however, 
quite  impotent  in  Pennsylvania. 

At  the  commencement  of  the  war  Ciovernor  Snyik-r 
issued  a  jiatriotic  call  for  fourteen  thousand  \olunteers; 
and  such  was  the  alacrity  of  the  response  that  three  times 
the  number  required  tendered  their  services,  and  money 
was  readily  offered  for  the  pku  es  of  those  who  were  ac- 

During  this  war  Pennsylvania  was  not  the  scene  of  hos- 
tile operations,  although  her  frontier  was  threatened.  A 
force  of  British  and  Indians  appeared  on  the  north  shore 
of  the  lake,  opposite  t')  F-rie,  in  July,  1812;  but  the 
jirompt  measures  that  were  taken  for  the  defense  of  the 
])ort  prevented  an  attack.  The  mouth  of  the  Delaware 
was  blockaded  in  1813,  and  most  of  the  foreign  commerce 
of  Philadelphia  was  cut  off;  but  the  river  had  been 
placed  in  such  a  state  of  defense  that  it  was  not  invaded. 
A  thousand  men  were  sent  to  ])rotect  the  shores  of  this 
river,  and  an  equal  force  sent  to  guard  the  harbor  of  Erie, 
where  \essels  of  war  were  in  process  of  construction  and 
equipment.  The  brilliant  victory  of  Commodore  Perry 
on  the  loth  of  September,  1813,  was  the  result  of  the 
fitting  out  of  this  naval  force. 

The  ravaguig  of  the  shores  of  Chesapeake  bay,  and 
the  burning  of  Washington,  in  1813  and  1814,  and  the 
threatening  attitude  of  the  enemy  after  these  depreda- 
tions, induced  Governor  Snyder  to  issue  another  call  for 
troops  to  defend  the  State  against  the  peril  which  men- 
aced it.  In  compliance  with  this  a  force  of  five  thousand 
established  a  rendezvous  on  the  Delaware,  and  although 
the  soil  of  Pennsylvania  was  not  invaded  this  force  did 
good  service  in  marching  to  the  relief  of  Baltimore  when 
it  was  attacked,  and  aiding  to  repel  the  enemy.  It  is 
worthy  of  note,  as  showing  the  difference  in  the  patriotism 
of  men  from  different  sections  of  the  country,  that  four 
thousand  New  York  troops  under  General  Van  Rennsse- 
laer  refused  to  cross  the  line  into  Canada,  but  that,  soon 
afterward,  a  brigade  of  Pennsyhanians,  consisting  of  two 
thousand,  under  General  Tannehill,  crossed  without  the 
slightest  hesitation,  glad  to  be  able  to  meet  the  enemy  on 
his  own  soil  and  do  battle  for  their  country.  .A  treaty  of 
peace  between  the  two  nations  was  ratified  on  the  17th  of 
February,  1S15. 

The  extensive  system  of  internal  improvements  which 
has  swallowed  so  many  millions  of  money  in  this  State 
was  commenced  about  the  year  1790.  The  first  efforts 
were  directed  to  the  improvement  of  navigation  in  the 
ri\ers  of  the  Slate;  then,  as  time  went  on,  the  construc- 
tion of  a  system  of  canals  and  turnpikes  was  entered  on, 
and  prosecuted  beyond  that  of  any  other  Stale  in  the 
Union.  The  grand  jjroject  of  securing  the  trade  of  the 
West,  through  a  connection  between  Philadelphia  and 
the  waters  of  the  Ohio  at  Pittsburg,  by  a  line  cf  public 
works,  was  realized  in  1831.  In  order  to  secure  the  in- 
fluence and  votes  necessary  to  authorize  this  it  had  been 
found  necessary  to  construct  other  canals  in  various  parts 
of  the  State,  the  inhabitants  of  which  desired  to  par- 
ticipate in  the  benefits  of  the  system  of  internal  improve- 

ment, and  thus  that  system  in  this  Slate  came  to  exceed 
in  magnitude  that  of  any  other. 

It  was  not  possible,  however,  for  the  wisest  of  thor,e 
who  projected  and  promoted  this  system  of  improvements 
to  foresee  the  rise  and  rapid  progress  of  another  system, 
which  was  to  take  the  place  of  and  wholly  supersede  that 
»lii(  h,  at  su(  h  an  enormous  expense,  they  inaugurated 
and  carried  forward. 

In  1827    a,  nine    miles   in    length,  the    longest 
then    in    existence    in    America,    was   constructed    from 
Mauch  Chunk   to  some  coal  mines.     Only  two  had   pre- 
ceded this — one,  with  a  wooden  track,  at  a  stone  quarry 
in  the  county  of  Delaware,  Penn.,  and  another,  having  .1 
I      length  of  three  miles,  at  a  cpiarry  in  Quincy,  Mass.   Since 
j      that  time  the  railroad  system   of   this  country   has  devel- 
I      oped  to  its  present  magnitude.     A  majority  of  the  canals 
are  dry,  many  have  been  converted  into  railroad  beds,  and 
even   the   rivers   and    lakes  of  the  <:ountry   have  dwin- 
dled into  comparative  insignificance  as  avenues  of  travel 
or  transportation.     In   1857  the  |>rincipal   line  of  public 
works  between  Pittsburg  and  Philadelphia  was  sold  to  the 
Pennsylvania  Railroad  Company  for  a  fraction  of  its  cost, 
I      and  measures  were  at  once  taken  for  the  sale  of  the  other 
works    belonging   to    the    State      Thus  do  systems,  one 
after  another,  develop  and  pass    away,  and    no    prevision 
can  point  out  what  is  to  come. 

\\hile  it  is  true  that  in  some  of  the  States  of  the  Union 
the  jjresent  system  of  internal   im])rovements,  which  has 
been  fostered  and  encouraged  by  those  States,  has  proved 
to  be  almost  the  ruin  of  their  best  interests,  the  reverse 
is  true  in   Pennsylvania.     The  development  of  the  im- 
mense mineral  resources  of  the  State  reipiired  the  con- 
!      struction  of  these  avenues  of  transportation,  and  the  cost 
i      of  those  built  by  the  State,  though  they  were  afterward 
'      sold  for  only  a  jiart  of  that  cost,  was  returned  many  fold 
I      in  the  increase  of  wealth  which  was  the  direct   result  of 
'      their  construction.    When  the  first  canal  was  projected  the 
use  of  anthracite  coal  was  hardly  known,  .md  the  cost  of 
its  trans])ortation  to  market  was  so  great  as  to  prechidc 
the  possibility  of  its  profitable  use.     With  every  increase 
in  the  facilities  for  the  transportation  of  this  important 
mineral  it  has  been  cheapened  to  the  consumer,  and  its 
])rpduction  has  been  rendered  more  profitable;  and  now 
I      large  areas  which  have  no  value  for  any  other  purpose 
are  sources  of  immense  and  constantly  imreasing  wealth. 
I  Previous  to  the  year  1834  many  acts  were  passed  by  the 

j  Legislature  pertaining  in  some  way  to  the  subject  of  edu- 
I  cation.  Some  of  these  were  local  in  their  application, 
and  some  were  little  more  than  resolutions  in  favor  of 
education.  Isolated  schools  were  established  in  various 
localities,  in  most  of  which  provision  was  made  for  the 
education  of  the  children  of  the  poor.  The  people  of 
the  dilTcrent  religious  dennminations  made  provision  for 
the  education  of  their  children,  often  establishing  paro- 
chial schools.  This  was  the  case  with  the  Quakers,  the 
S<  (Itch-Irish  Presbyterians,  the  German  Lutherans,  the 
Mennonists,  the  Moravians,  the  Dvmkards,  etc.  Nothing 
having  the  semblance  of  a  public  school  system  was 
I      established  previous  to  the  adoption  of  the  constitution 


of  1790,  which  required  that  provision  should  be  made 
by  law  for  the  general  establishment  of  schools  wherein 
gratuitous  instruction  should  be  given  to  the  children  of 
the  poor.  From  that  time  till  1827  efforts  were  from 
lime  to  time  made  to  establish  a  system  in  accordance 
with  this  requirement,  but  with  only  partial  success,  the 
radical  defect  in  all  being  the  distinction  between  the 
children  of  the  rich  and  poor.  In  1827  earnest  and  sys- 
tematic efforts  began  to  be  put  forth  for  the  establish- 
ment of  free  schools  for  all,  and  in  1834  the  foundation 
of  the  present  common  school  system  was  laid,  in  the 
enactment  of  a  law  for  the  maintenance  of  schools  by  a 
tax  on  all  taxable  property.  This  law,  which  was  at  first 
imperfect,  was  revised  and  amended  in  1836,  1849,  1854 
and  1857,  in  which  last  year  the  present  system  of  nor- 
mal schools  was  established. 

In  1863  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Company  donated 
to  the  State  $50,000  for  the  education  of  soldiers'  or- 
phans. In  1865  the  Legislature  added  to  this  an  appro- 
priation of  $75,000.  Schools  and  homes  were  established 
for  these  wards  of  the  State,  and  during  several  years  an 
annual  expenditure  was  made  for  this  purpose  of  half  a 
million  of  dollars.  At  these  homes  and  schools  soldiers' 
orphans  were  boarded,  clothed,  educated  and  taught 
habits  of  industry,  and  at  a  proper  age  were  placed  in 
situations  to  acquire  trades  or  professions. 

In  1749  an  academy  was  established  by  subscription  in 
Philadelphia  "  for  instruction  in  the  Latin  and  English 
languages  and  mathematics."  This  was  the  foundation 
of  the  ITniversity  of  Pennsylvania.  This  and  Dickinson 
College,  at  Carlisle,  which  was  founded  in  1783,  were  the 
only  colleges  in  the  Slate  previous  to  the  commencement 
of  the  nineteenth  century.  There  are  now  twenty-seven, 
of  which  five  are  purely  secular  or  non-sectarian.  There 
are  also  seventeen  theological  institutions,  ten  medical 
schools  and  one  law  school. 




N  1846  war  was  declared  by  this  government 
'>  'T((  against  Mexico,  and  by  virtue  of  authority 
-■j)  vested  in  him  by  Congress,  the  President 
"'  "'•  called  on  Pennsylvania  for  six  volunteer 
""  regiments  of  infantry,  to  hold  themselves  in 
readiness  for  service  during  one  year,  or  to  the 
end  of  the  war.  Such  was  the  alacrity  with  which 
the  citizens  responded  to  this  call,  that  within  thirty  days 
a  sufficient  number  of  volunteers  had  offered  their  ser- 
vices to  constitute  nine  full  regiments.  Of  these,  be- 
tween two  and  three  regiments  were  sent  into  the  country 
of  the  enemy,  and  their  conduct  at  Vera  Cruz,  Cerro 
Gordo,  Chepultepec  and    the  city  of  Mexico   was  iiighly 

creditable  to  themselves  as  well  as  to  the  State  which 
they  represented. 

The  promptitude  with  which  Pennsylvania  responded 
to  the  call  of  the  federal  government  in  1812  and  1846 
was  fully  e(|ualed  by  the  readiness  with  which  her  citi- 
zens flew  to  arms  at  the  breaking  out  of  the  great 
Southern  rebellion.  In  anticipation  of  that  event  the 
citizens  of  Pittsburg  had  refused  to  allow  arms  to  be 
taken  from  their  arsenal  and  sent  south  by  traitorous 
government  oflicials  ;  and,  when  the  storm  of  war  burst 
upon  the  country,  the  patriotism  of  the  citizens  of  this 
State  w:is  aroused  to  such  a  pitch  that,  in  response  to 
the  call  for  Pennsylvania's  quota  of  the  75,000  first  called 
for,  fourteen  regiments,  enough  for  twenty-five,  offered 

A  place  of  rendezvous,  called,  in  honor  of  the  gover- 
nor of  ill  State,  Camp  Curtin,  was  established  at  Harris- 
burg,  and  on  the  morning  of  .^pril  i8th,  1861,  six  days 
after  the  attack  on  Fort  Sumter  and  three  days 
after  the  proclamation  calling  for  75,000  men  was  issued, 
five  companies  of  volunteers  left  Harrisburg  for  Washing- 
ton. They  passed  through  Baltimore  amid  the  jeers  and 
imprecations  of  the  mob,  that  followed  them  and  hurled 
bricks,  clubs  and  other  missiles  at  them  as  they  boarded 
the  cars,  and  arrived  at  Washington  on  the  evening  of 
the  same  day.  They  were  the  first  troops  that  reached 
the  national  capital,  and  for  tnis  prompt  response  to  the 
call  of  their  country,  and  for  their  coolness  and  courage 
in  passing  through  the  mob,  they  were  aflerwaid  thanked, 
in  a  resolution,  by  the  House  of  Representatives.  Within 
twelve  days,  or  before  the  first  of  May,  twenty-five  reg- 
iments, amounting  to  more  than  twenty  thousand  men, 
were  sent  from  this  State  to  the  field.  The  expense  of 
clothing,  subsisting,  arming,  equiping  and  transporting 
these  troops  was  sustained  by  the  State. 

By  the  advance  of  General  Lee  toward  the  southern 
border  of  the  State  in  September,  1862,  an  invasion  of 
its  territory  was  evidently  threatened,  and  Governor 
Curtin,  by  proclamation,  called  for  fifty  thousand  men  to 
meet  the  emergency.  These  not  only  marched  to  the 
border,  which  they  covered,  but  most  of  them  crossed 
into  the  State  of  Maryland,  and  by  their  presence  assisted 
in  preventing  the  advance  northward  of  the  rebel  army. 

Another  emergency  arose  in  June,  1863,  to  meet  which 
Governor  Curtin  issued  a  proclamation  calling  out  the 
entire  militia  of  the  Slate.  By  reason  of  a  lack  of  con- 
cert in  the  action  of  the  State  and  national  authorities, 
only  a  portion  of  this  force  was  brought  into  service  pre- 
vious to  the  battle  of  (lettysburg.  Of  that  battle  the 
limits  of  this  sketch  will  not  permit  a  detailed  account. 
It  was  ihe  result  of  the  second  attempt  to  invade  northern 
territory,  and  it  was  a  disaster  to  the  rebels  from  which 
they  never  recovered. 

The  territory  of  the  State  was  again  invaded  in  July, 
1864,  and  all  the  available  troops  in  the  State  were  sent 
forward  to  repel  the  invasion.  The  inhabitants  along  the 
southern  border  were  considerably  annoyed  and  injured 
by  this  invasion,  and  the  town  of  Chamber.sburg  was 
burned.     More  than  two  hundred  and  fifty  houses  were 




find  by  the  rebels  and  the  town  wns  iniirely  destroyed, 
involving  a  loss  of  about  §2,000,000.  It  was  an  act  ol 
wanton  vandalism. 

Of  Camp  Ciirtin,  that  was  established  at  the  eomnuMK  e- 
ment  of  the  war,  it  may  be  said  that  it  was  not  only  a 
plate  of  rendezvous  for  soldiers  and  of  dejiosit  for  nnl- 
itary  stores,  but  a  depot  for  jirisoners  and  a  hos|)ilal 
for  the  sick  and  for  the  wounded  after  some  of  the 
great  battles,  esi)ecially  the  battles  of  Oettysburg  and 
Antietam.  It  was  early  i)la(  ed  under  the  control  of  the 
federal  government,  and  so  tonlinued  till  the  close  of 
'he  war. 

A  brief  mention  should  be  made  of  the  part  which  the 
loyal  women  of  the  State  bore  in  this  conllici.  Not  only 
did  they  part  with  their  husbands,  sons  and  brothers,  who 
went  forth  to  do  battle  for  their  country  and  the  pres- 
ervations of  its  institutions,  and  in  many  cases  to  lay 
down  tlieir  lives,  but  they  put  forth  their  efforts  to  pro- 
vide and  send  forward  to  those  who  languished  in  distant 
hospitals  those  comforts  which  the  government  could  not 
furnish;  and  many  a  sick  or  wounded  soldier  had  oci  a- 
sion  to  bless  his  unknown  benefnctress  for  some  delicacv 
or  comfort  of  which  he  was  the  recipient. 

During  the  continuance  of  this  war  the  State  of  Penn- 
sylvania furnished  for  the  army  two  hundred  and  seventy 
regiments  and  many  detached  com[)anies,  amounting  in 
all  to  387.284  men.  The  following  quotation  from  a 
special  message  of  Ciovernor  Curtin,  at  the  close  of  the 
war,  is  a  well  deserved  tribute  to  the  self-sacrificing  pa- 
triotism of  the  people  of  this  State: 

"  Proceeding  in  the  strict  line  of  duty,  the  resources  of 
I'ennsylvania,  whether  in  men  or  money,  have  neither 
lieen  withheld  or  squandered.  The  history  of  the  con- 
duct of  our  people  in  the  field  is  illuminated  with  inci- 
dents of  heroism  worthy  of  conspicuous  notice;  but  it 
would  be  impossible  to  mention  them  in  the  proper  limits 
of  this  message,  without  doing  injustice  or  i)erhaps  mak- 
ing invidious  distinctions.  It  would  be  alike  impossible 
to  furnish  a  history  of  the  associated  benevolence,  and  of 
the  large  individual  contributions  to  the  comfort  of  our 
peoi)le  in  the  field  and  hospital:  or  of  the  names  and  ser- 
vices at  all  times  of  our  volunteer  surgeons,  when  called 
to  assist  in  the  hospital  or  on  the  battle  field.  Nor  is  it 
possible  to  do  justice  to  the  many  patriotic  and  Christian 
men  who  were  always  ready  when  summoned  to  the 
exercise  of  acts  of  humanity  and  benevolence.  Our 
armies  were  sustained  and  strengthened  in  the  field  by 
the  patriotic  devotion  of  their  friends  at  home;  and  we 
can  never  render  full  justice  to   the  heaven-directed,  pa- 

triotic, Christian  benevolence  of  the  women  of  the  State  ' 
Tlie  following  is  a  list  of  the  governors  of  the  colons, 
province  and  Slate  of  Pennsylvania,  with  the  year  of  tli< 
appointment  or  election  of  each: 

Cnder  the  Swedes:  i6^S,  Peter  Minuit;  1641.  Pele" 
Ilollandare;  1643,  John  Print/;  1653,  John  Pap|j..-goya: 
1654,  Johan  Claudius  Rysingh. 

Under  the  Dutch:  1655.  Peter  Siuyvesant  F)ery(  k 
Schmidt /*/v»  /(//I.  ;  1655,  John  Paul  Jaijuet;  1657,  J.ncob 
.Mrichs;  i6!;9,  Alexander  I).  Hinyossa;  1652,  William 
Heekman;  1663.  .Alexander  D.  Hinyossa;  1673,  Anthony 
Colve    Peter  .■\lri<  h's  deputy  . 

Under  the  Duke  of  York:  1664,  c:olonel  Richard 
Nichols  Robert  Carr,  deputy  ;  1667,  Colonel  Francis 

Under  'he  Knglish:  1674,  Sir  Kdmund  Andross: 
Under  the  proprietary  government:  16S1,  William 
Markham,  deputy;  1682,  William  Penn;  16S4,  Thrtm  is 
l.loyd,  president  of  the  council;  1688,  five  commissioners 
ajipointed  by  the  proprietor — Thomas  l.loyd,  Robert  Tur- 
ner, Arthur  Cook,  John  Symcock,  John  Flckley;  i6«.S. 
John  Blackwell,  deputy;  1690,  Thomas  IJoyd,  president 
of  council;  1691.Thom.1s  l.loyd,  deputy  governor;  1693, 
Benjamin  Fletcher,  William  Markham  lieutenant  gov- 
ernor; 1695,  William  Markham,  deputy;  1699.  William 
Penn;  1701,  Andrew  Hamilton,  deputy;  1703,  Fldward 
Shippen,  ])resident  of  the  coimcil;  1704,  John  Evans, 
deputy;  1709,  Charles  C.ookin,  deputy;  1  7  1  7,  Sir 
Keith,  deputy;  1726,  I'airick  Cordon,  deputy;  1736, 
James  Logan,  president  of  the  council;  1738,  George 
Thomas,  deputy;  1747,  .\nthony  Palmer,  president  of  the 
council;  1748,  James  Hamilton,  lieutenant  governor; 
1754,  Robert  H.  Morris,  deputy:  1756,  William  Denny, 
deputy:  1  759,  James  Hamilton,  deputy;  1763,  John  Fenn; 
1771,  James  Hamilton,  president  of  the  council;  1771. 
Richard  Penn;    1773,  John  Penn. 

Under  the  constitution  of  1776  ,iresidents  of  the 
supreme  council:  1777,  Thomas  Wharton;  1778,  Joseph 
Reed;  i  781,  William  Moore;  1  782.  John  Dickinson;  1785, 
Benjamin  I'ranklin;   1788,  Thomas  Mifflin. 

L'nder  subsequent  constitutions:  1790,  Thomas  Mif- 
flin; I  799,  Thomas  .M<Kean;  1808,  .Simon  Snyder;  1S17; 
AVilliam  Findlay;  1S20,  Jo.seph  Heister;  1823,  John  .An- 
drew Schulize;  1829,  George  Wolf;  1835,  Joseph  Ritnir: 
1S39,  IKavid  R.  Porter;  1845,  Francis  R.  Shunk;  1S4.S, 
William  !■".  Johnston:  1852,  William  Bigler;  1855,  James 
Pollock;  1858,  William  F.  Packer;  1861,  .\ndrew  G.  CUir- 
tin;  1867,  John  W.  Geary;  1873,  John  F.  Hartranfl;  187S, 
Henry  M.  Hoyt. 





l<'WiipC  f^^  historian  of  liie  tornier  inhabitants  ol  any 
country  or  region  is  confronted  at  the  out- 
set by  various  difficulties.  The  question 
arises,  Who  and  what  were  the  progenitors  of 
these  inhabitants?  and  who  were  ////vV  ances- 
tors? and  so  on. 
*^^  There  exist  in  this  country,  and  to  some  e.vtent 
in  northeastern  Pennsylvania,  evidences  of  its  former  oc- 
cupancy by  a  people  whose  customs  were,  in  some  re- 
spects, different  from  tliose  of  the  Indians  who  were 
found  here  near  the  close  of  the  fifteenth  century. 
These  evidences  consist  of  the  sepulchral  and  other 
mounds  or  tumuli  in  the  west  and  south,  and  of  the  de- 
fensive works  which  are  found  in  this  region.  Of  the  people 
who  constructed  these  mounds  and  forts  no  tradition  was 
preserved  by  the  pre-Columbian  Indians,  and  in  and 
around  them  many  relics  have  been  found  concerning 
the  former  use  of  which  even  the  ingenuity  of  archaolo- 
gists  has  failed  to  form  a  conjecture. 

The  opinion  has  been  held  that  these  people  were  not 
the  progenitors  of  the  present  race  of  Indians,  but  that 
they  were  expelled  from  the  country  or  exterminated  by 
those  from  whom  these  Indians  descended.  The  cor- 
rectness of  this  opinion  is  doubted  by  many  modern 
ethnologists,  who  insist  that  gradual  changes  in  the  sur- 
roundings of  a  people,  extending  through  indefinite 
periods  of  time,  are  sufficient  to  account  for  those  things 
which  have  been  regarded  as  evidences  of  a  distinct  race 
of  people.  They  insist,  too,  that  in  the  absence  of  a  re- 
corded history  it  is  not  strange  that  in  the  lapse  of  time 
many  of  the  customs,  the  significance  of  the  monuments 
and  works,  and  even  the  existence  of  a  people  should 
pass  into  oblivion  among  their  descendants. 

It  is  not  necessary,  and  it  would  be  iniprojjcr  to  discuss 
this  ([uestion  here.  These  mementos  of  the  long  ago 
exist,  and  as  archaeologists  become  more  skilled  in  search- 
ing after  them  more  are  discovered,  notwithstanding  the 

fact   that   time,   the  ax  and  the  plow  lend   constantly  to 
obliterate  the  traces  of  their  existence. 

In  recent  times  individuals,  associations  and  public  in- 
stitutions have  become  impressed  with  the  importance  of 
preserving  these  relics  of  bygone  ages,  and  with  com- 
mendable zeal  they  are  engaged  in  collecting  them  in 
cabinets  and  museums,  where  they  may  be  preserved  and 
studied  in  future.  The  national  museum  at  Washington 
contains  many  thousands  of  these  relics,  and  the  cabinets 
of  historical  societies  are  constantly  being  enriched  by 
accessions  of  them.  Steuben  Jenkins,  Ks^.,  of  Wyo- 
ming, and  Dr.  H.  Hollister.  of  Providence,  have  each  an 
extensive  cabinet  in  which  may  be  seen  many  rare  spei  i 
mens  of  these  relics.  Their  cabinets  are  filled  mostly 
with  specimens  that  were  found  in  this  region. 

Want  of  space  forbids  even  a  catalogue  of  all  the  works 
that  have  been  discovered  in  this  and  surrounding  re- 
gions, of  the  origin  and  builders  of  which  there  exists  not 
even  a  tradition.  Probably  many  others  have  been 
leveled  by  the  plough  and  forgotten,  if  their  character 
was  ever  known;  and  perhaps  still  others,  the  relics  of 
periods  antecedent  to  these,  have  been  obliterated  by 

There  are  regions  the  peculiar  topography  of  which 
renders  them  well  adapted  to  the  wants  of  a  people, 
and  which  at  the  same  time  does  much  toward  shaping 
and  molding  the  character  of  that  people.  Northeastern 
Pennsylvania  appears  to  have  long  been  the  habitat  of  a 
wild,  independent  and  warlike  race,  and  the  physical  fea- 
tures of  the  region  are  adapted  to  the  wants  of  just  such 
a  people  as  the  works  and  relics  found  in  it  indicate,  and 
as  were  represented  by  its  inhabitants  .tI  the  time  of  its 
settlement  by  Europeans. 

The  only  record  which  these  ancient  people  have  left 
is  to  be  found  here  and  there  in  the  remains  of  the  forti- 
fications or  defensive  works  which  they  constructed;  the 
village  sites  or  camping  places  which  they  occupied,  and 
which  the  practiced  eye  of  an  arrhxologist  is  able  still  to 
discern;  and  the  relics  which  are  found  of  their  rude 
weapons,  their  ruder  implements,  and  the  uncouth  orna- 
ments with  which  they  decorated  themselves. 

.Many  of  their  defensive  works  were  doubtless  oblitera- 
ted by  the  agricultural  operations  of    early  settlers,  and 



thus  they  have  passed  into  oblivion.  Two  of  these  are 
known  to  have  existed  in  the  Wyoming  valley.  One  was 
thus  described  by  Cha])man   in   his  history  of   Wyoming: 

"  111  the  valley  of  VVjominji  tlii'ie  e.\ist  some  remains  of  ancient  foiti- 
flcatiims,  whicli  appciii-  to  lia\  c  liccn  cuiisti-ucted  liy  a  race  of  people 
very  Uilfcrcnt  in  tlieii-  lialiils  fiom  tlio.'^e  who  occnpicil  tlie  place  when 
first  iliscuvereil  liy  llic  whiles.  Ulnsl  of  tlii'se  ruins  have  licen  so  niuch 
ohlitciiitcil  l'.y  tile  operations  of  ajirieiilture  that  their  forms  cannot  now 
he  ilistinctly  ascertained.  That  which  remains  the  most  entire  was  e.v- 
ainineii  liy  the  writer  during-  the  suininer  of  1K17.  and  its  dimensions 
carefully  ascertained,  although  from  frequent  jilowinsr  its  form  had 
become  almost  destro.ved.  It  is  situated  in  the  township  of  Kingston, 
upon  a  level  plain  on  the  north  side  of  Tohy's  erei^ls,  about  one  hundred 
and  fifty  feet  from  its  bank,  and  about  half  a  mile  from  its  ciuitluence 
with  the  .■'iis(inelianna.  It  is  of  an  o\al  or  elliptical  form,  having-  its 
longest  diameter  from  the  northwest  to  the  southeast,  at  right  angles  to 
the  ci-ecU, three  huiKlred  and  thirty-seven  feet,  and  its  shortest  diameter 
from  the  northeast  to  the  southwest  two  hundred  and  seventy-two  feet. 
On  the  southwest  siile  appears  to  have  bi-en  a  j^ateway  about  twelvefeet 
wide,  opening  tow-ard  the  great  eddj'  of  the  river  into  which  the  ercek 
falls.  From  lu-esenl  apiieai-ances  it  consisted  probably  of  onl.v  one 
mound  or  fiimpart,  w  hieh,  in  height  and  thickness,  appears  to  have  been 
the  same  on  all  sides,  and  was  eonstructed  of  earth,  the  plain  on  which 
it  stands  not  abounding  in  stone.  On  the  outside  of  the  rampart  is  an 
entrenchnicnt  or  ditch,  formeil  ]u-obabl.v  by  removing  the  earth  of 
which  it  is  composed,  and  w-hii-h  appears  never  to  ha\  e  been  walled.  The 
creek  on  w-hich  it  stands  is  bounded  b.v  a  high,  steep  bank  on  that  side, 
and  at  ordinary  times  is  sutlicicntlj-  ileep  to  admit  canoes  to  ascend  from 
the  ri\-er  to  the  fortification.  When  the  first  settlers  came  to  \V.^-oming 
this  plain  was  covered  with  its  native  forest,  consisting-  principally  of 
oak  and  yellow  pine,  and  the  trees  which  grew  on  the  rampart  and  in 
the  entrenchment  are  said  to  have  been  as  larg-e  as  those  in  any  other 
part  of  the  valley.  One  large  oak  particularly,  upon  being- cut  down,  was 
ascertained  to  be  se\'en  hundred  years  old.  The  Indians  had  no  tradi- 
tion concerning  these  fortifications:  neither  did  they  apjiear  to  have 
any  knowledge  of  the  puriiose  for  which  the.v  were  constriu^ted." 

Tlie  other  was  described   by    Miner   in   his    history  of 
Wyoming  as  follows: 

"  Another  foi-tilication  e.visted  on  ,Iaeoli's  Plains,  or  the  upper  Hats,  in 
Wilkes-Hari-e.  Its  situation  is  the  highest  part  of  the  low  grounds,  so 
that  only  in  cvtraordinary  Hoods  is  the  spot  ci)\-ered  w-ith  w-ater.  I^ook- 
iiig  over  the  Hats  in  orclinaril.v  high  freshets  the  site  of  the  fort  presents 
to  till-  eye  an  islaml  in  the  vast  sea  of  waters.  The  eastern  exti-emit.\-  is 
near  the  line  di\-idiiig-  the  farms  of  Mr.  .lohn  Searle  and  Mr.  .lames  Han- 
cock, where,  from  its  safety  from  inundation,  a  fence  has  long-  since 
been  placed  ;  and  to  this  circumstance  is  to  be  attributed  the  preser\-a- 
tion  of  the  embankinent  and  ditch.  In  the  open  field  so  entirely  is  the 
work  leveled  that  the  eye  cannot  trace  it.  Hut  the  e.vtent  west  is 
known,  for  '  it  reached  through  the  meadow  lot  of  Captain  Gore'  (said 
t'orneliusf'ourtright,  Ks(i.,to  niewhen  visiting  the  ground  several  years 
ago), '  and  came  on  to  my  lot  one  or  two  rods.'  The  lot  of  ( 'aplain  Gore 
was  se\-entecn  perches  in  width.  Taking  then  these  two  hundred  and 
eighty  feet,  add  the  ilistaiieeitexteiided  eastwanlly  on  IheScarle  lot,  and 
the  extension  w-esterlj- on  the  lot  of  I-^Sfiuirc  < 'oiirtrigllt,  we  lia\-e  the 
length  ot  thai  measured  by  Mr.  Chapman  so  very  nearly  as  In  render  tlur 
inference  almost  certain  that  both  weri^  of  the  same  size  and  dimensions. 

"Huge  trees  were  growing  out  of  the  enbankment  when  the  white 
people  began  to  clear  the  Hats  for  eultivation.  This,  too,  in  Wilkos- 
Itarre,  is  oval,  as  is  still  manifest  from  the  segment  e.vhihited  on  the 
u|iper  part,  formed  by  the  remaining  rainjiartand  fosse,  the  chord  of 
the  arc  being  the  division  fcni-e.  .\circleis  easily  made,  tin-  elliptical 
form  much  more  dinieult  for  an  unlutored  niind  to  trace  Trilling  as 
these  circumstances  may  appear,  the  (;xact  ooincideiK^c  in  si/.eand  shape, 
ami  that  shape  dillieult  to  foriii,  they  appeared  to  me  worthy  of  a  dis- 
tinct notice.  The  Wilkes-liarre  fortification  is  about  eighty  rods  from 
the  river,  toward  which  a  gate  opened,  and  the  ancient  people  concur  in 
stating  that  a  well  existed  in  Ihc  interior,  near  Ihe  .southern  line. 

"  On  the  hank  of  the  river  there  is  an  Indian  burying  iilaee;  not  a  bar- 
row or  hill,  such  as  is  described  by  Mr.  .lefferson,  but  where  graves  have 
been  dug  and  the  deceased  laiil,  hori'/.ontally,  in  regular  rows.  In  e.\- 
cavating  the  canal,  ciitling  through  the  bank  that  borders  the  Hats, 
perhaps  thirty  rods  south  from  the  fort,  w-as  another  burying  |ilace 
dis(-losed,  evidently  more  ancient;  for  the  lioiies  almost  immediately 
crumbled  to  dust  on  exposure  to  the  air,  and  the  deposits  were  fur 
more  numerous  than  in  that  near  the  river.  Hy  the  representation  c.r 
.lames  Stark,  Ksij.,  the  skeletons  were  countless,  and  the  de'ceased  had 
been  buried  in  a  sitting  posture.  In  a  eonsiderablc  portion  of  the  hank, 
though  scarcely  a  hone  remained  of  suHicient  firmness  to  be  lifted  up, 
the  closeness  and  position  of  the  buried  were  apparent  from  the  dis- 
coloration of  the  earth.  In  this  place  of  deposit  no  heads  were  found, 
while  they  were  common  in  that  near  the  river. 

"  In  1814  I  visited  this  fortification  in  company  with  the  jirescnt  Chief 

Justice  Gibson  and  ,Iacob  Cist,  Esijs.  The  whole  line,  although  it  had 
been  plowed  for  more  than  thirty  years,  was  then  distinctly  traceable 
by  the  eye.  Kortune  was  unexpectedly  propitious  to  our  search,  for  we 
found  a  medal,  bearing  on  one  side  the  impress  of  King  (ieorge  the 
First,  dated  1714  (the  year  he  conimenced  his  reign),  and  on  the  other  an 
Indian  chief." 

What  was  thought  to  be  a  well  was  doubtless  a  "  cache," 
or  place  of  concealment  or  storage  for  corn  or  other 
stores.  From  the  description  given  of  these  works  it  is 
evident  they  were  similar  in  character  to  other  ancient 
defensive  works  that  have  been  found  east  from  Ohio. 
\Vhere  such  works  are  sufficiently  well  preserved  to  be 
studied  they  are  found  to  consist  in  each  case  of  mural 
embankment,  or  m  very  rare  cases  of  two  such,  enclosing 
areas  varying  in  size,  but  usually  of  about  two  acres. 
They  are  usually  surrounded  by  ditches,  which  evidently 
served  the  double  purpose  of  furnishing  the  material  for 
the  walls  and  rendering  the  defensive  character  of  the 
works  more  formidable.  In  some  of  these  works  the  em- 
bankments give  evidence  of  having  been  surmounted  with 
palisades,  and  it  is  probable  that  but  for  the  ravages  of 
time  such  evidences  might  be  found  in  all  of  them.  The 
continuity  of  the  walls  is  usually  interrupted  by  two  sally 
ports,  or  passage  ways,  at  nearly  opposite  points,  and  one 
of  these  is  almost  always  on  the  side  of  the  work  which 
is  least  accessible  from  without  and  nearest  to  the  water 
sup])ly.  When  excavations  are  made  in  the  enclosed 
areas  indubitable  evidences  are  found  of  their  former 
occupancy,  not  only  as  places  of  safety  in  times  of  jjeril, 
but  as  encampments,  or  rather  as  village  sites  or  resi- 
dences during  very  long  jieriods.  In  nearly  all  these 
works  are  found  collections  of  rough  angular  stones  of 
sizes  convenient  for  hurling  at  assaulting  foes.  Weajions 
and  implements  or  utensils  of  stone,  bone  and  terra  cotta 
are  also  found;  but  rarelv  is  a  trace  to  be  seen  of  metallic 
weapons  or  tools,  and  when  such  are  found  they  are  usu- 
ally near  the  surface,  while  the  others  are  at  depths 
varying  from  six  to  eighteen  inches. 

All  these  circumstances  are  indications  of  the  great  an- 
tiquity of  these  works.  They  show  not  only  that  the 
works  were  occupied  ata  period  anteriorto  the  discovery 
of  the  use  of  metals  by  their  occupants,  but  that  since 
their  abandonment  sufficient  time  has  elapsed  for  six 
inches  of  mould  to  accumulate  by  the  slow  ])rocess  of 
growth  and  decay  of  vegetable  matter  in  dry  situations. 
The  statement  may  therefore  be  credited  that  trees  hav- 
ing seven  hundred  years  of  age  were  found  growing  on 
these  works,  and  these  perhaps  had  been  preceded  there 
by  others. 

In  the  vicinity  of  these  works  burial  places  are  almost 
always  found.  These  are  of  two  kinds.  In  one  the 
graves  are  isolated;  and  with  the  skeletons  which  they 
contain  are  found  the  rem.iins  of  such  treasures  as  the 
Indians  of  later  times  were  in  the  habit  of  burying  with 
their  dead.  The  other  kind  of  cemeteries  are  sometimes 
termed  "bone  ])its  "  and  in  these  immense  quantities  of 
human  ossements  are  found,  which  appear  to  have  been 
deposited  without  regard  to  order,  and  among  which 
implements,  weapons  or  trinkets  are  very  rarely  found. 
By  some  these  are  su[)posed  to  be  the  remains  of  those 
who  have  fallen  in  battle,  and  to  indicate  that  a  sanguin- 

-i^  ^^^ 




ary  conflict  took  place  r.enr  the  locality  where  they  arc 
found.  A  perusal  of  Parkman's  account  of  the  "feast 
of  the  dead,"  as  witnessed  and  described  by  the  earliest 
Jesuit  missionaries  among  the  American  Indians,  will 
place  the  origin  of  these  collections  of  human  remains 
beyond  a  question,  and  fully  explain  th.-  peculiar  appear- 
ances which  they  present. 

About  a  mile  above  Scranton,  near  Providence,  was 
found  a  mound  which  was  probably  an  ancient  place  of 
sepulture.  It  was  the  only  burial  mound  found  in  this 
region;  and  it  is  a  matter  of  interest  because  it  shows 
that  this  is  not  the  eastern  limit  of  the  region  where  sepul- 
chral mounds  are  found.  This  mound  was  simple  in  its 
construction,  and  excavations  made  in  it  nearly  a  century 
since  brought  to  light  a  ipiantity  of  game  arrow  points, 
stone  implements  and  ornaments  of  very  great  variety,  a 
copper  kettle  and  many  broken  specimens  of  the  fictile 
art.  Two  phalanges  of  a  finger  fount!  at  this  moimd 
twenty  years  since  by  Or.  Hollister,  in  whose  possession 
they  still  are,  and  the  copper  kettle  found  there  before, 
indicate  that  this  was  used  as  a  burial  place  at  a  period 
subsequent  to  the  occupancy  of  the  fortifications  in 
Wyoming  valley. 

In  the  vicinity  of  these  ancient  works  are  usually  found 
evidences  of  many  camping  places,  or  village  sites  ;  as 
though  the  fortifications  were  used  as  places  of  refuge  in 
times  of  danger  by  those  who  at  different  times  occupied 
those  sites.  The  relics  found  where  these  villages  or 
camps  were  are  of  a  character  identical  with  those  within 
the  fortifications;  but  among  them,  though  generally 
nearer  the  surface,  are  found  those  of  a  later  period. 

The  Indians  who  inhabited  the  country  at  the  time  of 
its  discovery  by  the  whites  had  no  knowledge  of  the 
uses  of  these  works,  and  no  traditions  concerning  those 
who  constructed  them  ;  hence  some  have  inferred  that 
the  forefathers  of  these  Indians  succeeded,  or,  perhaps, 
drove  away  or  e.xterminated  these  people.  When  we 
consider  the  facility  with  which  the  knowledge  of  historic 
events  dies  out  among  savages  who  have  no  written 
language,  it  will  not  be  a  matter  of  wonder  that  all 
knowledge  of  these  works  should  pass  into  oblivion,  even 
among  the  descendants  of  those  who  constructed  them. 

Time  has  effaced  the  history  of  the  people  who  erected 
some  of  the  most  stupendous  monuments  of  antiquity — 
cities  are  in  ruins,  or  are  buried  in  the  earth  and  no 
record  remains  of  the  people  who  built  or  inhabited  them; 
arts  are  lost  to  the  descendants  of  those  among  whom 
they  flourished,  and  the  interpretation  of  the  records 
which  remain  in  the  written  language  of  ancient  people  is 
now  hypothetical.  If  those  who  reared  monuments,  built 
cities,  cultivated  arts  and  had  written  lanjruages,  have 
become  the  prey  of  oblivion,  how  much  more  readily 
will  the  people  be  forgotten  who,  like  the  Indians  of 
this  country,  have  no  written  language,  and  no  ambition 
to  perpetuate  their  memory,  and  who  leave  only  the  rude 
arrow  on  the  hillside,  the  emblem  of  their  pursuits,  and 
the  ruder  pipe,  vessel  or  trinket,  buried  with  their  bones 
— the  record  at  once  of  their  existence  and  their  supersti- 

In  the  valley  of  the  Susquehanna,  and  especially  in 
the  vicinity  of  the  works  sjioken  of,  have  been  found 
many  relics  which  seem  to  indicate  that  almost  all  portions 
of  its  area  have  at  different  times  been  occupied  for  en- 
campments or  villages.  Large  collections  of  these  relics 
have  been  made,  as  before  stated,  by  Messrs.  Jenkins  and 
Hollister.  Among  these  may  be  found  a  great  number 
and  every  variety  of  flint  arrow  points.  These  arc  the 
most  common  relics  of  the  stone  period,  for  they  are 
found  on  every  sandy  plain  in  America.  They  are  of 
various  sizes  and  fashions,  to  adapt  thetn  to  different 
uses.  They  are  usually  manufactured  from  flint,  agate, 
cornelian  and  other  native  pebbles,  and  are  worked  with 
such  skill  as  to  excite  admiration  and  surprise.  Recently 
Mr.  K.  H.  Cushing,  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution,  has 
demonstrated  the  method  by  which  this  work  was  ac- 
•  complished,  and  has  been  able  to  manufacture  these 
weapons  with  all  the  peculiarities  that  those  which  are 
found  in  Euro()e  or  .America  possess. 

The  most  common  form  of  these  arrow  heads  is  that  of 
an  elongated  triangle  with  a  stem  in  the  middle  of  the 
shortest  side,  and  a  barb  on  each  side  of  the  stem.  These 
could  be  thrown  into  a  victim  and  withdrawn  with  the 
shaft,  but  those  which  were  shaped  like  a  myrtle  leaf 
were  attached  to  thiir  shafts  in  such  a  w.iy  that  on  with- 
drawing the  shaft  the  stone  point  remained  to  prove  a 
source  of  irritation  and  death.  The  varieties  of  this 
weapon  are  very  great,  but  they  can  with  propriety  be 
placed  in  the  two  classes  of /t*(/<Y  and  7<'i//- arrow  heads,  or 
such  as  could  and  those  which  could  not  be  withdrawn 
from  the  deep  wounds  which  they  made.  The  former 
were  used  in  hunting.  Some  were  delicately  constructetl 
and  exquisitely  finished  for  killing  small  game  or  fish. 
Some  were  serrated,  barbed  and  stemmed.  Sometimes 
they  are  found  white  as  snow,  but  usually  they  are  made 
of  dark  colored  hornstone.  Spear  heads,  some  of  which 
are  eight  inches  in  length,  and  of  every  size,  color  and 
finish,  have,  as  well  as  arrow  points,  been  accumulating 
in  these  collections  during  thirty  or  forty  years.  Bone, 
clay,  shell  and  coi)i)er  utensils  are  nut  found  in  these  col- 
lections in  abundance;  but  the  stone  implements  used  by 
the  red  men  in  ])eace  or  in  war,  such  as  tomahawks, 
death  mauls,  stone  picks,  hammers,  hoes,  axes,  mortars, 
pestles,  celts  or  hatchets,  gouges,  (|uoits,  chunkee  stones, 
sling  stones,  scaljting  stones,  amulets,  terra  cotta  and  stone 
pipes,  |)olished  tubes,  triune  cups,  triune  pipes,  beads, 
wampum,  fictilia,  whistles  for  signals  in  the  forests,  corn 
pounders,  ornamented  rings  and  otherornamental  devices, 
highly  polished  stones  for  grinding  war  paint,  stones  for 
recording  time,  healing  the  sick  and  warding  off  diseases, 
stone  implements  for  tilling  the  soil,  and  hundreds  of 
other  contrivances  of  Indian  life  have  found  a  place  in 
these  collections.  Many  of  these  articles  were  broken 
while  in  use,  but  so  complete  are  these  collections  in 
archajological  specimens,  and  so  thoroughly  do  they 
represent  this  region,  that  the  "  impulse,  religioii  and 
habits  of  the  tribes  once  living  here  can  be 
traced  with  almost  the  fidelity  and  interest  of  written 





(ll'KNINC.      nr       THl'. 



HE  history  of  the  Indinn  residents  of  Wyoming 
''\  and  its  vicinity,  so  far  as  known  to  ns,  fur- 
nishes hut  little  of  interest  or  importance. 
While  we  have,  from  the  general  history  of 
the  Indians  of  the  country,  glimpses'  of  a 
tribe  or  nation  that  once  had  their  seat  of  power 
in  this  locality,  who  were  warred  upon  by  sur- 
rounding tribes  or  nations  until  they  were  driven  out, 
yet  of  their  local  history  here  but  little  or  nothing  is 
knov.n.  Writers  upon  the  subject  of  Indian  history 
have  none  of  them  given  us  more  than  a  mere  reference 
to  them  while  treating  of  their  neighljors.  From  what 
can  be  gathered  it  would  seem  that  between  the  Five  and 
subsecjuently  Sixi  Nations  or  confederate  tribes  of  the 
north,  called  the  Iroquois — the  southern  gate  of  whose 
territory  was  at  Tiopa  Point — and  the  Sus(iuehannocks, 
who  ruled  over  the  territory  southeast  of  the  Kittatinny 
or  Blue  Hills,  the  whole  of  that  vast  region  was  inhabited 
and  ruled  over  by  a  nation  of  natives  known  as  the  Ca//- 

All  of  these  nations  were  powerful  and  warlike,  but  the 
Iroquois  were  by  far  the  most  restless  and  enterprising. 
Governor  Dongan  in  his  report  on  the  Province  of  New 
York  in  1687  says:  "The  Five  Nations  are  the  most 
warlike  people  in  America.  They  are  a  bulwark  between 
us  and  the  French  and  all  other  Indians.  They  go  as 
far  as  the  South  Sea,  the  northwest  passage  and  Florida 
to  war.  They  are  so  considerable  that  all  the  Indians  in 
those  parts  of  America  are  tributary  to  them;"  and  he 
further  speaks  of  them  as  "  the  nations  that  conc]uered 
the  Suscjuehannas." 

Still  earlier  than  this  we  have  some  slight  account  of 
some  Indians  living  possibly  within  the  territory  of  old 
Wyoming — possibly  not.  It  appears  from  an  account 
given  by  Stephen  Brule,  a  Frenchman,  that  he  passed 
from  Canada  through  the  country  of  the  Iroquois  in  1615, 
and  reached  the  principal  town  of  a  tribe  of  Indians, 
whom  he  calls  Carantouans,  where  he  and  his  party  were 
received  with  kindness.  He  spent  the  winter  with  them 
in  visiting  neighboring  tribes,  and  in  the  spring  of  1616 
descended  the  Susf|uehanna  to  the  sea.  His  account 
says  "  he  returned  to  Carantouan  and  attempted  to  re- 
turn to  Canada,  but  was  captured  by  the  Iroquois,  and 
was  unable  to  meet  Champlain,  with  whom  he  had  set 
out  from  Canada,  until  in  16 19."  He  made  report  of  this 
tribe  of  Indians  to  Champlain,  who,  in  his  map  of  the 
country  explored  by  himself  and  Brule,  gives  up  the 
whole  region  of  country  south  of  the  Iroquois  to  that 
people,  but  fails  to  fix  the  location  of  any  of  their  towns 
at  any  point  on  the  Susquehanna.  Rev.  Mr.  Craft,  author 
of  the  History  of  Bradford  County,  is  well  satisfied  that 
their  town,  at   least   their   chief  town,   if  they   had  more 

than    one,  was    at    the    mouth    of   Sugar  creek,  in  that 

Champlain  says:  "The  Antouhonorons  are  fifteen  vil- 
lages near  the  River  St.  Lawrence.  The  Carantouanis  is 
a  nation  south  of  the  Antouhonorons,  only  three  days 
distant.  They  formerly  took  prisoners  from  the  Dutch, 
whom  they  sent  hack  without  injury,  Ix-lieving  them  to 
be  French." 

From  this  it  would  appear  that  the  Carantouanis  could 
hardly  have  lived  as  far  south  as  Pennsylvania,  and  if 
in  that  State  at  all,  must  have  been  upon  its  extreme 
northern  border.  It  appears  clearly  that  they  were  no 
])art  of  the  Six  Nations.  Champlain,  in  his  report  on  the 
explorations  made  by  himself  and  the  members  of  his 
party,  attaches  a  map  of  the  country  explored,  extended 
somewhat  on  the  basis  of  information  obtained  from  the 
Indians.  In  this  map  he  further  complicates  the  question 
of  the  location  of  the  Carantouanis  by  placing  their  towns 
on  both  sides  of  the  Delaware  river,  instead  of  on  the 
Susquehanna.  The  latter  river  is  entirely  wanting  in  the 

The  fact  is,  that  while  the  French  early  in  the  17th 
century  explored  the  whole  region  of  the  St.  Lawrence 
and  the  lakes  and  on  through  to  the  Mississippi  river,  and 
the  English  surveyed  the  coast,  the  mouths  of  the  rivers 
and  the  bays,  very  little  or  nothing  was  known  by  either 
the  French  or  the  English  of  the  interior,  the  region  of 
the  Susquehanna  and  its  tributaries,  until  a  century  later. 
No  explorer  had  penetrated  its  mountain  fastnesses,  or 
threaded  its  rapid  streams.  The  whole  region  was  a 
terra  incognita  to  white  people,  an  uninhabited  and  un- 
broken wilderness,  a  hunting  ground,  or  a  vast  forest 
waste,  traversed  by  Indian  braves  in  their  predatory  in- 
cursions for  plunder  or  war.  While  it  might  be  interest- 
ing to  know  more  of  the  early  history  of  the  territory 
drained  by  the  Susquehanna  and  its  tributaries;  as  well 
as  of  the  people  who  inhabited  it,  we  must  content  our- 
selves with  what  we  have.  The  question  naturally  arises, 
What  more  do  we  know  of  these  Carantouanis?  Were  they 
a  large  and  powerful  nation,  occupying  the  vast  territory 
lying  between  the  country  of  the  Iroquois  and  the  sea, 
or  were  they  only  a  small  remnant  of  some  nation,  taking 
their  name  from  their  town,  location,  or  some  incident 
connected  therewith  ?  We  have  no  method  of  solving 
these  questions  satisfactorily  now.  Conjecture  is  all 
that  is  left  us  in  the  absence  of  that  full  and  exact  in- 
formation so  much  to  be  desired.  There  is  no  doubt 
that  the  name  was  neither  national  nor  tribal,  but  a  town 
or  local  one.  The  mention  of  "  visiting  neighboring 
tribes,"  would  indicate  that  they  occupied  but  a  small  ex- 
tent of  territory;  and  their  "going  down  to  the  sea  "  in 
winter,  that  they  lived  not  far  from  it,  a  feat  very  difTicult, 
if  not  impossible,  by  way  of  the  Susquehanna,  in  winter. 
They  may  have  been  and  most  probably  were  a  remnant 
of  the  great  Candastoga  nation. 

It  remains  now  to  give  some  account  of  the  Susque- 
hannocks,  at  as  early  a  day  as  we  can  get  any  information 
of  importance  upon  the  subject.  Alsop  wrote  of  them  in 
1666  as  follows: 




"  Thf  StisiiiU'lmiiiiDcks  urea  |iiMipli>  liiokl  iipoi)  hy  the  Chrislliiii  ln)uil>- 
itiiiits  us  t)K'  most  Notilr  iiiu)  Hrroic  Niition  of  Itidiiiiis  tliiit  ilwol)  ii|mmi 
thu  i'oiltliu-s  of  Atiu-rim.  Also  iiro  so  iillowi'd  iiikI  lookt  upon  by  (hi- 
rost  of  the  litdhins  by  ii  siibinisshi' iiiul  ti-iliiitary  iK-kiKiwlcilKiiiciit.  b<-- 
iiiK  a  people  (t)st  into  tho  nioiild  <if  ii  most  laixc  iiiiil  wiii'liki*  deporl- 
inoiit.  the  mull  l>rin>r  for  tlu>  most  part  sexcn  foot  hiuli  in  lallitiidr,  aii<l 
in  tiiat^nidiiU'  and  bnlk  suitatih-  to  so  litfrli  a  pitch :  tticn  \'o>(*<'  lai-jfr  ami 
I  Mil  low,  as  asfcndin;.''  out  of  a  ( 'a  \<';  t  licit'  ^atc  and  lichaxior  strait.  siat4-l\ 
and  majcstick.  trcailin;.'-  on  the  I'.arth  with  as  much  piltlc,  contempt  and 
disdain  to  so  sordid  a  t'enter  as  can  lie  imafrliie<]  froui  a  eroatiirc  derhcd 
from  the  S4ime  m«nihl  and  ICarth. 

"These  Siisiiiichaiinock  Indians  are  for  the  most  part  ifreat  \Varri(»p*. 
and  seldom  sleep  one  Slimmer  in  the  ipiiet  armes  of  a  iieaecable  llesl. 
but  keep,  by  their  present  power  as  wi'll  as  by  their  foriiu-r  <'on(|UC<iit, 
the  se\'eral  Nations  of  Indians  rtiuud  about  thcin  in  u  forceable  oliodi- 
cnee  and  stibjcction. 

"Their  government  is  an  Anarchy.     Ho  that  lights  best  curries  it.    ♦ 

•    *    They  now  and  then  feetl  on  the  carcasses  of  their  enemies. 

"They  intomb  Ihc  ruincs  id  lliiir  deceased  eoiii|Uust  hi  no  other  Se|>- 
ulehre  than  tlu'ir  unsanctiticd  maws. 

"  They  are  situated  a  huiidr<'d  and  odd  miles  distant  from  theChristian 
lMantaii<uis  of  Mary-I.aiid.  at  the  lu'ad  [uKUithV]  of  a  river  that  runs  Into 
the  Day  of  Chesapikc.  called  liy  their  own  name  the  Sus<|UehaniHick 
Ui\cr.  wlare  they  remain  and  inhabit  most  part  of  the  Summer  time, 
and  seldom  remo\c  far  from  it,  unless  it  be  to  subdue  an.\"  Korrci^'u 

"  .\bout  .\o\fmbcr  Ilu-  lic~t  Hunters  draw  otV  to  si-\  end  rcmoteplaces 
of  the  Woods,  where  they  know  the  Deer,  Hear  and  I'.lke  usi'th.  There 
they  build  se\"eral  cotta^^es,  where  thej-  i-emain  for  the  space  of  three 

.Smitli,  in  liis  liistory  of  his  voyage,  s])caks  of  the  Siis- 
(|iiehanno(ks  as  "giants,"  "  their  language  sounding  like 
a  vovce  in  .1  \aiilt."  He  says:  "  They  can  make  near 
600  able  bodied  men,  and  are  palisadoed  in  their  townes 
to  defenil  them  from  the  Massawomekes,  their  mortal 

Campaniiis  says;  "  Tliey  live  on  a  high  mountain,  very 
steep  and  difficult  to  climl),  where  they  have  a  fort, 
or  ?(]nare  building  surrounded  with  jjalisades.  This  fort 
or  town  is  about  twelve  miles  from  New  Sweden." 

We  lune  thus  gone  over  t!ie  history  of  the  Indian 
nations  or  tribes  that  inhabited  or  were  found  con- 
nected with  the  early  history  of  Wyoming  and  the  adja- 
cent cotinlry,  and  it  remains  for  us  now  to  come  down  to 
the  period  when  the  white  man  commenced  to  mingle  his 
history  with  that  of  the  Indian  in  that  locality. 

'n  '737  Conrad  Weiser,  an  Indian  interpreter  residing 
at  I'ulpehocken,  in  Pennsylvania,  at  the  retptest  of  Gov- 
ernor (iooi  h,  of  N'irginia,  was  sent  by  the  provincial  gov- 
ernment of  Pennsylvania  to  meet  a  council  of  the  Six 
Nations,  to  be  held  at  Onondaga,  for  the  jnirpose  of 
"  establishing  ])eace  between  the  allied  Six  Nations  at  the 
north  and  the  so-called  Cherikees  and  Cataubas  at  the 
south."  He  left  home  on  his  mission  on  the  27th  of 
1-ebruary,  proceeded  to  the  Susquehanna  river,  which  he 
crossed  at  Shamokin.  and  thence  by  way  of  the  west 
branch  to  his  destination.  After  accomplishing  his  mis- 
sion he  returned  home  by  way  of  the  east  branch  of  the 
Susquehanna,  and  arrived  at  Wyoming  on  the  26th  of 
April.     His  entry  in  his  journal  reads  as  follows: 

"The  26th  we  reached  Scahanlowano,  where  a  number 
of  Indians  live,  Shawanos  and  Mahickanders.  Found 
there  two  traders  from  New  ^'ork,  and  three  men  from 
the  Maqua  country,  who  were  hunting  land,  'i'heir  names 
are  Ludwig  Rasselman,  Martin  Dillenbach  and  Pit  de 
Niger.  Here  there  is  a  large  body  of  land,  the  like  of 
which  is  not  to  be  found  on  the  river." 

yVe  are  here  introduced  to  two  other  tribes  o(  Indians, 

icmnants  of  nations.  The  Shawanos,  as  described  bv 
/in/.endorf  and  Hrainard,  missionaries  among  them,  were 
a  "  ferocious,  iintamalile  and  vicious  people,  unmoved  by 
either  sym])athy  or  affection,  and  constantly  bent  on  mis- 
chief." They  were  a  southern  nation,  whose  early  history 
is  involved  in  the  deepest  obscurity,  and  whose  language 
bore  no  affinity  to  that  of  any  of  the  surrounding  nations. 
They  were  warlike,  brave  and  energetic,  and  have  ever 
retained  their  national  character  and  name,  being  to-day 
a  distinct  people  among  the  Indians  of  America.  They 
came  from  the  Potomac,  or  near  there,  to  Wyoming  in 
172.S,  where  they  seemed  to  live  in  independence,  and 
preserve  all  their  ])eculiar  characteristics. 

The  Mahicans  or  Mohegans  were  the  remnants  of  a 
great  n.ition,  which  had  iheir  hom-js  and  seit  of  power 
on  the  Thames  or  Peipiot  river,  in  Conn.'ciii'Ut.  Those 
living  on  the  east  of  the  river  were  known  by  the  name  of 
Pequots;  those  on  the  west  as  Mohegans.  Upon  the 
advance  of  the  whites  in  their  progress  westward,  the  In- 
dians were  compelled  to  give  way,  and  a  part  of  this  great 
nation  sought  a  home  at  Storkbridge,  Mass.,  a  part  at 
Shecomico,  on  the  Hudson,  and  a  part  at  Wyoming. 
They  are  described  by  Miss  Calkins,  the  historian  of  New 
London,  as  "exceedingly  fierce,  warlike  and  crafty." 
The  exact  date  of  their  advent  into  the  valley  of  Wyo- 
ming is  not  known,  but  it  is  supjxjsed  they  arrived  there 
about  the  same  time  with  the  Shawanos,  and  may  have 
•  been  there  a  short  time  before  them.  They  resided  in 
the  upper  i)art  of  the  valley,  on  the  west  side,  while  the 
Shawanos  occupied  the  lower  part  of  the  valley,  on  the 
same  side. 

In  1742  the  Delaware  Indians,  a  vassal  nation  of  the 
Iro<iuois,  in  consequence  of  their  selling  land  anti  other- 
wise taking  upon  themselves  the  rights  of  a  free  and  in- 
dependent nation,  were  called  to  an  account  by  the  Iro- 
tpiois,  and  on  proof  and  confession  of  guilt  were  scverel) 
rei)rimanded  and  transferred  from  their  former  seat  and 
jjlanted  at  Wyoming.  This  was  at  one  time  one  of  the 
great  nations  into  which  the  natives  had  been  divided; 
but  in  consetpience  of  their  warlike  spirit,  and  the  inccs 
sant  wars  in  which  they  were  involved  with  surrounding 
nations,  they  became  greatly  reduced  in  numbers  and 
strength,  and  were  finally  conquered  by  the  Iroquois, 
and  to  keep  them  in  subjection  were  reduced  to  the  con- 
dition of  vassals  or  slaves  to  their  conquerors;  "made 
women  of"  as  one  of  the  orators  expressed  it. 

In  a  few  years  after  the  planting  of  the  Delawares  a 
Wyoming,  in  1748,  the  Nanticokes,  a  tide  water  people, 
a  small  member  of  the  Algonquin  family,  having  their  seat 
when  the  Kuropeans  first  met  them  on  the  eastern  shore  of 
the  Chesapeake,  in  Maryland,  made  their  way  to  Wyoming, 
following  the  course  of  the  Sustpiehanna.  They  located 
at  the  lower  end  of  the  valley,  on  the  east  side,  princi- 
pally, and  the  place  was  called  from  them  Nanticoke. 
There  were  about  eighty  of  them,  under  a  chief  Ullumk- 
,/iiiiiii.  \  few  of  them  went  on  up  the  river  and  settled 
on  the  Chenango,  whither  the  others  followed  in  1757. 

There  were  other  tribes  or  remnants  of  tribes  of  In- 
dians neighborsto  Wyoming,  whose  names  are  connected 






with  her  history,  but  no  organized  body  or  considerable 
number  of  them  ever  inhabited  there.  These  were  known 
as  Mingoes,  Oanaways  or  Conoys,  Turkeys,  Turtles  or 
Tuteloes,  and  Minsies  or  Minisinks  and  Muncies. 

It  will  thus  be  seen  that  from  the  time  the  Iroijuois 
concjuered  and  drove  out  the  Candastogas,  Wyoming  and 
its  region  around  about,  particularly  on  the  Susquehan- 
na, was  used  as  a  penal  colony  or  place  of  banishment 
for  the  remnants  of  tribes  which  the  Iroquois  conquered 
in  their  raids  upon  neighboring  and  even  distant  tribes 
in  their  predatory  excursions,  and  a  place  of  refuge  for 
those  who  sought  their  favor  and  protecting  care.  It  was 
so  used  when  the  white  man  first  trod  its  soil,  and  so  con- 
tinued in  ])art  for  many  years. 

No  sooner  had  the  white  man  become  ac(|uainted  with 
Wyoming  than  it  became  the  object  of  his  deep  solici- 
tude. While  one  saw  in  it  a  ])lace  of  trade,  with  great 
profit,  another  saw  in  it  a  place  to  propagate  the  gospel 
free  from  the  fetters  and  restraints  that  bind  and  contiol 
nations  that  already  have  fi.xed  establishments  of  trade 
and  religion.  Trade  was  opened  herein  1737  or  sooner, 
and  in  1741  Rev.  John  Sergeant,  of  the  Indian  mission 
school  at  Stockbridge,  Mass.,  came  to  Wyoming,  ac- 
companied by  some  Mohegans,  to  preach  the  gospel  to 
the  few  of  that  nation  and  the  Shawanos  at  that  point. 
They  were  not  favorably  received,  and  after  making 
known  his  mission  and  jjreaching  a  short  sermon,  "  he 
offered  to  instruct  them  further  in  the  Christian  religion, 
but  they  rejected  his  offer  with  disdain.  They  reproached 
Christianity.  They  told  him  the  traders  would  lie,  cheat, 
and  debauch  their  women,  and  even  their  wives,  if  their 
husbands  were  not  at  home.  They  said  further  that  the 
Senecas  had  given  them  their  country,  but  charged  them 
withal  never  to  receive  Christianity  from  the  English." 
Mr.  Sergeant  returned  home  without  pressing  the  subject 
further  upon  their  attention. 

In  the  fall  of  the  next  year  Nicholas  Lewis,  Count  Von 
Zinzendorf,  after  he  had  been  but  nine  months  in  the 
country,  set  out  on  a  mission  to  the  Indians  at  Shamokin, 
and  particularly  to  the  Shawanese  at  Wyoming,  where  he 
arrived  on  the  13th  of  October.  His  reception  was  any- 
thing but  friendly.  The  Shawanese  were  suspicious  of 
the  object  of  his  visit  among  them.  He  had  pitched 
his  tent  at  a  point  where  it  was  said  a  mine  of  silver  ore 
was  located.  They  suspected  that  to  be  the  true  object 
of  his  mission,  and  as  they  had  made  known  to  Mr.  Ser- 
geant the  year  before  that  they  did  not  want  to  receive 
Christianity,  they  strongly  suspected  his  purpose  to  be 
other  than  that  which  he  professed.  Painted  with  red 
and  black,  each  with  a  large  knife  in  his  hand,  wliich  was 
brandished  in  a  threatening  manner,  they  came  in  crowds 
around  the  tent,  again  and  again  wakening  fearful  echoes 
with  their  wild  whoops  and  halloos. 

One  fine  sunny  day,  as  the  disciple  sat  on  the  ground 
within  his  tent,  looking  over  his  jjapers  that  lay  scattered 
around  him,  and  as  the  rest  of  his  party  were  outside, 
Mack,  his  companion  and  attendant,  observed  two  blow- 
ing or  hissing  adders  basking  at  the  edge  of  the  tent. 
Fearing  they  might  crawl  in  he  moved   toward   them,  in- 

tending to  dispatch  them.  They  were,  however,  too 
quick  for  him.  They  slijiped  into  the  tent,  and  gliding 
over  the  disciple's  thigh  disappeared  among  his  papers. 
On  examination  it  was  found  that  the  count  had  been  sit- 
ting near  the  mouth  of  their  den.  He  wrote  some  verses 
in  commemoration  of  this  incident  The  Indians,  in  all 
such  cases  o\er  superstitious,  saw  a  protecting  power 
exercised  in  behalf  of  the  disciple  in  this  event,  and  be- 
came somewhat  more  tractable  and  disposed  to  have 
communication  with  him;  liut  they  liad  made  up  their 
mind  that  the  white  man  was  bad  generally,  and  they  did 
not  want  any  of  his  religion.  He  left  the  valley  in  the 
early  part  of  November,  and  arrived  in  Bethlehem,  by 
way  of  Shamokin,  on  the  8th  of  the  month.  He  did  not 
feel  sufficiently  encouraged  to  rejieat  his  visit. 

On  the  2nd  of  October,  1744,  Rev.  David  Brainard,  an 
Indian  missionary,  making  his  home  about  the  forks  of 
the  Delaware,  or  just  above,  set  out  on  a  mission  to  the 
Indians  on  the  Susquehanna.  On  the  5th  of  October  he 
says:  '"We  reached  the  Susquehanna  river  at  a  place 
called  Opeholhaupung  or  Wapwallopen,  and  found  there 
twelve  Indian  houses.  After  I  had  saluted  the  king  in  a 
friendly  manner,  I  told  him  my  business,  and  that  my 
desire  was  to  teach  them  Christianity.  After  some  con- 
sultation the  Indians  gathered  and  I  preached  to  them." 
They  appeared  willing  to  be  taught  and  he  preached  to 
them  several  times.  On  the  9th  of  October  he  set  out 
on  his  journey  home.  He  preached  to  the  Indians  on 
the  5  th,  6th  and  8th.  It  is  said  by  some  that  on  this 
journey  he  made  a  call  at  NVyoming,  but  it  is  (piite  evi- 
dent from  his  journal,  which  does  not  mention  that  as 
having  been  the  case,  that  Ite  did  not  visit  NV'yoming,  his 
time  being  fully  taken  up  at  Opeholhaupung.  He  after- 
ward visited  Shamokin  and  the  Juniata,  but  never  visited 

Nothing  more  is  known  of  the  Indians  in  Wyoming 
until  in  1753.  In  that  year  about  three  hundred  persons 
in  Connecticut,  "  being  desirous  to  enlarge  his  Majesty's 
English  settlements  in  North  America,  and  further  to 
spread  Christianity — as  also  to  promote  their  own  tem- 
poral interests,"  agreed,  through  a  committee,  "to  re- 
pair to  a  certain  tract  of  land  lying  on  the  Susquehanna 
river,  at  or  near  a  ]jlace  called  Chi-wau-muck,  in  order 
to  view  said  tract  of  land  and  to  purchase  of  the  natives 
there  inhabiting  their  title  and  interest  to  said  tract  of 
land,"  &c. 

In  pursuani  e  of  this  agreement  the  committee  ap- 
pointed proceeded  to  Wyoming  in  the  fall  of  that  year, 
examined  the  lands,  and  had  a  talk  with  the  Indians  in- 
habiting there.  They  learned  from  them  that  they  were 
not  the  owners  of  the  land,  but  that  it  belonged  to  the 
Six  Nations,  and  they  were  occupying  it  at  the  will  and 
sufferance  of  those  nations;  and  consecpiently  the  com- 
mittee returned  without  negotiating  a  purchase.  About 
this  time  the  British  government,  on  account  of  the 
troubles  existing  and  growing  between  them  and  France, 
were  turning  their  attention  to  the  Indians  of  this  local- 
ity, but  particularly  the  Six  JSfations.  "  At  Albany,  on 
the  19th   day  of  June,    1754,   assembled   the   memorable 



congress  of  commissioners  from  every  colony  north  of 
the  Potomac.  The  \'irginia  government,  too,  was  repre- 
sented by  the  ]5residing  officer,  Delancey,  the  iiciitenani- 
governor  of  New  York.  They  met  to  concert  measures 
of  defence,  and  to  trenl  with  the  Six  Nations  and  the 
tribes  in  the  alliance."  li  was  at  this  council  that  the 
representatives  of  the  promoters  of  a  settlement  at  Wyo- 
ming, now  numbering  about  nine  hundred  persons,  on  the 
I  nil  day  of  July,  1754,  iierfected  a  purchase  and  obtained 
from  the  Six-  Nations  a  deed  for  the  coveted  lands  at 
Wyoming — the  boundaries  of  which  are  thus  set  forth: 
"  Beginning  from  the  one  and  fortieth  degree  of  north 
latitude,  at  ten  miles  east  of  the  Sus(|uehanna  river,  and 
from  thence  with  a  northward  line  ten  miles  east  of  the 
river  to  the  end  of  the  forty-second  or  beginning  of  the 
forty-third  degree  of  north  latitude;  and  so  to  extend  west 
two  degrees  of  longitude,  one  huudred  and  twenty  miles, 
and  from  thence  south  to  the  beginning  of  the  forty  second 
degree,  and  from  thence  east  to  the  above  mentioned 
boundary,  which  is  ten  miles  east  of  the  Susquehanna 
river."  The  commissioners  of  Pennsylvania,  while  at 
Albany,  succeeded  on  the  6th  of  July  in  getting  the  In- 
dians to  execute  a  deed  to  them  for  a  tract  of  land  be- 
tween the  Blue  Mountain  and  tlie  forks  of  the  Susque- 
hanna river  at  Shamokin. 

The  Connecticut  people  in  1755,  the  next  year  after 
their  purchase,  sent  a  party  of  surveyors  on  under  the 
charge  of  John  Jenkins  to  make  a  survey  of  their  ])ur 
chase.  In  conseipience,  however,  of  the  war  between 
the  British  and  French,  in  wliich  the  Indians  had  been 
induced  to  take  sides  with  the  one  party  or  the  other, 
numerous  |)arties  of  hostile  Indians  were  passing  and  re- 
passing through  the  valley,  up  and  down  and  to  and  fro, 
so  tha^  it  was  dangerous  to  pursue  the  work;  and  after 
taking  the  latitude  and  longitude,  and  making  an  exami- 
nation of  the  country,  the  party  returned  home  to  await 
the  issue  of  the  pending  hostilities  before  proceeding 
with  the  project  of  settlement.  So  numerous  were  these 
parties  that  the  attention  of  the  authorities  was  directed 
toward  their  movements  during  this  year,  and  a  map  of 
the  country  was  made,  on  which  were  located  the  Indian 
paths  and  places  of  rendezvous  through  and  from  which 
they  were  supposed  to  sally  forth  on  their  work  of  blood 
and  destruction;  the  following  note,  dated  March  14th, 
1756,  accompanying  the  maps: 

"  fircnt  Swiunp  lies  abmit  Wl  inilps  W.  S.  \V.  f  iimi  •'a.shiiotunk,  or  Sta- 
tion roinl;  from  llctlilcliPTii  aliout  4.">  miles  .N.  N.  W.:  from  (iiiadonhut- 
Ipii  about  :ii  iiiilcs  .\.  somethins  W.  Tins  swamp  lii.'S  Just  over  the 
mountains  whirh  Kvans  calls  Casliuctunk  Mountains,  and  is  i'l  miles 
from  \.  to  S..  anil  l.i  from  E.  to  W.  Tho  Ilctlik-hi'in  people  sn.v  four  or 
live  hundred  Imlians  keep  in  this  swamp,  ami  from  thenee  'tis  imatfincd 
the.v  send  out  parties  to  destroy  the  settlements.  Shamokin  Meson  Sus- 
quehanna river,  at  the  mouth  of  the  east  hranoh,  on  the  east  side  of  the 
Iminch.  Ncscopeek.  the  next  Indian  town  on  the  ejist  side  of  the  .same 
ImuK-h,  is  twent.v-llve  miles  from  theuoo.  Opoloponi;  is  another,  live 
miles  distant.  Wyomin^f  is  on  the  west  side  of  the  same  lirnnih.  ten 
miles  from  Op(doponjf.  .Matehasiunir  is  (m  the  east  side  of  the  snim' 
l.ninch,  distant  from  Wyoming'  thirteen  miles.  Sfdoeka  issl.x  mihwfrom 
thenee.  on  a  creek  that  come-i  out  of  the  Great  Swamp,  ami  this  place  is 
distant  from  the  swamp  eighteen  miles:  thonee  to  Cinowdowsn.  on  the 
K.  side  of  E  tiraneh,  is  live  miles.  From  thiMie:-  to  Owejjy.  the  next  In- 
dian settlement.  Is  forty-seven  miles;  from  thence  to  i>,sewin»fo  Is  ei){h- 
t«oii  miles,  and  from  thenee  there  are  no  Indian  towns  on  the  E.  lininch 
of  Susipiehanna.  according  to  Evans,  until  you  come  to  UnochgenKfC 
[now  Windsor,  liroome  e  iinty,  N.  Y.].  distant  fr(^(n  O.sewiniro  twe/vo 

miles.  The  (iniit  .'<wanip  is  forly-twii  mlkM  S.  rnini  I  )nochir<>nise  ;  iind 
'tis  n-markalili' that  Ihi-siluritlon  of  nil  Ihew  Indian  towns  is  aueh  it' 
i-emlers  It  hivhiy  proluilile  ih  it  they  rende/vou«  III  the  iin-«i  Swamp.  "■ 
Mir' hlirhesi  p'iri  ofli  la  iiui  sliiiM'H  inlleidlsiunl  fnim  thi-  .ii»i  linin.  Ii. 
Mini 'lis  not  liiil  alioiil  sixty-live  inlli-H  fniin  .shamokin  to  ilii-  tutii' -' 
parlor  the  swamp,  and  Himo-t  nil  Ih-  way  l>y  water  Ihniiiich  ihe  ..i-i 
linineh.  This  swamp,  nnd  Ihe  Indian  towns  on  Ihe  K  Imineh  of  the 
Sus<piehaniia.  should  Im-  atluektsl  at  the  mine  lime,  nnd  tin'  parlies  that 
allaek  Ihi'  latter  shoiilrl  iro  Ihey  may  p  issilily  mwt  Ihe  enein> 
llvinif  from  Ihe  swamp  to  their  Hetth-inenlx,  forlhi-lr  own  nnd  ilienufi'iy 
of  ihi'ir  wives  and  children." 

Ihe  hostile  temper  and  situation  of  the  Indians  inanti 
about  Wyoming  began  at  this  time  to  become  a  matter  of 
serious  alarm,  and  efforts  were  made  by  the  I'ennsylvania 
authorities  to  aci|uire  their  friendship  and  bring  them 
into  alliance  on  terms  of  mutunl  protection.  On  the  8th 
of  November,  1756,  the  different  Indian  tribes,  repre- 
sented by  their  chiefs  and  warriors,  met  Ciov- 
ernor  Dennie  at  Easton,  where  a  council  was  opened  in 
a  dignified  and  friendly  manner 

Teedyuscung,  the  Oelaware  chief,  a  lusty,  raw-boned 
Indian,  haughty  and  very  desirous  of  respect  and  com- 
mand, who  had  been  accoinpanied  from  Wyoming  by 
most  of  his  principal  warriors,  assumed  the  part  of  chief 
speaker.  He  supported  the  rights  and  claims  of  the 
Indians,  and  detailed  their  grievances  with  great  spirit 
and  dignity;  but  assured  the  council  that  the  Indians  were 
glad  to  meet  the  F^nglish  as  friends,  and  to  smoke 
the  pipe  of  peace  with  them,  and  hoped  that  justice 
would  be  done  to  them  for  all  the  injuries  they  had  re- 
ceived. Governor  Dennie  assured  the  Indians  that  he 
was  happy  to  meet  them  as  friends,  and  would  ende.ivor 
to  do  them  full  justice  for  all  the  wrongs  they  had  suf- 
fered, and  prevent  future  injuries.  This  council  continued 
in  session  nine  days.  All  matters  of  difference  were 
considered,  and  the  Delawares  and  Shawnese.  the  princi- 
pal tribes  present,  became  reconciled  to  the  English,  with 
whom  they  concluded  a  treaty  of  peace.  'I'his  gave  peace 
to  Wyoming,  vt'hich  continued  until  the  close  of  the 
French  war  in  1763. 

No  means  were  neglected  to  regain  the  friendship  and 
co-operation  of  the  Six  Nations,  and  presents  having  been 
liberally  distributed,  a  grand  council  of  all  the  Indian 
tribes  was  held  bv  special  invitation,  at  Easton.  in  Octo- 
ber, 175S.  •  The  governors  of  Pennsylvania  and  New  Jer- 
sey and  Sir  Johnson  were  present,  with  other  emi- 
nent citizens;  Teedyuscung  attended.  On  the  way  he 
fell  in  with  the  chief  who  had  commanded  the  expedition 
against  Cinadenhutten  and  Fort  .Mien.  High  words  arose 
between  them,  when  Teedyuscung  raised  his  hatchet  and 
laid  the  chief  dead  at  his  feet.  At  the  conference  Teed- 
yuscung took  a  decided  lead  in  the  debate  on  the  side 
of  peace.  The  conference  last  fourteen  days,  and  all 
causes  of  misunderstanding  being  remov-jd  a  general 
peace  was  concluded  on  the  26th  of  October. 

Peace  now  seemed  to  be  fully  assured  between  the 
colonists  and  the  Indians,  but  the  Indian  nature  is  such 
that  it  is  peace  with  them  only  when  peace  prevails,  and 
when  there  is  war  they  must  have  a  hand  in.  Scenes  ol 
blood  and  plunder  were  the  delight  of  their  souls,  and 
when  an  opportunity  offered  for  them  to  take  part  in  such 
scenes  it  was  iiuite  impossible  to  restrain  them  from  do- 




ing  so.  Tliey  were  fond  of  receiving  presents,  and  were 
constantly  seeking  and  bringing  forward  some  excuse  on 
which  to  demand  them  of  the  wliites.  The  most  jirolific 
source  of  complaint  on  their  part  toward  the  whites  on 
which  to  base  n  claim  for  presents  was  a  pretended  mis- 
understanding of  the  boundaries  of  the  grants  of  land 
which  they  had  made,  though  it  must  be  ronfessed  that 
theircoiiiplaints  were  too  frequently  well  founded.  They 
were  fond,  too,  of  treaties  and  the  feast  that  attended 
them,  particularly  the  abundant  supply  of  into.xicating 
drink  that  was  furnished  at  the  close,  which  they  drank 
with  great  voracity,  guzzling  it  down  as  long  as  they  were 
able  to  stand. 

About  this  time  a  new  interest  was  awakened  among 
the  Moravians  and  Quakers  upon  the  subject  of  religion 
among  the  Indians.  Papoonhank,  a  Monsey  chief, 
founder  of  the  Indian  town  of  Wyalusing,  in  his  inter- 
course with  the  whites  had  learned  something  of  their 
religion;  and  after  a  visit  to  Philadelphia,  where  he  had 
been  kindly  and  fairly  treated  by  the  (Quakers,  and  been 
impressed  strongly  by  their  brotherly  affection  and  kind- 
ness, on  his  return  home  set  to  work  to  impress  his  people 
with  the  importance  of  their  becoming  a  Christian  i)eople, 
and  esjjecially  that  they  should  become  sober  and  indus- 
trious if  they  would  be  prosperous  and  happy.  His  work 
did  not  bring  forth  rich  fruits,  although  it  laid  the  foun- 
dation for  important  results. 

In  May,  1760,  Christian  Frederick  Post,  a  Polish 
Prussian  by  birth  and  the  most  adventurous  of  Moravian 
missionaries,  when  on  his  way  to  a  grand  council  of  the 
western  Indians  spent  a  night  at  Papoonhank's  village 
and  preached  to  the  Indians  there.  This  was  on  the  20th 
of  May,  and  was  probably  the  first  sermon  preached  by  a 
white  man  in  that  locality.  While  Papoonhank  was 
pleased  at  the  visit  and  the  opportunity  afforded  his 
people  for  hearing  the  gospel,  owing  to  a  diversity  of  view 
among  them  as  to  who  should  bring  the  gospel  to  them, 
some  being  Moravians,  but  most  favoring  the  Quakers, 
the  sermon  served  rather  to  unsettle  than  to  settle  their 
views  upon  the  subject.  While  Papoonhank  himself  fa- 
vored the  (Quakers,  Job  Chilaway,  a  native  of  the  country 
about  Little  Egg  Harbor,  an  intelligent  and  influential 
Indian,  whose  wife  was  a  sister  to  Nathaniel  and  Anthony, 
two  Moravian  converts  residing  a  little  below  Tunkhan- 
nock,  favored  the  Moravians. 

This  unsettled  condition  of  affairs  lasted  for  some  time 
without  being  resolved,  and  was  the  subject  of  much 
earnest  reflection  and  debate.  At  length  the  brethren  at 
Bethlehem  despatched  Zeisberger,  an  eminent  and  zealous 
missionary,  to  the  town  to  ascertain  the  prospect  for  in- 
troducing the  gospel  there.  Accompanied  by  Anthony 
he  reached  the  town  on  the  evening  of  the  23d  of  May, 
1763.  Papoonhank  received  them  in  his  lodge,  and  thither 
his  people  flocked  to  hear  the  gospel.  They  continued 
here  until  the  27th,  when  they  set  out  for  Bethlehem,  bear- 
ing to  the  brethren  the  earnest  and  cordial  invitation  from 
the  whole  town  that  they  would  speedily  send  a  religious 
teacher  to  reside  among  them. 

On  the  loth  of  June  Zeisberger  returned  again,  taking 

Nathaniel  with  him,  arriving  at  AVyalusing  on  the  even- 
ing of  the  17th,  and  was  welcomed  by  Pajioonhank  anil 
his  people.  On  the  26th  Papoonhank  was  baptized  and 
named  John.  In  the  evening  another  Indian  was  baptized 
and  named  Peter.  These  were  the  first  who  were  sub- 
jects of  that  ordinance  in  this  region.  On  the  27th,  by 
invitation,  he  visited  Tawandamunk  and  preached  to  the 
Indians  there.  Here  an  awaking  took  place  and  the  gos- 
pel was  received  with  eagerness. 

But  the  good  work  was  interrupted.  On  the  30th  a 
runner  arrived  with  a  letter  from  Bethlehem  recalling 
Zeisberger.     He  obeyed  with  reluctance. 

The  war  that  had  been  j^revailiiig  for  some  years  in 
other  quarters  began  to  develop  itself  along  the  frontier 
settlements  of  Pennsylvania,  particul'rly  along  the  Sus- 
quehanna; and  the  whites  and  their  Indian  friends  were 
compelled  to  seek  safety  in  the  more  populous  regions 
and  abandon  their  frontier  homes. 

About  the  time  of  Zeisberger's  first  visit  John  Wool- 
man,  of  Burlington  county,  N.  J.,  a  tailor  by  trade  and  a 
Quaker  by  religion,  zealous  for  the  welfare  of  suffering 
and  perishing  humanity,  had  as  he  says,  "  for  many  years 
felt  a  love  in  his  heart  toward  the  natives  of  this  land> 
who  dwelt  far  back  in  the  wilderness;"  and  being  at 
Philadelphia  "in  the  8th  month,"  1761,  he  fell  in  com- 
pany with  some  of  those  natives  who  lived  on  the  east 
branch  of  the  Susquehanna,  "  at  an  Indian  town  called 
Wehaloosing,"  two  hundred  miles  from  Philadelphia.  In 
conversation  with  them  through  an  interpreter,  as  also 
by  observation,  he  believed  them  measurably  acquainted 
with  the  divine  power.  At  times  he  felt  inward  draw- 
ings toward  a  visit  to  that  place.  An  Indian  and  three 
women  from  beyond  that  place  being  in  Philadelphia,  he 
visited  them  in  the  5th  month,  1763,  and  with  concur- 
rence of  friends  in  that  place,  agreed  to  join  with  them 
as  companions  on  their  return.  On  the  7th  of  6th  month 
they  met  at  Samuel  Foulks's,  at  Richland,  in  Bucks  county. 

After  taking  leave  of  his  family  and  friends,  he  set  out 
on  his  journey.  At  Burlington  he  was  joined  by  Israel 
and  John  Pemberton,  who  accompanied  him  tha'.  day. 
Ne.xt  morning  Israel  left  him,  and  he  and  John  proceeded 
to  Foulks's.  Here  Benjamin  Parvin  joined  them,  and 
after  William  Lightfoot,  of  Pikeland,  and  they  traxeled 
together  to  Bethlehem. 

On  the  loth  of  June  they  set  out  early  in  the  morning. 
They  met  on  the  way  several  Indians,  men  and  women, 
with  a  cow  and  a  horse  and  some  household  goods,  who 
were  lately  come  from  their  dwelling  at  Wyoming. 

On  the  13th  they  reached  the  Indian  settlement  at 
Wyoming.  About  midnight  before  they  got  there  an 
Indian  rimner  came  down  from  a  town  about  ten  miles 
above  Wehaloosing  and  brought  news  that  some  Indian 
warriors  from  distant  parts  had  come  to  that  town  with 
two  English  scal])s,  and  told  the  |)eople  that  it  was  war 
with  the  English.  Hearing  the  news  brought  by  the  In- 
dian warriors,  and  being  told  by  the  Indians  where  they 
lodged  that  what  Indians  were  about  Wyoming  expected 
to  move  in  a  few  days  to  some  larger  towns,  he  thought 
it  dangerous  traveling  at  that  time. 



On  the  14th  he  sought  out  and  visited  all  the  Indians 
that  they  could  meet  with  in  Wyoming,  they  being  chielly 
in  one  place,  about  a  tnile  from  where  they  lodged — in 
all  perhaps  twenty.  Some  of  them  understood  English 
and  were  kind  and  friendly.  He  set  out  and  went  up  the 
river  about  three  miles,  to  the  house  of  an  Indian  named 
Jacob  January,  who  had  killed  his  dog,  and  the  wo- 
men were  making  store  of  bread  and  preparing  to  move 
up  the  river.  Here  he  put  his  baggage  in  a  canoe,  which 
some  of  his  party  pushed  slowly  up  the  stream,  and  the 
rest  rode  on  horses,  which  they  swam  across  a  creek 
called  I,ahawahamunk,  above  which  they  |)itched  their 

On  the  i6th  he  fell  in  with  Job  (Jhilaway,  an  Indian 
from  Wehaloosing.  Job  told  him  that  an  Indian  came  to 
their  town  and  told  them  that  three  warriors,  coming  from 
a  distance,  had  lodged  in  a  town  above  Wehaloosing  a 
few  nights  past,  who  were  going  against  the  English  at 
Juniata.  Job  was  going  down  the  ri\er  to  the  province 
store  at  Shamokin.  On  the  17th  he  reached  Wehaloos- 
ing about  the  middle  of  the  afternoon.     He  says: 

"  Tho  first  Indian  we  saw  was  a  woman  of  a  moilest  coiinttMiancc,  with 
a  babe.  Plio  tirst  .spoke  to  our  truidi'.  ami  tbon,  witli  a  harmonious  \  oico, 
cvpressed  her  Khidnc'ss  at  seeing  us;  liavinjf  lieard  bel'orchand  of  our 
coming.  Then  by  direetion  of  our  jruide  we  sat  down  on  a  lojr.  and  lie 
went  to  the  town  to  tell  the  people  we  wereeome.  Sittinj^  tlius  together 
tlie  poor  wtunan  eanie  and  sat  near  us.  .Vfter  a  while  we  heard  a  coneli 
shell  blow  several  times,  and  tlien  came  John  Curtis  and  another  Indian 
man,  who  kindl.v  invited  us  into  a  house  near  the  town,  wtiere  we  found, 
I  suppose,  about  sixty  people  sitting?  in  silenee.  After  sitting  a  short 
time  I  stood  up  and  in  some  tenderness  of  spirit  ae<|\iainted  them  with 
the  nature  of  my  visit,  and  that  a  eoneern  for  their  Bood  had  made  me 
willing  to  come  thus  far  to  sec  them.  Then  I  showed  tliem  my  certiH- 
eate,  which  was  e.vplained  to  them,  and  the  .Moravian  /eisbcrsfer,  who 
overtook  us  on  the  way,  being  now  here,  bade  me  welcome." 

The  next  morning  they  had  another  meeting,  at  which 
both  Woolman  and  Zeisberger  spoke,  and  VVoolman  says: 
"  Our  meeting  ended  with  a  degree  of  divine  love.  I 
observed  Fapunchang  speak  to  one  of  the  interpreters, 
and  I  was  afterward  told  that  he  said,  '  /  love  to  fi-cl where 
liwnis  come  from'  " 

On  the  2ist,  after  a  very  interesting  visit,  he  set  out  to 
return  home.  He  thus  speaks  of  the  town:  "  This  town, 
Wehaloosing,  stands  on  the  bank  of  the  Susquehanna 
river,  and  consists,  I  believe,  of  about  forty  houses,  mostly 
compact  together;  some  about  thirty  feet  long  and  eigh- 
teen wide,  some  bigger,  some  less;  mostly  built  of  split 
plank,  one  end  set  in  the  ground  and  the  other  pinned  to 
a  plate,  on  which  lay  rafters,  and  covered  with  bark." 

Seven  Indians  accompanied  him  on  his  return,  some  in 
canoes  and  some  on  horseback,  and  at  night  they  arrived 
below  a  branch  called  Tunkhannah.  On  the  22nd  they 
reached  Wyoming,  and  understood  that  the  Indians  had 
mostly  gone  from  the  place.  The  ne.xt  day  they  loaded 
their  baggage,  etc.,  on  their  horses,  and  started  across  the 
mountain  toward  Fort  .\llen,and  thence  down  the  Lehigh, 
and  arrived  at  Bethlehem  on  the  2Sth;  on  the  26th  start- 
ed for  home,  which  he  reached  on  the  27tli,  finding  all 

Zeisberger  paid  his  first  visit  to  the  Indians  in  the  ca- 
pacity of  an  envoy  on  the  part  of  Sir  William  Johnson 
and  Governor  Hamilton,  specially  to  Teedyuscung.  On 
the  1 6th  of  March,  1762,  he  left  Christiansbrunn  on  horse- 

back, and  by  nightfall  reached  the  north  part  of  the  Blue 
Mountains,  where  he  foimd  a  large  encampment  of  Dcla- 
wares  and  Nantirokes.  His  heart  was  strangely  stirred 
as  he  sat  again  by  a  camp  fire  in  the  wilderness,  with 
members  of  that  race  around  him  to  convert  whom  was 
the  e.\alted  mission  of  his  life. 

The  next  morning  he  proceeded  on  his  journey,  taking 
with  him  one  of  the  Delawares  as  a  guide,  for  the  whole 
country  was  covered  with  deep  snow.  After  three  da)s 
of  hard  and  perilous  riding  in  forest  obstructed  by  great 
drifts,  through  snow  banks  from  which  it  was  almost  im- 
possible to  extricate  the  horses,  and  in  "  weather,"  says 
Zeisberger,  "  the  severest  I  ever  knew,"  he  arrived  at  the 
lodge  of  Teedyuscung.  Having  delivered  his  letters  he 
turned  his  attention  to  the  converts  of  Wyoming.  The 
most  of  them  had  not  heard  the  gospel  preached  since 
the  breaking  out  of  the  war.  More  than  one  backslider 
was  reclaimed,  among  them  George  Rex,  who,  on  the 
occasion  of  a  subsequent  visit  to  Nain,  was  readmitted  to 
the  church.  On  the  24th  he  returned  to  Bethlehem,  and 
thence  went  to  Philadelphia  with  the  answer  of  Teedyus- 

Near  the  close  of  autumn  he  visited  Wyoming  again, 
accompanied  by  Gottlob  Senseman.  The  dysentery  was 
raging  in  the  valley,  and  many  Indians  were  prostrated. 
.Among  them  was  .Abraham,  the  first  convert.  He  had 
sent  an  urgent  request  to  Bethlehem:  "  Brethren,  let  a 
teacher  come  to  see  me  ere  I  die!  "  But  the  teacher 
came  too  late;  the  aged  Mahican  had  finished  his  course. 
With  his  dying  breath  he  had  exhorted  the  Indians  to  re- 
main faithful  to  Jesus. 

In  the  same  sjjirit  George  Rex  passed  away,  admonish- 
ing his  people  to  avoid  his  evil  example,  and  professing 
a  sure  hope  of  eternal  life.  Zeisberger  spent  several  days 
in  comforting  the  sick,  and  a  new  interest  was  awakened 
among  all  the  scattered  converts  of  the  valley. 

In  May  of  the  year  1763,  as  we  have  narrated,  Zeis- 
berger again  visited  Wyoming  to  preach  to  the  few  nations 
who  were  still  in  the  valley,  now  grown  to  be  few  indeed. 
.Among  them  Teedyuscung  no  longer  had  a  place. 

On  the  ni^ht  of  the  19th  of  April,  while  lying  intoxi- 
cated in  his  lodge,  it  was  set  on  fire,  and  he  perished  in 
the  tlames.  This  was  no  doubt  the  cruel  work  of  the 
Iroquois  warriors,  whom  he  had  offended  by  his  proud 
bearing  at  the  colonial  treaties  at  Easton. 

Thus,  by  the  death  of  their  chief  Abraham,  the  Mahi- 
cans,  and  by  the  death  of  Teedyuccung  the  Delaware, 
were  bereft  of  their  leaders  and  were  broken  u\<  at  Wyo- 
ming. The  Nanticokes  some  time  before  had  moved  up 
into  the  State  of  New  York,  on  the  Chenango  and  Che- 
mung rivers,  and  the  Shawanese  as  a  body  had  joined 
their  brethren  in  the  west,  and  Wyoming  was  left  with 
only  a  few  wandering  Indians,  making  no  pretence  to 
anything  like  an  organized  or  even  homogeneous  body 
Its  Indian  history  therefore  ends  at  this  point,  and  a  few 
words  in  reference  to  the  Wyalusing  mission,  and  one  or 
two  other  matters,  and  this  portion  of  the  work  is  com- 

Notwithstanding   the  numerous  treaties  ol    peace  and 




the  earnest  efforts  made  to  keep  the  Indians  in  friendly 
relations,  yet  murders  and  the  usual  horrors  of  Indian 
warfare  were  constantly  occurring  on  the  frontier,  and 
hence  the  inhabitants  became  deeply  exasperated  and 
vowed  \engeance  against  all  Indians  without  discrimina- 
tion. They  had  sought  out  the  guilty  parlies  and  de- 
manded them  from  the  Indians,  but  their  guilt  was  de- 
nied, their  surrender  refused,  and  no  jiunishment  was 
dealt  out  to  them.  The  Moravian  brethren,  becoming 
aware  of  the  feelings  of  the  people,  sought  to  protect  the 
converts  at  their  mission  stations,  particularly  those  at 
VVyalusing,  from  the  impending  wrath;  and  to  that  end  as- 
sembled them  at  Bethlehem  and  Nazareth,  whence  they 
were  removed  to  the  neighborhood  of  Philadelphia  for 
greater  safety,  and  camped  on  Province  island,  where 
they  were  fed  and  sheltered  at  the  expense  of  the  Penn- 
sylvania government.  "  Here  they  remained  for  fifteen 
months,  suffering  untold  hardships,  insulted  and  reviled 
by  mobs,  decimated  by  disease,  scorned  alike  by  whites 
and  Indians,  a  gazing  stock  both  by  reproaches  and  af- 
flictions, yet  they  continued  stedfast  in  their  faith."  After 
having  borne  nearly  one-half  their  number  to  the  potter's 
field,  the  remainder,  eighty-three  in  all,  left  Philadelphia 
March  20th,  1765,  and  in  pursuance  of  intercession  and 
arrangements  made  in  their  behalf  were  permitted  to  loc- 
ate again  at  Wyalusing.  This  was  a  favored  and  favorite 
locality.  Here  lay  rich  hunting  grounds  in  their  original 
wildness,  while  sufficient  land  was  cleared  to  afford  them 
corn  patches  for  immediate  use.  It  was  situated  on  the 
Susquehanna,  a  stream  abounding  in  the  choicest  fish, 
and  was  on  the  great  pathway  between  the  North  and 
South  and  East  and  West. 

"  In  the  freedom  of  their  forest  homes  ami  tin-  hunting  grounds  of 
their  fathers,  hopeful  tor  the  future,  guided  and  encouraged  by  their 
teachers,  their  hearts  were  filleci  with  gratitude  and  joy.  The  new  town 
which  came  into  existence  rang  with  the  melod.\'  of  praise,  oven  while  it 
was  l)eing  built. 

"  On  the  -Ith  of  June  the  Indians  began  to  erect  dwellings,  and  at  the 
end  of  the  month  had  com])letcd  four  log  cabins  and  thirty  bark-covered 
huts.  In  September,  at  the  close  of  the  summer  hunt,  a  commodious 
meeting-house  and  a  mission-honse  fifteen  feet  square,  built  of  unhewn 
logs.were  erected.  At  the  close  of  the  year  there  were  connected  with  the 
mission  one  hundred  and  forty-si.\  souls,  of  whom  thirty-three  were 
communicants."— OY(/f. 

This  mission  increased  and  flourished  with  varied  suc- 
cess; now  disturbed  by  rivalry  between  the  various  Indian 
chiefs,  and  now  by  conflicting  views  as  to  the  doctrines 
taught,  and  again  by  the  favor  or  disfavor  with  which  the 
various  teachers  sent  there  were  received.  Added  to  this 
was  the  stubborn  fact  that  a  life  devoted  to  labor  and  the 
cultivation  of  the  earth,  and  the  restraints  imposed  by  a 
settled,  regulated  society,  were  not  suited  to  the  Indian 
nature;  and  we  will  not  be  astonished  to  learn  that  in  the 
spring  of  1772  the  mission  of  Friedenshuetten,  at 
Wyalusing,  was  abandoned,  and  those  who  had  remained 
faithful  to  it  migrated  under  the  directions  of  their  spirit- 
ual teachers  to  the  west,  settling  at  Schonbrunn,  in  the 
Tuscarawas  valley,  on  the  Muskingum,  in  Ohio.  Early 
on  the  morning  of  the  nth  of  June,  1772,  they  met  in 
their  chapel  for  the  last  time  for  religious  worship,  when 
they  commended  themselves  to  thekee|)ing  and  guidance 

of  God,  asking  him  to  supply  their  wants,  that  they  might 
perish  not  by  the  way. 

"  A  few  years  since  there  was  a  feeble  remnant  of 
Christian  Indians,  ministered  to  by  Moravians,  dwelling 
at  New  Fairfield,  Canada,  and  Westfield,  Kansas.  In  the 
veins  of  some  of  these  there  flows  the  blood  of  the  Mahi- 
cansand  Delawaresof  old  Friedenshuetten,  the  '  deserted 
village  '  of  the  plains  of  VVyalusing." 

A  monument  to  mark  the  site  of  this  Indian  mission, 
bearing  fitting  inscri[)tions,  was  erected  under  the  auspices 
of  the  Moravian  Historical  Society,  and  dedicated  with 
appropriate  services  on  the  site  of  the  mission  and  at  the 
Presbyterian  church  at  Wyalusing,  June  14th  and  15th, 
187 1.  This  monument  is  thirteen  feet  high,  and  bears 
the  following  inscriptions: 

On  the  northern  face — 

"To  mark  the  site  of  F'riedenshuetten  ^M'chwihilu- 
sing),  a  settlement  of  Moravian  Indians  between  1765 
and  1772." 

On  the  eastern  face — 

"  This  stone  was  erected  on  the  15th  June,  in  the  year 
of  Redemption  187  i,  by  members  of  the  Moravian  His- 
torical Society." 

While  this  mission  at  Wyalusing  was  more  than  ordin- 
arily successful,  it  was  not  that  complete  success  which 
its  founders  had  hoped  and  anticipated.  It  was  all,  how- 
ever, that  a  careful  study  of  the  Indian  character  would 
have  led  them  to  expect.  The  Indian,  by  nature,  by 
habits  and  by  his  native  education  and  habit  of  thought, 
was  not  calculated  for  a  (juiet,  industrious  and  religious 
life.  His  wild  nature,  his  love  of  the  chase  and  his  de- 
light in  predatory  excursions  made  him  uneasy  and  un- 
settled; while  labor  was  more  irksome  to  him  than  to  the 
whites,  and  even  they  resort  to  every  possible  expedient 
to  eke  out  a  subsistence  rather  than  to  labor.  Labor  is 
the  last  resort,  the  extreme  service  which  they  pay  to 
their  necessities,  and  with  them  hunting  and  fishing  and 
tramping  around  yield  delights  that  successful  labor  fails 
to  bring. 

And  then  the  Indian  religion  was  so  different  from  the 
Christian,  so  much  easier  understood  and  practiced,  and 
called  upon  them  for  so  many  less  labors  and  sacrifices, 
that  it  is  not  wonderful  that  they  received  the  latter 
slo'wiy — conformed  to  it  more  slowly  and  yielded  obe- 
dience to  its  requirements  only  at  the  last  extremity.  In 
consequence  of  these  hindrances  to  the  enjoyment 
of  a  Christian  life  the  Indians,  one  by  one  or  in  parties, 
were  constantly  withdrawing  from  the  missions,  and  seek- 
ing their  native  freedom  of  action  and  thought  with  the 
wild  tribes  who  were  free  from  the  shackles  which  a  Chris- 
tian life  imposed.  Even  white  men  have  done  the  same. 
Zeisberger  said:  "  Sorcerers  abound  among  the  aborigines' 
cf  our  country.  The  majority  of  them  are  cunning  jug- 
glers, or  self-deluded  victims  of  superstition."  Some  ex- 
isted by  whom  Satan  himself  worked  "  with  all  powers 
and  signs  and  lying  wonders."  He  disbelieved  the  stories 
he  heard  of  what  they  could  do  until  several  of  them  were 
converted.  These  unfolded  to  him  things  from  their  own 
past  experience   which  forced   him    to  acknowledge   the 






reality  of  Indian  sorcery,  and  to  adopt  the  opinion  wliicli 
was  universal  among  the  early  church  fathers  that  the 
Gods  of  heathenism  were  not  visionary  beings  represented 
by  idols,  but  Satanic  powers  and  principalities,  to  wor- 
ship whom  was  to  worship  demons  and  be  under  demon- 
iacal influences.  He  refers  to  three  kinds  of  native  magic, 
namely:  the  art  of  producing  sudden  death  without  the 
use  of  poison;  the  inattapassigan,  a  deadly  charm  by  which 
e[)idemics  could  be  brought  upon  entire  villages,  and 
persons  at  .1  distance  sent  to  their  graves;  and  the 
witchcraft  of  the  kimochit'e,  who  passed  through  the  air 
by  night,  visiting  towns,  casting  the  inhabitants  into  an 
unnatural  sleep  and  then  stealing  what  they  wanted. 

The  story  of  the  WyaUising  mission  has  now  been 
briefly  told,  and  in  its  telling  the  history  of  the  Indians 
at  and  in  the  territory  of  old  Wyoming  has  drawn  to  a 
close.  The  suffering  of  the  New  England  pioneers  at  the 
hands  of  the  savages  belongs  to  the  early  settlement  of 
the  valley,  and  as  such  will  be  narrated  in  another  con- 


Ol'F.R.-^TIONS       OF       THE       SUSQUEH.^N  N.\      CGMP.^NV THK 


'N  1753  an  association  called  the  Susquehanna 
Company  was  formed  in  Connecticut  for  the 
=^'  purpose  of  settling  the  lands  in  the  Wyoming 
C:^  valley,  and  during  the  same  year  its  agents 
were  sent  to  make  explorations  in  the  region. 
During  the  next  year  an  Indian  council  assembled 
at  Albany,  and  the  agents  of  the  company  attended 
this  council  for  the  purpose  of  extinguishing  the  Indian 
title  to  these  lands. 

The  proprietary  government  also  sent  agents  to  this 
council  to  thwart,  if  possible,  the  designs  of  the  Susque- 
hanna Company;  and  James  Hamilton,  then  governor  of 
Pennsylvania,  wrote  to  Sir  William  Johnson  soliciting 
him  to  interpose  his  influence  with  the  Six  Nations  (who 
claimed  the  land,  though  the  Delawares  occupied  it),  and 
prevent  the  sale. 

Notwithstanding  these  efforts  on  the  part  of  the  gov- 
ernor and  his  agents,  the  company's  agents  succeeded  in 
effecting  a  purchase,  which  included  this  valley.  A  pur- 
chase had  been  made  from  the  Indians  by  the  proprietary 
government  in  1736  which  it  was  claimed  included  this 
territory;  but  this  claim  was  disputed  by  the  Connecticut 

The  company  was  soon  afterward  chartered  by  the 
Connecticut  government,  and  at  about  this  time  the  pro- 
ject was  conceived  of  making  this,  with  other  territory,  a 
separate  province;  but  the  hostile  attitude  of  the  Indians, 
who  were  then  under  French  influence,  defeated  its  ac- 

After   the  cessation  of    hostilities    preparations  were 

made  to  settle  the  valley  by  the  Susquehanna  Company, 
and  in  1762  about  two  hundred  settlers  established  them- 
selves in  it,  near  the  mouth  of  Mill  creek,  where  they 
cleared  fields,  sowed  wheat  and  built  log  houses.  Hav 
ing  done  this,  they  returned  to  Connecticut,  to  make 
preparations  for  bringing  their  families  the  next  spring. 

The  people  of  Pennsylvania  regarded  with  jealousy  and 
displeasure  these  energetic  preparations  for  settlement, 
and  the  governor,  through  Sir  William  Johnson,  again 
sought  to  influence  the  Iroquois  to  repudiate  their  sale  to 
the  company  in  1754.  A  deputation  of  the  disaffected 
Indians  visited  Hartford  and  protested  against  the  occu- 
pancy of  this  territory.  The  case  was  presented  in  Eng- 
land by  both  parties,  and  opinions  favorable  to  both  sides 
were  obtained. 

On  the  return  of  spring  the  Connecticut  seiller.s,  not- 
withstanding the  fact  that  they  had  been  cautioned  by  the 
governor  of  Connecticut  against  doing  so,  returned  in 
largely  augmented  numbers.with  their  families,  to  the  set- 
tlement; and  during  the  summer  made  rapid  progress,  ex- 
tending their  settlement  to  the  west  side  of  the  river. 

In  the  autumn  a  party  of  Iroquois  visited  the  valley, 
and  it  was  said  for  the  double  purpose  of  exciting  in  the 
Delawares  hostility  to  the  settlers  and  getting  rid  of 
Teedyuscung,  a  chief  of  whose  large  and  growing  in- 
fluence among  the  Indians  they  were  jealous;  treacher- 
ously murdered  him  and  then  induced  among  his  sub- 
jects the  belief  that  the  murder  had  been  committed  by 
the  settlers.  The  result  was  that  these  Uelawares  fell 
upon  the  inhabitants  of  the  valley,  killed  some  thirty  antl 
caused  the  precipitate  flight  of  the  rest,  and  plundered 
and  burnt  the  settlement.  After  severe  sufTctings  and  the 
death  of  many  of  their  number  the  fugitives  reached 
Connecticut  again;  and  thus  for  a  time  ended  the  attempt 
by  the  Susquehanna  Company  to  settle  the  valley.  The 
following  are  the  names  of  a  portion  of  those  settlers: 

Jolin  Jenkins.  John  Conisliick.  Kphnilm  S*-*-!)'.  Wllllmn  Iliick.  nilvir 
Jewell,  Oliver  Smith.  Diiviil  Ilimevwell,  l>ni  Dean.  Jonalhuii  \V.><k-. 
jr..  Ohadinh  (inre.  l->.4-kiel  Tierce.  rhtli|>  We4>ks.  l>Hiiii*l  (f<tn>,  Klkaiiuli 
Fnller.  Wright  Stevens,  Istuic  I'nilerwood,  ll4>niHiiiln  .\!*liley.  (ti<him 
Lawrence.  Isaae  llennett.  Stephen  Iah*.  Silns  Parker,  .tame;*  A Iherlnn. 
Moses  Kimball,  Kl»enezer  Searlt^.  Timolli.v  ll<illi.ster.  Nathaniel  Terry. 
Kphraim  Tyler,  Timothy  llollisler.Jr..  Wrisrhl  Smith.  Kphruim  Tyler.  Jr.. 
Isaac  llollister.  jr..  .Nathanii*!  Chapiniin.  Jtihn  Iiorrrtfic<\  Thiuniis  Mtin«li. 
Kov.  W.  .M.  .>farsh,  Timothy  Smith,  Matthew  Smith.  Joiiiith  lu  Slocuni. 
Ilcnjaniin  l>avi'<.  Ilinjnmin  Kollctl.  lieiirtre  MlniT.  Nathaniel  Kollinier. 
Itenjamin  ShoiMnaker.  Nathaniel  lliirllait.  Simon  liraper.  .Simiiel 
Kicharils.  John  Smith,  Diiniel  lialilwln.  Stephen  (ianliner,  Kllphnlet 
Stevens,  David  Marvin,  AuKuat  Hunt,  rnschall  Tcrry,Wllltum  Slcphen!>. 
Thoinits  B*'tinet. 

Killed  by  the  Indians  October  15th,  1763  :  Rev.  Wil- 
liam Marsh,  Thomas  Marsh,  Timothy  Hollister,  Timothy 
Hollister,  Jr.,  Nathan  Terry,  Wright  Smith.  Daniel  Halii- 
win  and  wife,  Jesse  Wiggins,  Zeruah  Whitney,  Isaac 
Hollister.  Prisoners  :  Shepherd  and  Daniel  Baldwin's 

In  1768,  at  the  general  Indian  council  which  assembled 
at  Fort  Stanwix,  the  proprietaiies  purchased  from  the 
Indians  the  territory  which  was  in  dispute,  and  some  of 
the  chiefs  executed  to  them  a  deed  for  it.  The  Indians 
were  ready  to  sell  their  land  as  many  times  as  the  whites 
were  willing  to  pay  them  for  it. 

Early  in  the  next  year  the  Susquehanna  Company  re- 





s  jIved  to  resume  possession  of  these  lands.  Five  town- 
ships, each  five  miles  square,  were  divided  each  into  fort)' 
shares,  to  be  given  to  the  first  forty  settlers  in  each  of 
these  townships  ;  and  two  hundred  pounds  sterling  were 
appropriated  for  the  purchase  of  agricultural  implements. 
Forty  settlers  were  sent  to  the  valley  in  February,  to  be 
followed  by  two  hundred  in  the  spring.  On  their  arrival 
they  found  that  the  Pennsylvanians  had  shortly  before 
taken  possession  of  their  former  improvements  and  erected 
a  block  house  for  their  defense.  They  had  also  divided 
the  valley  into  tlie  manors  of  Stoke  on  the  eastern^  and 
Sunbury  on  the  western  side  of  the  river  1.  The  Yankees' 
soon  after  their  arrival,  invested  the  Pennamite  block 
house,  with  its  little  garrison,  but  they- were  outw-itted  by 
the  latter,  who,  under  the  pretext  of  a  desire  to  consult 
and  arrange  their  difficulties,  induced  three  of  the  leaders 
among  the  Yankees  to  enter  the  block  house  and  imme- 
diately arrested  them.  They  were  taken  to  the  jail  at 
Easton,  but  were  at  once  released  on  bail  and  returned. 
This  was  followed  by  other  arrests  of  Connecticut  set- 
tlers, and  the  release  on  bail  of  the  persons  arrested.  In 
the  spring  the  other  settlers  arrived  ;  constructed  a  fort 
on  the  east  bank  of  the  river,  near  the  bend  below  the 
bridge  at  Wilkes-Barre,  which  they  named  Fort  Durkee, 
in  honor  of  its  commander  ;  erected  log  houses,  and 
prosecuted  their  improvements  with  energy.  The  Penn- 
sylvania claimants,  finding  themselves  largely  outnum- 
bered, after  one  or  two  ineffectual  attempts  to  dispossess 
the  Yankees  left  them  for  a  short  period  without  mo- 
lestation. In  this  interval  overtures  were  made  by  tlie 
settlers  for  a  settlement  of  the  controversy,  but  the  pro- 
prietaries refused  to  negotiate.  Early  in  September  the 
I'ennamites  came  with  a  large  force  headed  by  the  sheriff 
of  Northampton  county,  took  Colonel  Durkee  and  several 
others  prisoners,  expelled  the  Yankees,  and,  regardless  of 
a  solemn  pledge  to  respect  the  rights  of  property,  plun- 
dered the  settlement.  The  year  1769  closed  with  the 
Pennsylvanians  in  possession  of  the  valley. 

In  February,  1770,  the  Yankees,  together  with  a  num- 
ber of  men  from  Lancaster,  where  some  shareholders  of 
t'.ie  Susquehanna  Company  resided,  again  appeared  in  the 
valley,  and  dispossessed  the  Pennamites.  To  accomplish 
this  they  found  it  necessary  to  fire  on  and  besiege  a  block 
liouse  in  which  the  latter  took  refuge,  and  during  the  hos" 
tilities,  which  lasted  several  days,  one  of  the  Yankees 
was  killed,  and  several  were  wounded.  The  Pennsylva- 
nians were  compelled  to  capitulate  and  leave  the  valley  in 
possession  of  the  Yankees.  Settlers  came  again,  crops 
were  jdanted,  and  during  the  summer  they  were  not  dis- 

It  must  be  remembered  that  at  this  lime  difficulties 
were  arising  between  the  colonies  and  Great  Britain,  and 
the  power  and  influence  of  the  colonial  governors  were 
on  the  wane.  The  authority  of  the  ])roprietary  governor 
of  Pennsylvania  declined  more  rapidly  than  that  of  the 
governors  of  other  provinces,  because  of  the  differences 
between  them  and  the  people  with  regard  to  the  taxation 
of  the  proprietary  estates,  and  for  other  reasons;  and  in- 
asmuch as  the  question  of  title  was  between  the   people 

from  Connecticut  and  these  proprietaries,  the  sympathies 
of  the  people  in  other  parts  of  the  province  with  these 
governors  were  not  as  active  as  would  otherwise  have  been 
the  case.  After  the  explusion  of  Captain  Ogden  and  the 
Pennamites  from  the  valley  in  the  spring  of  1770,  (}over 
nor  Penn  called  on  General  Gage  to  furnish  regular 
troops  to  reinstate  him  in  possession  of  the  valley,  alleg- 
ing that  there  was  no  militia  in  the  province  on  which  he 
could  call.  General  Gage  quite  properly  declined  to  al- 
low the  use  of  the  king's  troops  in  a  mere  dispute  con- 
cerning the  title  to  property,  and  Governor  Penn  was 
compelled  to  raise  forces  by  his  personal  exertions,  which 
he  finally  succeeded  in  doing.  He  had  in  June  issued  a 
proclamation  forbidding  any  intrusion  on  the  lands  in 
question,  and  in  September  his  forces,  numbering  1401 
under  Captain  Ogden,  marched  to  the  valley  for  the  os- 
tensible purpose  of  enforcing  this  proclamation.  They 
entered  the  valley  by  an  unusual  route,  divided  iu  de- 
tachments and  surprised  the  men  while  at  work.  They 
captured  a  portion,  and  put  the  rest  to  flight.  At  night 
they  made  a  sudden  assault  on  the  fort,  which  was  con- 
fusedly filled  with  men,  women  and  children;  and  after 
killing  a  few  made  prisoners  of  the  rest,  and  soon  after- 
ward sent  them  to  prison  at  Easton,  except  a  few,  who 
were  taken  to  Philadelphia.  They  then  plundered  the 
settlement  and  withdrew,  leaving  a  small  garrison  in  Fort 
Durkee.  In  the  following  December  this  garrison  was 
surprised  and  the  fort  retaken  by  Captain  Lazarus  Stew- 
art, at  the  head  of  a  party  of  Lencastrians,  with  a  few 
Yankees.  Such  of  the  garrison  as  did  not  escape  were 
expelled  from  the  valley. 

A  month  later,  or  in  January,  1 771,  Captain  Ogden 
again  appeared  in  the  valley,  with  the  sheriff  of  North- 
ampton county  and  a  posse,  for  the  arrest  of  Captain 
Stewart.  Admission  to  the  fort  was  demanded  and  re- 
fused. The  fort  was  finally  fired  on  by  Captain  Ogden, 
and  the  fire  was  returned,  killing  Nathan  Ogden,  his 
brother,  and  woundmg  several  of  his  men.  During  the 
ensuing  night  the  fort  was  evacuated  by  Captain  Stewart, 
and  the  next  day  was  occupied  by  Captain  Ogden. 

For  six  months  the  valley  remained  in  possession  of 
the  Pennsylvanians,  during  which  time  their  number  was 
augmented  till  it  reached  a  total  of  eighty-three. 

In  July  of  the  same  year  Captain  Zebulon  Butler  and 
Lazarus  Stewart,  with  seventy  Connecticut  men,  entered 
the  valley  and  at  once  took  measures  to  repossess  it 
They  besieged  and  closely  invested  Fort  Wyoming,  which 
had  been  built  and  occupied  by  Captain  Ogden,  about 
sixty  rods  above  Fort  Durkee.  Notwithstanding  the  close 
and  vigilant  investment  of  the  fort  by  the  besiegers,  whose 
number  was  constantly  augmented  by  recruits  from  Con- 
necticut, Captain  Ogden  by  a  bold  and  cunning  stratagem 
escaped  alone  and  went  to  Philadelphia  for  assistance. 
An  expedition  was  sent  for  that  purpose,  but  it  was  am- 
bushed by  the  vigilant  besiegers  and  its  supplies  were 
captured,  though  a  portion  of  the  men  were  allowed  to 
enter  the  fort.  The  besieged  managed  to  send  another 
message  for  assistance,  but  the  supplies  of  the  garrison 
failed,  and   it   capitulated   when    the  detachment  for  its 




relief  was  within  u-n  miles  of  the  fort.  During  the  siege 
several  of  the  garrison  were  killed  and  a  ninnher  were 
wounded,  and  among  the  latter  Captain  Ogden  himself 
severely.  The  loss  of  the  besiegers  is  not  known.  During 
the  remainder  of  the  summer  and  autumn  the  settlers 
from  Connecticut  increased  largely  and  made  ample  prep- 
arations for  defense,  but  during  the  succeeding  four  years 
they  were  not  again  disturbed  by  hostile  incursions. 

This  interval  of  peace  was  also  one  of  prosperity  and 
happiness.  The  settlement  received  accessions  of  im- 
migrants from  Connecticut;  churches  and  schools  were 
established;  and  when  it  appeared  that  there  was  no 
prospect  of  establishing  a  separate  colony,  or  of  being 
immediately  recognized  by  the  (General  .Assembly  of  Con- 
necticut as  a  portion  of  that  colony  and  enjoying  the  pro- 
tection and  benefit  of  its  laws,  the  i)eople  adopted  a  gov- 
ernment of  their  own,  which  was  in  all  respects  purely 
democratic — the  legislature  consisting  of  an  assembly  of 
all  the  people.  Efforts  were  made  by  the  settlers  to  effe<  1 
a  reconciliation  with  the  proi)rietary  government,  but  all 
overtures  were  rejected.  'J"he  General  Assembly  of  Con- 
necticut also  made  an  effort  to  negotiate  a  settlement,  and 
sent  commissioners  to  Philadelphia  for  that  purpose,  luit 
CJovernor  Penn  declined  to  entertain  their  propositions. 
The  General  Assembly  then  submitted  the  case  to  eminent 
counsellors  in  England,  and  an  opinion  in  favor  of  the 
company  was  given. 

The  Legislature  of  Connecticut  then,  in  1773,  adopted 
a  resolution  asserting  the  jurisdiction  of  the  colony  and 
expressing  a  determination  to  maintain  it.  On  applica- 
tion of  the  company  the  territory  was  declared  to  be  a 
part  of  the  colony  of  Connecticut,  erected  into  the  town 
of  Westmoreland  and  attached  to  the  county  of  Litchfield 
The  laws  of  Connecticut  superseded  those  which  had 
been  adopted  by  the  settlers,  and  the  town  was  represented 
in  the  General  Assembly  of  Connecticut.  Proclamations 
were  issued  by  the  proprietary  governor  and  by  the  gov- 
ernor of  Connecticut,  each  forbidding  any  settlement 
under  the  authority  of  the  other. 

The  following  are  names  of  settlers  who  were  enrolled 
prior  to  1773;  those  of  the  forty  who  settled  in  Kingston 
in  1769  being  marked  with  an  asterisk: 

David  Whittlesey,  Jot)  r,reeii,  Pliilip  Goss.  .rosliiia  Wliitney,  .\l)nihiiiii 
Savjijfo.  Stearns,  Sylvester  Ctieesebroiijrli.  Zfphiiniiili  Tluiyer, 
Eliplmlel  .lewel,  Daniel  Oore,  Ozia.s  Vale,  Ilowlaml  llailini.  Ilemy  Wall*, 
(iicleim  T.awrenee.  .\sa  Lawrenee.  Nathaniel  Wat^iin.  I'liilip  Weelis. 
Thonias  Weeks,  Aslier  Ilarnit,  Klienezer  Ilelibanl,  Mmwin  ( ■ai\  an,  Sam- 
mi  .Maiv  in.  Silas  I'.lienezcr  NuilliiDp.  .Joshua  l.ainpher,  .losepli 
llillnian,  .\liel  fierce,  .laliez  Hobert.s,  .Innalhan  ('arrinKlDn.  Juhn  I)(ir- 
lanee.  Xoah  Allen,  Uol)ert  .laekson,  Zelinlun  llawksey,  James  Dnnkiii. 
Caleb  Tennant.Zernbabel  Wiijhtnian.tiurdDn  Ilnpson,  Asa,  Thunuis 
Walworth.  Koliert  Hunter.  .Inhn  linker,  Jonathan  Orins.  Daniel  .Vnifcl. 
I'.lias  Hoberts.  Nicholas  Manvil.  Thomas  Cray,  .loseph  Gaylonl.  William 
I  hnrchill.  Henry  Strong-,  Zebiilon  Ki.stiee.  Ile/.ekiah  Knap.  John  Kenyon, 
Treservi'd  Taylor,  Isiuie  Hennett,  Uriah  Marvin,  .Kbisha  IlinKhain,  Moses 
Itebbaril,  jr..  Jaliez  Fisk,  I'eris  lirij-'l-'s.  .\aron  Walker.  James  May.  Sani- 
nel  llailfer.  Jatiez  Cooke,  .Samuel  T)orranci',  ,Iohn  Conistock*.  Samuel 
I lotehkiss.  William  I.eonanl,  Jes.-e  Leonard.  Klisha  .\\  ery.  Kzni  Huid, 
<;ershom  Hewit,  Nathaniel  (Joss.  Itenjamin  lleHit.  llenjainin  Hewit,  Jr., 
i;iias  Thomas.  Abijah  Mock,  Kphraim  Fellows.  J. and  K.  Arnold.  Itenjamin 
Ashley,  William  White.  Stephen  Hull,  Diuh  Hull,  .loseph  !.«•,  SiimucI 
Wyl>rant.  Keiiben  Hurltnirt,  Jenks  Corah.  Obadiah  Gore.  Jr..  Caleb 
White,  Samuel  Sweet,  Thomas  Knight.  John  Jollee.  Etienezi'r  Norton, 
l-;nos  Yale,  John  Wyley,  Timothy  Vorei-,  Cyrus  Kenncy,  .lohii  Shaw, 
James  Korseythc,  Peter  Harris,  .\tiel  Smith.  Klia«  Parks.  Joshua  .Max- 
field,  John  .Murphy,  Thomas  Uennet*,ChrisIopher.Vvery,  Klisha  Ilal)cock, 
John  Perkins,  Joseph  Slocum,  Uobcrt  Hopkins,  n<.-iijamln  Shoemaker, 

Jr.,  Jabe/SIII,  Pamhall  Terry,  J<din  Di'lonir.  TheophlUn-  We»to\er».  John 
Slerlliiir,  Jowpli  Morw,  Stephen  Fuller,  .\mlrew  liurkee,  .Vndrew  Mi->l 
iiiir,  Daniel  llrowii.  Jiinalimn  lluek.Du\ld  Mead.Thonuio  Ferlln,  William 
Wailsworlh.  Thomas  Draiier.  .lami-s  Smith.  Jnmi'«  .\therlon*.  Jr.,  ttllM-r 
Smith*,  .lanu's  Kvaiis.  l-tletiMT  Carey.  Cytirlan  lj»lliro(>*,  .laine*  Ne«littt, 
Joseph  Web-ter,  Samuel  .Mllllnulon.  Ih'njumln  llu<ld.  John  l^-e.  JikIuIi 
Dean.  Zophur  Tih  il.  Mo<M"*  HeblHird.  Daniel  M unlock.  Noah  !,<'<'.  Stephen 
l^-e.  Dinilcl  HayiHi'.  1.1'inuel  Sndth.  Slla«  Park.  Sh-phen  Hnnverfonl. 
Zerubabel  Jeorum*.  Comfort  lio^i.  William  Drii|Mr.  Tlioina«  MH'lun-. 
Peter  .^yres.  .Solomon  .lohnson.  Phlneas  Siexcnn,  .\bnihatn  Colt.  Klljah 
lluck*,  Noah  Id-ad.  Nathan  lleacli.  Job  (iri'en.  Jr  ,  Froleriek  Wlw,  Sli- 
pheii  .lenklns,  Daniel  Mar\  In.  Zacharlah  S<|uler,  Henry  WIm',  Slnii-<in 
Draper*.  Jidui  Wall«worth.  l:i>enewr  Stone,  Thoinna  Oleolt.  Stephen 
llin-ilale,  llenjamln  Don'hc-sler,  Klljah  Wilier,  <>|l\er  Po«t.  Daniel  <'««.. 
I")iae  Trai-t'y,  Samuel  Story,  John  .Mllehcl.  Samuel  (Irliai,  Chrlnloplier 
Gardm-r.  Duty  Gerold,  IN-rN  linidrord.  Samuel  Morinin.  John  Clark. 
Klljah  Lewis.  Timothy  llopklii''.  Kilward  Johii'-i'ii.  Jueidi  Dlnidiian. 
Captain  Prince  .-Mden,  llenedlel  Siitterlee.  N'aidad  Coleman.  Pelcr  Com- 
stock,John  Franklin,  llenjamln  Matthews.  Jidin  liurk<-<',  Wlllluni  Gal- 
lop, Slejihen  llurlbut,  Stephen  Mlli-s  and  l->.ra  iK'un. 

The  colonists  in  the  valley  enjoyed  two  years  more  of 
repose  and  prosperity.  About  (he  year  1771  a  settle- 
ment was  made  by  Connecticut  people  at  Muncy.  on  the 
west  branch  of  the  Susquehanna,  about  sixty  miles  above 
its  confluence'with  the  east  branch  at  In 
September,  1775,  this  settlement  was  attacked  by  a  force 
of  Northumberland  militia,  commanded  by  rolonel  I'lim- 
kett.  One  man  was  killed,  several  were  wounded,  and 
the  rest  of  the  settlers  were  made  prisoners  and  taken  to 
Sunbury.  At  about  the  same  time  some  boats  from 
Wyoming,  as  thev  were  descemling  the  river,  were  at- 
tacked and  |)lundered  by  the  Pennsylvanians. 

Because  of  these  acts  the  people  of  Northumberland 
were  apprehensive  that  the  Yankees  might  make  a  de- 
scent on  .Sunbury,  burn  the  town  and  liberate  the  pris 
oners  ;  and  one  of  the  consequences  of  this  apprehension 
was  the  organization  of  a  force  for  the  invasion  and  sub- 
jugation of  the  Wyoming  valley.  This  force  was  raised 
by  Colonel  Plunkett,  under  orders  from  Governor  Penn. 
and  consisted  of  seven  hundred  men  well  armed  and 
furnished  with  ample  supplies.  In  December,  1775,  this 
force  ascended  the  river  in  boats  to  the  Nanticoke 
rapids,  where  it  disembarked  and  passed  on  the  west 
side  of  the  river  through  the  gorge  by  which  the  Susque 
hanna  escapes  from  the  Wyoming  valley.  Near  the 
point  where  the  gorge  opens  into  the  valley  Colonel 
Plunkett  found  the  vigilant  Yankees,  posted  in  an  advan- 
tageous position  and  protected  by  breastworks;  and, 
though  inferior  in  numbers,  they  gave  his  forces  surh  a 
warm  reception  that  they  fell  back,  with  the  loss  of  some 
killed  and  wounded.  .A  boat  was  then  brought  up  anil 
an  attempt  was  made  by  Colonel  Plunkett  to  cross  the 
river.  In  anticipation  of  this  movement  Colonel  Zebulon 
Butler,  who  commanded  the  force  in  the  valley,  had 
stationed  a  party  of  men  under  Lieutenant  Stewart  in 
ambush  on  the  east  side  of  the  river  ;  and  these  gave  the 
party  in  the  boat,  as  it  attempted  to  land,  a  volley  whii  h 
wounded  several  and  killed  a  dog.  Finding  every  ap- 
proach to  the  valley  guarded,  the  forces  of  Colonel  Plun- 
kett fell  back  to  their  boats,  .1,  in.U.ncd  the  expedition 
and  relumed  to  their  homes 

.\t  this  time  the    Revolutionary   had   lu- 
and  during  its  continuance  the  contest  lor  the  1 
of  this  valley  was  suspended.     It  was  renewed,  however, 
immediatclv  after  the  surrender  of  Cornwallis. 





It  will  be  remembered  that  in  1776  the  proprietary 
government  was  superseded  by  that  of  the  State,  and  on 
the  cessation  of  hostilities  the  Supreme  Executive 
Council  at  once  petitioned  Congress  to  adjust  the  ([ues- 
tion  of  jurisdiction.  A  board  of  commissioners  was  ap- 
pointed for  that  purpose,  and  after  a  long  session  at 
Trenton  they  decided,  in  December,  1782,  that  the  juris- 
diction belonged  to  Pennsylvania,  and  that  Connecticut 
had  "  no  right  to  the  land  in  controversy."  Soon  after- 
ward magistrates  and  troops  were  sent  into  the  valley, 
and  measures  were  taken  to  dispossess  the  settlers  of  their 
lands  and  improvements.  The  settlers  claimed  that  only 
the  jurisdiction  of  the  territory  had  been  decided  by  the 
decree  at  Trenton,  and  that  the  titles  of  individuals  to  the 
soil  were  not  affected  thereby.  The  conduct  of  the  sol- 
diers and  magistrates  was  from  the  first  exceedingly 
arrogant  and  oppressive,  and  as  time  went  on  the  people 
came  to  regard  endurance  as  no  longer  a  virtue  and  re- 
solved on  forcible  resistance.  Upon  this  they  were  treated 
as  insurgents,  and  on  the  12th  of  May,  1784,  they  were 
plundered  of  their  property  a..d  one  hundred  and  fifty 
families  were  driven  from  the  valley.  Such  was  the 
cruelty  with  which  they  were  treated  that  the  sympathies 
and  indignation  of  the  people  in  other  parts  of  the  State 
were  aroused;  the  soldiers  were  discharged  and  the  set- 
tlers invited  to  return.  Many  of  the  discharged  soldiers 
lingered  in  the  valley,  living  by  plunder,  and  on  the  20th 
of  July  a  party  of  them  attacked  some  of  the  settlers,  kill- 
ing two  and  wounding  several.  This  was  followed  by 
hostilities  toward  the  Yankees,  which  were  resisted  by 
them.  In  the  course  of  the  summer  and  autumn  several 
engagements  took  place  between  the  settlers  and  the 
military  forces  which  were  sent  against  them,  in  which 
several  were  killed  and  wounded.  The  people  of  the 
State  became  weary  of  this  contest,  and  their  sympathies 
became  more  actively  enlisted  in  behalf  of  the  inhabitants 
of  the  valley.  By  the  middle  of  October  the  hostile 
force  in  the  valley  numbered  only  for^y  men,  and  so  un- 
popular and  e\en  odious  had  the  proceedings  against  the 
people  there  become  that  not  a  recruit  could  be  induced  to 
join  them.  On  the  approach  of  winter  the  commander  of 
these  forces,  finding  himself  unable  to  procure  either  sup- 
plies or  recruits,  discharged  his  men  and  abandoned  the 
valley.  Thus  ended  the  last  military  demonstration 
against  the  people  of  Wyoming. 

During  the  succeeding  two  years  the  people  were  pros- 
perous and  happy,  and  the  population  rapidly  increased 
by  the  influx  of  immigrants  not  only  to  the  valley  but  to 
the  circumjacent  regions. 

The  territory  now  included  in  Wyoming  and  Lacka- 
wanna counties  had  become  settled  to  some  extent  along 
the  valleys  of  the  two  principal  streams  and  their  tribu- 
taries. These  regions,  however,  had  not  been  the  scene 
of  hostilities  between  the  contending  parties,  although 
three  of  the  Susquehanna  Company's  townships  were  in- 
cluded in  what  is  now  Wyoming  county. 

The  county  of  Luzerne  was  erected  in  1786.  The 
people  were  sitisfied  with  the  government,  and  a  more 
kindly  feeling  was  springing  up  between  the  inhabitants 
of  the  valley  and  the  citizens  elsewhere  ;  but  the  ques- 

tion of  title  was  not  yet  adjusted,  though  efforts  for  an 
adjustment  of  it  had  been  made. 

About  this  time  Colonel  Timothy  Pickering  became 
acquainted  with  the  facts  in  the  case,  and  soon  afterward 
he  established  his  residence  in  the  valley.  Through  his 
influence  a  compromise  was  effected,  and  a  law  in  accord- 
ance with  the  terms  of  this  compromise  w^as  enacted  by 
the  legislature.  Under  this  law  commissioners  for  the 
adjustment  of  claims  met  in  the  valley  in  May,  1787. 
Meantime  the  New  England  immigrants  had  become 
divided.  A  portion  of  them  (mostly  settlers  subsequent 
to  the  decision  of  the  question  of  jurisdiction  by  the  Con- 
gressional commission)  strongly  opposed  acquiescence 
in  the  compromise  law,  and  sought  by  every  means  to 
arouse  and  strengthen  opposition  to  it  in  others.  They 
had  in  contemplation  the  formation  of  another  State  out 
of  the  territory  which  had  been  in  dispute,  and  to  that 
end  they  had  drawn  up  a  constitution  and  completed  a 
frame  of  government.  The  most  active  leader  in  that 
opposition — a  man  named  John  Franklin — was  finally 
arrested  under  a  charge  of  treason  in  attempting  to 
subvert  the  government  and  establish  a  new  State,  and 
taken  to  Philadelphia.  Early  in  October,  1787,  in 
revenge  for  this  and  to  procure  the  release  of  Franklin, 
his  friends,  after  several  unsuccessful  attempts,  sricceeded 
in  abducting  Colonel  Pickering.  He  was  taken  up  the 
river  beyond  the  mouth  of  Tunkhannock  creek,  and  kept 
concealed  during  nearly  three  weeks.  His  captors  and 
guards  frequently  shifted  camp  to  elude  the  jiursuit  which 
they  knew  was  made.  In  this  time  some  skirmishing  took 
place  between  the  pursuers  and  the  Yankees  at  Meshop- 
pen  and  Wyso,  in  which  two  men  were  wounded.  Failing 
to  accomplish  their  purpose,  they  liberated  him  at  Tunk- 
hannock and  he  returned  to  his  home  in  Wilkes-Barre. 

The  results  of  these  lawless  acts  on  the  part  of  a  por- 
tion of  the  Yankees  were  the  suspension  and,  in  1790,  the 
repeal  of  the  compromise  act. 

Several  actions  were  then  commenced  in  the  courts  for 
determining  the  titles  to  these  lands,  but  during  the  eight 
years  that  followed  none  of  these  were  determined.  In 
April,  1799,  the  Legislature  passed  another  compromise 
act,  which  provided  for  compensation  to  claimants  under 
titles  from  Pennsylvania,  and  for  confirmation  by  certifi- 
cates of  the  titles  of  the  Connecticut  settlers  who  were 
such  prior  to  the  decree  of  Trenton,  or  their  heirs  or  as- 
signs. These  certificates  were  issued  by  commissioners 
appointed  under  the  law,  which  limited  their  action  within 
the  "seventeen  townships  in  the  county  of  Luzerne"  that 
were  originally  surveyed  and  settled  under  the  authority 
of  the  Susquehanna  Company.  By  an  act  of  the  Legis- 
lature in  1808  the  powers  of  these  commissioners  ceased, 
and  thus  was  terminated  the  contest  concerning  the  title 
to  these  lands,  which  had  continued  through  nearly  half  a 
century,  and  which  at  the  present  day  elicits  a  warin  in- 
terest among  the  descendants  of  the  contesting  parties. 

In  an  address  on  this  subject,  delivered  recently  before 
the  historical  society  of  Pennsylvania,  Governor  Hoyt 
tersely  says:  "The  discussion  converges  upon  two  propo- 
sitions, each  somewhat  paradoxical:  I.  In  the  forum  of  law 
Connecticut,  with  a  title  regular  on  its  face,  failed  justly; 
2.  In  the  forum  of  equity  the  Connecticut  settlers,  without 
other  title  than  the  '  fiossfssio peiiis,'  prevailed  rightly." 


IHK   ADVKNl-  oi-    Tin;    I'loNKKR. 


CllAriER   IV. 

TlIK     l'i()NKLK> — HU\V       IHKV      CAMK,      SICTTI.KL)      AM)     DK- 

HK  settlement  of  the  valley  of  Wyoming,  which 

f_  J~S^  was  the  first  and  for  many  years  the  only  in- 
•/)\  habited  part  of  Luzerne  county,  was  com- 
.  ~^|  nienced,  as  elsewhere  slated,  under  the  aus- 
■  ;  -  Dices  of  the  Susquehanna  Company,  in  1762. 

]-^  Then  about  two  hundred,  mostly  from  Connecti- 
'  ia^  cut,  came  and  began  their  preparations  for  homes 
in  this  region,  which  was  then  sixty  miles  distant  from  any 
settlement  of  civilized  people.  They  were  not  the  effem- 
inate sons  of  wealthy  parents,  who  had  been  reared  in  the 
lap  of  lu.xury.  From  their  infancy  they  had  by  precept 
and  example  been  taught  the  industry  and  economy  which 
had  enabled  their  fathers  to  thrive  among  the  rocks  and 
hills  of  their  native  country.  They  were  the  hardy,  ac- 
tive and  ambitious  sons  of  New  Englanders,  and  in  the 
exercise  of  the  independent,  self-reliant  spirit  which  they 
had  inherited  from  their  sires,  they  left  their  paternal 
roofs  and  sought  homes  in  this  valley,  far  away  in  the 
untamed  wilderness  of  what  was  then  the  west. 

A  few  brought  with  them  their  wives  and  children,  and 
came  with  oxen  and  carts,  bringing  a  few  indispensable 
articles  of  household  furniture  and  driving  a  few  domes- 
tic animals.  Most  of  them,  however,  came  on  foot,  with 
knapsacks  on  their  backs,  rifles  on  their  shoulders  and 
axes  in  their  hands.  Thus  accoutred,  they  bade  adieu  for 
a  time  to  the  loved  ones  at  home,  and  turned  their  faces 
westward  to  make  for  themselves  homes  and  fortunes. 

Kor  a  time  they  followed  the  trail  of  emigrants  who 
had  settled  in  other  regions,  but  finally  they  abandoned 
this,  left  the  borders  of  civilization  and  struck  into  the 
forest.  They  followed  Indian  trails,  threaded  foicsts 
and  swamps,  and  climbed  over  mountains,  camping  in 
s-quads  in  the  roads  by  night,  till  at  length  they  reached 
the  valley,  and  hawing  selected  their  locations  commenced 
their  preparations  for  the  future.  Shanties  for  temporary 
shelter  were  constructed,  clearings  were- begun,  and  prep- 
arations made  for  the  erection  of  rude  log  houses  (or  the 
shelter  of  those  whom  they  were  to  bring  with  them  on 
their  return  the  n«;.Vt  year. 

While  this  work  was  in  i)rogress  they  subsisted  largely 
on  the  game  with  which  the  surrounding  forest  abounded, 
and  the  fish  which  were  taken  in  great  numbers  from  the 
river.  Their  neighbors, were  m.iking  similar  preiiarations 
at  different  points  in  the  valley,  and  with  these  they  ^''en 
exchanged  visits,  to  talk  of  home  and  to  discuss  their 
plans  for  the  future,  to  anticipate  the  pleasure  which 
they  would  derive  from  such  visits  the  next  year,  when 
they  would  be  accompanied  by  the  partners  who  were  to 
share  their  fortunes  and  their  privations. 

They  frequently  "changed  works"  in  order  to  ac- 
complish some  of  their  various  tasks  with  greater  facility, 
and  to  dissipate  the  sense  of  loneliness  which  haunted 
them  as  they  pursued  their  solitary  labors.  In  this  w.iy 
they  occasionally  hired  from  those  who  had  brouRhi 
teams  a  yoke  of  oxen,  with  which  to  draw  to  their  build- 
ding  sites  the  logs  which  they  had  cut  for  iheir  hauscs, 
and  to  "  log  up  "  the  timber  which  they  desired  to  burn 
on  their  clearings.  Thus  passed  their  first  summer  in  the 
valley.  By  night  they  lay  in  their  shanties  on  their  beds 
of  boughs  and  dreamed  of  the  homes  they  had  left,  or  of 
the  future  homes  which  their  fancies  |.i<  lurL-d:  or  in  their 




w;il  iiig  intervals  listened  to  the  distant  howling  of  the  wolf 
on  the  mountain  side,  and  the  nearer  hooting  of  the  owl. 
Hay  after  day  they  toiled  on,  sustained  and  cheered  by 
their  hopes  of  future  happiness  with  their  chosen  com- 
])anions  and  children  in  the  midst  of  the  surroundings 
which  they  were  creating. 

By  early  autumn  their  rude  houses  were  erected  and 
])artially  prepared  for  their  reception  on  their  return. 
Small  areas  had  been  burned  off,  and  here  they  "  brushed 
in  "  their  first  wheat.  Larger  areas  had  been  cut  over 
and  made  ready  for  burning  and  planting  the  next  spring. 
When  these  preparations  were  completed  they  deposited 
in  places  of  safety  their  axes  and  few  other  implements, 
and  with  light  hearts  turned  their  faces  again  toward 
their  paternal  mansions.  Thus  terminated  the  first  sum- 
mer with  many  a  pioneer  in  Luzerne  county.  As  he 
journeyed  homeward  the  sky  above  him  was  brighter  and 
th«  songs  of  the  birds  in  the  forest  through  which  he 
])assed  more  melodious  than  ever  before,  for  he  was  re- 
turning to  the  haimts  of  his  early  life  from  the  scenes  of 
his  prospective  manhood. 

Li  due  time  he  arrived  among  the  scenes  of  his  child- 
hood and  wended  his  way  to  the  old  home  where  parents 
brothers  and  sisters  welcomed,  him  warmly,  and  listened 
with  eager  attention  to  the  story  of  his  experience  in  the 
wilderness.  He  received  a  still  more  hearty  welcome 
from  another,  who  during  his  long  absence  had  not  ceased 
to  think  of  him  by  day  and  dream  of  him  by  night.  She 
listened  to  the  recital  of  his  doings  with  a  deejier  interest 
for  to  her  and  him  they  were  matters  of  eijual  impor- 

A  wedding  soon  occurred,  and  the  last  winter  of  the 
pair  in  their  nati\e  State   was  a  season  of   bu'iy  jirepara- 

tion  for  removal  to  their  western  home,  interspersed  with 
social  gatherings  and  merry-makings  among  the  scenes 
and  companions  of  their  childhood.  They  sat  down  to 
their  last  Thanksgiving  dinner  with  their  parents,  broth- 
ers and  sisters;  attended  their  last  Christmas  and  New 
Year's  festivals  with  their  former  playmates  and  school- 
fellows, and  on  the  approach  of  spring  bade  all  these 
scenes  and  friends  a  tearful  adieu,  and  departed  for  their 
new  home,  followed  by  the  good  wishes  of  their  friends^ 
and  the  benedictions  and  prayers  of  their  parents. 

Their  outfit  consisted  of  a  yoke  of  oxen  and  a  cart, 
loaded  with  a  few  utensils  and  necessary  articles  of 
household  furniture.  They  brought  with  them  a  cow  or 
two  and  a  few  sheep,  the  latter  to  serve  as  the  nucleus  of 
a  flock,  which,  if  spared  by  the  wolves,  was  to  furnish 
wool  for  their  future  clothing.  Thus  equipped  they  pur- 
sued their  toilsome  journey  till  at  length  their  destination 
was  reached,  and  they  entered  at  once  on  the  realities  of 
pioneer  life. 

Their  house  was  made  tenable  by  the  few  preparations 
which  pioneers  found  necessary  for  their  comfort,  thougit 
open  holes  in  the  walls  at  first  served  for  windows  and 
one  in  the  roof  for  a  chimney,  and  a  blanket  was  the 
door.  A  small  spot  was  prepared  for  the  garden  seeds 
which  they  had  brought,  their  corn  field  was  burned  off 
and  i)lanted  in  due  season,  and  a  large  area  prepared  for 
other  wheat  and  corn  fields.  Li  this  the  labor  of  the 
husband  was  lightened  by  the  ])resence  and  encouraging 
smiles,  and  sometimes  by  the  assistance,  of  his  young 
wife.  Li  their  solitude  they  were  sustained  by  their 
buoyant  hopes  of  the  future,  and  they  ever  after  referred 
to  this  summer  as  the  happiest  jieriod  of  their  lives. 
Their   wheat   field   gave   good    returns  ;  the   few  acres 



whic'.i  llv.-y  cleared  and  |)lauted  wilii  turn  yielded  abun- 
dantly, and  early  in  the  winter  they  secured  a  sufficient 
supply  of  venison.  Their  wheat  and  corn  were  ground 
in  a  "pioneer  mill  " — a  mortar  hollowed  in  a  stump  or  in 
the  end  of  a  log  A  hovel  had  been  constructed  of  logs 
and  roofed  with  brush  or  straw,  for  the  protection  of 
iheir  animals  against  the  inclemency  of  the  weather  and 
the  attacks  of  wild  beasts.  No  hay  was  provided  for  the 
cattle,  but  from  day  to  day  trees  were  cut  on  ground  that 
was  to  be  cleared  the  next  summer,  and  they  lived  on  the 
browse  which  these  afforded.  A  couple  of  pigs  and  a 
few  fowls  were  fed  each  morning  at  the  door  of  the  house 
with  corn  from  the  wife's  folded  a|)ron.  Tluis  passed 
their  first  winter  in  the  woods.  The  sound  of  the  hus- 
band's ax  echoed  through  the  forest  during  the  day,  and 
the  wife  plied  "her  evening  care"  in  the  cheerful  glow 
of  the  "blazing  hearth  "  at  night.  Their  simple  fare  and 
active  exercise  in  the  open  air  gave  them  robast  health, 
and  though  their  surroimdings  were  quite  different  from 
those  in  the  midst  of  which  they  had  been  reared,  this 
was  the  home  which  they  had  made  for  themselves,  and 
they  were  happy  in  the  enjoyment  of  it. 

During  the  summer  other  settlers  had  come  in,  some 
singly,  others  in  companies,  with  their  families ;  and 
neighbors  were  more  numerous  and  less  distant,  and  the 
monotony  of  their  life  was  varied  by  occasional  exchanges 
of  evening  visits  among  these.  This  social  intercourse 
among  the  pioneers  had  none  of  the  bad  features  which 
characterized  that  of  later  times.  There  were  among 
them  no  conventionalities,  no  unmeaning  expressions  of 
civility,  ho  unkind  criticism  of  each  others'  dress  or  sur. 

roundiiigs,  no  rivalries  and  jealousies, and  no  hypocritical 
manifestations  of  interest  in  each  others'  welfare.  Each 
rejoiced  with  his  neighbor  in  his  prosperity  or  sympa- 
thized with  him  in  his  adversity.  These  visits  were  anti- 
cipated with  pleasure  and  remembered  without  regret. 

The  happy  life  which  they  had  just  commenced  here  was 
darkened  by  many  shadows.  The  Indians  of  the  vicinity 
became  exasperated  towards  the  settlers,  by  reason  of  an 
act  of  treachery  on  the  part  of  the  members  of  a  distant 
tribe,  fell  upon  them,  killed  many  and  drove  away  the 
others.  Several  years  later  they  returned  and  resimied 
their  occupancy  of  the  valley,  but  they  were  several  times 
driven  out  by  adverse  claimants,  and  were  comj)elled  to 
resort  to  force  for  the  mainienance  of  their  rights  and 
the  protection  of  their  property. 

Notwithstanding  these  interruptions  a  few  years 
brought  evidence  of  increasing  prosperity.  The  clearing 
had  been  enlarged  and  a  portion  of  it  fenced  ;  a  stick 
chimney,  plastered  with  mud,  filled  the  hole  in  the  roof ; 
glass  had  taken  the  place  of  greased  paper  in  the  window;' 
a  plank  door  swung  on  wooden  hinges  where  formerly 
hung  the  blanket,  and  some  flowering  shrubbery  was 
growing  at  the  side  of  it.  A  more  capacious  and  com- 
fortable stable  had  been  erected  for  the  animals,  a 
"  worm  "  fence  appeared  around  the  house  and  garden, 
and  a  log  bridge  had  been  built  across  the  stream 
which  ran  near  the  hduse.  Near  the  edge  of  the  clearing 
the  crackling  fire  was  consuming  the  trees  that  I' 
of  a  logging  bee  were  piling  together  for  that  p.  , 
The  corn,  potatoes,  pumjikins,  etc.,  which  had  been 
planted  among  th4  stumps  had  attained  sufficient  growth 




to  be  visible  fioiu  some  distance.  A  calf  frolicked  at 
the  side  of  its  dam  and  a  litter  of  grunting  young  porkers 
asserted  their  right  to  "  life,  liberty,"  etc.  Every  thing 
wore  an  air  of  thrift.  The  solitude  of  the  wife  >»'as 
enlivened  by  the  prattle  of  her  children,  and  their^jlay- 
ful  caresses  sweetened  the  labor  and  lessened  the  fatigue 
of  the  husband  and  father. 

The  tide  of  immigration,  the  first  wave  of  which  had 
borne  them  hither,  continued  with  increasing  flow.  Set- 
tlers came  more  rapidly,  the  smoke  from  their  hearths 
curled  upward  at  shorter  intervals,  and  clearings  en- 
croached more  and  more  on  the  surrounding  vvilderness. 
The  hissing  and  rushing  of  the  whirlwinds  of  flame  were 
oftener  heard  as  the  trees  that  had  been  felled  and  had 
become  dry  were  consumed.  Small  fields  of  waving  corn 
and  here  and  there  a  verdant  meadow  were  to  be  seen. 
The  music  of  numerous  cow  bells  was  heard,  and  "drowsy 
tinklings  lulled  the  distant  folds "  where  sheep  were 
herded  to  protect  them  from  the  wolves  at  night.  The 
hum  of  spinning  wheels  might  be  heard  in  almost  every 
house,  and  the  merry  laughter  and  shouts  of  frolicksome 
children  resovmded  as  they  gamboled  through  the  woods. 

The  Revolutionary  war  came  upon  the  country,  and 
nowhere  were  its  horrors  greater  than  here.  On  the  re- 
turn of  peace  the  few  surviving  settlers  came  back  to  the 
valley,  and  prosperity  smiled  again.  Settlements  extended 
up  the  valleys  of  the  Sus(iuehanna  and  the  Lackawanna 
and  their  tributaries,  and  many  of  the  earliest  e.xperiences 
of  the  settlers  in  the  Wyoming  valley  were  repeated  in 
these  localities. 

'J'he  lapse  of  time  brought  with  it  changes.  The  old 
house,  which  had  survived  the  ravages  of  war,  had  come 
to  be  only  the  wing  of  a  new  one  that   had  been  built  of 

squared  logs,  covered  with  a  shingled  roof,  lighted  by 
glazed  windows  andj  closed  by  a  paneled  door.  A  lawn 
appeared  in  front,  tastefully  ornamented  with  flowers, 
and  fruit  trees  were  growing  on  the  former  site  of  the 
garden.  An  apiary  stood  on  the  margin  of  the  lawn, 
which  was  bounded  by  a  straight  fence.  A  commodious 
frame  barn  had  been  built,  and  where  the  forest  once 
stood  were  fields  of  waving  grain.  Beyond  the  grove  of 
sugar  maples  could  be  seen  the  log  school-house  where, 
"in  her  noisy  mansion  skilled  to  rule,  the  comely  mistress 
taught  her  little  school." 

The  stream  that  ran  by  was  spanned  by  a  newer  bridge, 
and  the  ding-donging  of  a  saw-mill  that  had  been  built 
on  its  bank  could  be  heard  in  the  distance.  The  eldest 
surviving  son  of  the  pioneer  couple,  now  grown  to  be  a 
young  man,  drove  toward  the  barn  with  a  load  of  hay 
drawn  by  horses  instead  of  the  oxen  that  for  years  had 
constituted  their  only  team.  At  the  well,  which  still  had 
its  primitive  sweep,  stood  a  somewhat  portly  matron,  who 
turned  to  look  with  motherly  pride  at  her  son  as  he  drove 
along.  A  middle-aged  man  was  walking  down  the  road 
that  came  from  the  mill.  It  was  he  who  came  many 
years  since  with  his  knapsack,  rifle  and  ax,  and  built  his 
shanty  in  the  howling  wilderness.  The  woman  at  the 
well  was  the  young  wife  who  came  with  him  a  year  later. 
Their  privations,  hardships,  industry  and  economy  had 
been  rewarded.  They  had  actjuired  an  honorable  com- 
petence. They  had,  however,  experienced  vicissitudes. 
A  brother  of  the  husband  and  two  brothers  of  the  wife 
fell  on  the  fatal  field  of  Wyoming,  and  there  the  husband 
acquired  an  honorable  scar.  They  had  also  followed  two 
of  their  children  to  the  grave. 

Sixty  years  had   gone  by  since  the  setHement  of   the 



valley.  An  elegant  mansions  tood  on  the  site  of  the  old  log 
cabin,  and  all  its  surroundings  indicated  that  it  was  the 
abode  of  wealth  and  refinement.  The  stream  passed 
under  a  stone  arch;  the  old  saw-mill  had  gone  to  decay; 
the  sugar  orchard  was  no  longer  to  he  seen,  and  only  on 
the  mountain  sides  were  the  remains  of  the  |)rimiti\e 
forest  visible.  Spacious  fields  and  elegant  (arm  houses 
were  to  be  seen  on  the  extended  lamlscape,  and  the  tall 
spire  of  a  church  pointed  skyward  from  among  the  houses 
of  a  village  near.  A  gray  haired  man  was  busy  with  the 
cattle  in  the  barnyard,  and  a  portly  woman  sat  by  the 
stove  knitting,  while  some  of  the  grand-children  were 
playing  on  the  floor  and  others  were  engaged  in  various 
kinds  of  work. 

These  aged  people  were  the  ones  who  left  their  New 
England  homes  in  their  youtli  and  came  to  this  spot. 
They  had  deeded  their  farm  to  their  youngest  son  and 
taken  the  usual  life  lease.  Another  of  their  children  had 
been  added  to  the  group  in  the  cemetery;  one  had  set- 
tled in  an  adjoining  town,  and   two  were    in  the  far  west. 

Another  interval  of  half  a  century  has  passed,  and 
brought  its  inevitable  changes.  The  old  pioneer  couple 
long  since  passed  to  their  rest;  the  son  who  was  the  solace 
and  support  of  their  declining  years  is  now  an  octogena- 
rian, and  his  grandchildren  are  one  by  one  assuming  their 
|)Ositions  as  citizens  and  members  of  society.  The  an- 
cestral mansion,  which  still  stands  on  the  site  of  the  orig- 
inal pioneer  cabin,  has  from  time  to  time  changed  in 
aij|)earance,  as  changing  fashion  has  dictated  and  increas- 
ing prosperity  permitted,  till  it  is  among  the  most  tasteful 
in  the  \alley.  The  original  farm,  which  extended  back 
and  included  a  portion  of  the  mountain,  received  addi- 
tions by  purchase  from  time  to  time;  and  its  value  has 
been  greatly  enhanced  by  the  discovery  and  development 
of  the  mineral  resources  which  lie  beneath  the  surface. 
The  landscape  in  the  valley  has  greatly  changed.  Along 
the  base  of  either  mountain  range  at  short  intervals  rise 
coal  breakers,  with  their  immense  hills  of  culm  and  the 
adjacent  miners'  villages.  Populous  cities-  and  thriving 
boroughs  have  come  into  existence.  Along  the  margins 
of  the  river  railroad  tracks  with  branches  to  the  collieries 
extend  through  the  valley  and  climb  the  mountain  sides, 
and  the  panting  and  screaming  of  the  engines  that  draw 
the  long,  snake-like  trains  of  cars  may  be  almost  constantly 
heard.  Along  these  tracks  extend  telegraph  lines,  and 
stretching  from  place  to  place  may  be  seen  the  thread- 
like wires  of  the  telephone.  Here  and  there  the  sides  of 
the  mountain  are  dotted  with  clearings,  where  with  great 
labor  farms  have  been  developed  among  the  rocks.  How 
different  the  landsca[)e  of  to-day  from  that  of  a  century 
since  I 


THK     C()NI)1TU)N     OF    THE     IMONEKRS rHIIR     W  AVS     AN1> 

MEANS    OK    I.IVINc;. 

K|'\'ER  a  century  has  passed  since  the  first  settle- 
ment of  this  region,  and  changing  circum- 
stances have  brought  with  them  such  changes 
in  many  of  the  customs  of  the  people  that 
one  of  the  present  generation  can^form  only 

an  imperfect  conception  of  what  some  of  those 

customs  were. 

People  are  usually  slow  to  adopt  those  modifications 
in  their  customs  which  changes  in  their  environments 
render  desirable,  or  even  almost  necessitate.  Like  the 
Welshman  who  persisted  in  balancing  the  wheat  in  one 
end  of  his  bag  by  a  stone  in  the  other  "because  her's 
father  did  so,"  they  follow  the  beaten  track  which  their 
ancestors  pursued,  and  often  only  turn  from  it  when 
changed  circumstances  actually  rom|)el  them  to  do  so. 

The  march  of  improvement  and  the  progress  of  inven- 
tion make  slow  advances,  except  in  those  cases  where 
necessity  compels  people  to  follow  tiie  one,  or  loudly  calls 
for  the  other. 

The  rude  implements  and  appliances  that  were  in  use 
"when  the  country  was  new"  were  inventions  which 
grew  out  of  the  necessities  of  the  times,  and  were  adapted 
to  the  circumstances  in  which  people  found  themselves 
Time  wore  on,  and  those  circumstances  gave  place  to 
others.  Inventions  followed  these  changes;  but  in  many 
cases,  as  in  those  of  the  cast  iron  jjIow,  the  grain-cradle 
and  the  horse  rake,  the  inventors  only  lived  to  see  their 
improved  implements  scoffed  at  and  derided.  Thus 
have  ))eople  always  done,  and  thus  they  will  to  a  greater 
or  less  extent  continue  to  do.  As  in  the  physical  world, 
however,  one  condition  is  evolved  from  another  by  the 
slow  |)rocess  of  natural  selection,  so  in  these  cases  the 
fittest  are  in  the  end  the  survivors. 

The  first  settlers  in  this  region  came  when  the  primi- 
tive forest  was  growing  not  only  heie  but  in  the  country 
through  which  they  had  passed  for  many  miles.  The 
first  roads,  which  were  simply  widened  Indian  trails- 
were  then  barely  passable.  Of  course  they  could  bring 
with  them  only  those  articles  of  household  furniture  or 
those  agricultural  implements  that  were  indispensable. 

The  first  work  of  the  pioneer  was  to  prepare  a  house, 
or  dwelling  place  for  his  family.  There  were  no  mills 
for  the  manufacture  of  lumber,  and  the  first  houses  were 
necessarily  built  of  logs  fastened  by  notching  at  the 
corners.  They  were  usually  from  fifteen  to  eighteen 
feet  sipiare,  and  about  seven  feet  in  height,  or  high 
enough  to  just  clear  the  head  of  a  tall  man.  Often  no 
floor  was  at  first  laid.  A  fire  place  was  prepared  at  one 
end  by  erecting  a  back  of  stones,  laid  in  mud  instead  o^ 
mortar,  and  a  hole  was  left  in  the  bark  or  slab  roof  for 
the  escape  of  the  smoke.  .\  chimney  of  sticks  plastered 
with  mud  was  afterward  erected  in  this  aperture.  .\ 
space  of  a  width  suitable  for  a  door  was  cut  on  one  side. 
and  this  was  closed  first  by  hanging  in  it  a  blanket,  and 
afterward  by  a  door  made  with  split  jilank  and  hung  on 
wooden  hinges.  This  door  was  fastened  by  a  wooden 
latch  that  could  be  raised  from  the  outside  by  a  string, 
which  was  passed  through  a  hole  above  it.  When  the 
lalch  string  was  "pulled  in"  the  door  was  effectually 
fastened.  The  expression  used  of  a  hospitable  man — 
"  his  latch  string  is  always  out  " — had  its  origin  from  this 
primitive  method  of  fastening  a  log  house  door.  A  hole 
was  usually  cut  in  each  side  of  this  house  to  let  in  light, 
and  when  glazed  sash  could  not  be  procared  greased 
paper  was  used  to  keep  out  the  blasts  and  snows  of 
autumn  and  winter. 




Holes  were  bored  at  the  [jroper  height  in  the  logs  at 
one  corner  of  the  room,  and  into  these  the  ends  of  poles 
were  fitted,  the  opposite  ends  where  they  crossed  being 
supported  by  a  crotch,  or  a  block  of  the  proi)er  height. 
Across  these  poles  others  were  laid,  and  these  were 
covered  by  a  thick  mattress  of  hemlock  or  other  boughs, 
over  which  blankets  were  spread.  'I'hus  were  ])ioneer 
bedsteads  constructed;  and  on  such  a  bed  many  ajjionecr 
couple  reposed  as  sweetly  as  though  "  sunk  in  beds  of 
down."  In  the  absence  of  chairs  rude  seats  were  made 
with  an  ax  and  auger  by  boring  holes  in  "  |)uncheons," 
or  planks  split  from  basswood  logs  and  hewn  smooth  on 
one  side.  Tables  were  often  made  in  the  same  way,  and 
after  a  time  a  floor  was  constructed  of  these  "  puncheons," 
with  a  bare  sjiace  in  lieu  of  a  hearth  about  the  fire  place. 
\  few  necessary  pieces  of  crockery,  or  sometimes  wooden 
trenc  hers,  were  kejit  on  rude  slielves  till,  after  a  few 
years,  lumber  could  be  procured  of  whiih  to  make  a  cup- 

.•\  dinner  jint,  a  dish  kettle,  a  tea  kettle,  a  frying  pan 
and  a  bake  kettle  constituted  the  entire  stock  of  iron 
ware.  The  bake  kettle — a  utensil  that  is  now  never 
seen — was  a  shallow  vessel  with  legs  some  si.\  inches  in 
length,  so  that  it  could  be  set  over  coals  on  the  hearth. 
It  had  a  cover  with  the  edges  turned  up  so  that  coals 
could  be  heaped  on  it.  This  was  used  at  first  for  all  the 
baking  of  many  a  pioneer  family.  The  fire  place  had, 
instead  of  the  iron  crane  with  which  it  was  afterward 
furnished,  a  transverse  pole,  called  a  lug  pole,  laid  across 
two  others  so  that  it  could  be  moved  backwards  and  for- 
wards at  a  sufficient  height  to  prevent  burning.  On  this 
at  first  hooks  cut  from  beech  saplings,  or  limbs,  vvere 
fastened  by  withes,  but  after  blacksmiths'  shops  were 
established  these  were  replaced  by  "trammels,"  or  hooks 
so  constructed  that  their  length  could  be  adjusted. 

This  room,  thus  furnished,  served  all  the  purposes  of 
kitchen,  drawing-room,  sitting-room,  parlor  and  bed- 
room; and  not  unfrequently  workshop  also,  for  temporary 
benches  were  erected,  and  sleds,  ox  yokes,  and  many 
other  farming  utensils  were  made  and  repaired  there 
during  stormy  days  or  evenings.  The  light  for  such 
evening  work  was  furnished  by  the  blazing  fire  of  pine 
knots  which  had  been  gathered  and  stored  away  for  the 
purpose,  or  sometimes  by  a  "  slut,"  which  was  made  by 
placing  a  rag  for  a  wick  in  a  dish  of  "  coon's  oil,"  or  the 
fat  of  some  other  wild  animal. 

Here  also,  as  time  went  on,  were  heard  the  raking  of 
the  hand  cards  and  the  whir  of  the  spinning  wheel  ;  for 
in  those  days  the  cloth  for  both  the  summer  and  winter 
clothing  of  the  family  was  homemade,  and  all  the  techni- 
calities of  the  process,  from  picking  the  wool  to  "taking 
out  the  piece,"  were  as  familiar  to  every  member  of  the 
family  as  any  household  word. 

At  first,  before  the  establishment  of  cloth  dressing 
mills,  the  dyeing  or  coloring,  even  of  all  the  woolen 
cloth,  was  done  by  the  pioneer  wives  ;  and  after  cioth- 
ieries  made  their  appearance  everything  except  "fulled 
cloth  "  was  colored  at  home.  The  properties  and  the 
proper  method  for  compounding  for  different  colors  of 

Nicaraugua  or  Nic.  wood,  logwood,  fustic,  indigo,  mad- 
der, copperas,  alum,  vitriol,  etc.,  as  well  as  all  the  various 
indigenous  barks  and  plants,  were  known  to  every  house- 
wife. Tlie  old  dye  tub,  which  is  still  remembered  by  the 
older  inhabitants,  had  its  place  at  the  side  of  every  hearth, 
where  it  was  frequently  used  as  a  seat  for  children  in 
cases  of  emergency,  or  when  the  increase  of  the  family 
was  more  rapid  than  that  of  chairs.  Peter  Parley  '  Mr. 
Cioodrich  calls  it  "the  institution  of  the  dye  tub,  which, 
when  the  night  had  waned  and  the  family  had  retired, 
frequently  became  the  anxious  seat  of  the  lover,  who  was 
permitted  to  carry  on  his  courtshi]j,  the  object  of  his 
addresses  sitting  demurely  in  the  opposite  corner." 

The  flax  brake,  swingling  knife  and  board,  and  hatchel 
are  never  seen  now  ;  and  one  of  the  present  generation 
would  be  utterly  unable  to  guess  their  uses  were  they 
shown  to  him.  Then  the  pulling  and  rotting  and  all  the 
details  of  dressing  tlax  were  known  to  every  child  ;  and 
the  |)rocess  of  spinning  the  flax  and  tow,  weaving  and 
bleaching  the  different  (pialities  of  cloth,  and  making  the 
thread  t'or  all  the  family  sewing,  was  a  part  of  the  educa- 
tion of  every  girl.  Wild  nettles  were  at  first  used  instead 
of  the  flax  that  was  afterwards  cultivated.  The  process 
of  rotting,  dressing,  etc.,  was  the  same  as  in  the  case  of 
the  flax.  Then  cotton  cloth  was  not  manufactured  in 
this  country,  and  it  was  practically  beyond  the  reach  of 
most  farmers,  ^Voolen  goods,  other  than  those  of  domes- 
tic manufacture,  were  seldom  seen.  A  "broadcloth  coat" 
was  an  evidence  either  of  unpardonable  vanity  or  of 
unusual  prosperity.  Even  the  skins  of  animals  were  thus 
utilized  for  clothing;  fawn  skin  vests,  doeskin  coats  and 
buckskin  breeches  were  not  uncommon. 

It  is  hardly  necessary  to  speak  of  the  ordinary  food  of 
the  first  settlers,  such  as  hasty  pudding,  johnny  cake,  or 
corn  pones,  the  meal  for  which  was  ground  in  a  pioneer 
mill  or  wooden  mortar  ;  or  of  the  dainties,  such  as  short- 
cakes, mixed  with  the  lye  of  cob  ashes  and  baked  in  ashes 
on  the  hearth,  that  were  set  before  company.  The  simple 
and  substantial  diet  of  the  people  then  was  adopted  be- 
cause circumstances  would  permit  no  other.  They  were 
too  poor  to  pamper  their  children  with  sweetmeats,  or  to 
stimulate  them  with  tea  and  coffee  ;  and  the  incidental 
result  was  a  degree  of  robust  health  such  as  the  children 
in  later  times  do  not  acquire. 

It  must  not  be  inferred  that  all  the  settlers  in  this  re- 
gion were  subjected  to  severe  privations.  The  kind  of 
fare  spoken  of  was  not  looked  upon  as  hard,  for  it  was 
the  best  the  country  then  afforded.  There  were  instances 
where  people  were  compelled  to  resort  to  wild  roots  or 
greens  for  a  dinner,  but  these  were  perhaps  as  rare  as  are 
cases  of  extreme  destitution  now.  The  condition  of  the 
country  was  such  that  these  habits  and  methods,  of  liv- 
ing were  necessary,  and  they  were  not  regarded  as  hard- 

The  agricidture  of  those  times,  if  agriculture  it  may 
be  termed,  was  such  as  is  never  seen  now.  Very  few  at 
the  present  day  have  witnessed  the  process  of  preparing 
the  virgin  soil  for  the  first  cro]j.  The  timber  was  often 
girdled  in  advance,  so  that  when  felled,  as   it    often  was. 



I'RIMI'IIXI'.   lAKMlNC    A  \  I )    IK  \  |)|  \( ;. 

in  what  were  termed  wind  rows,  iiiiich  ul  it  would  burn 
as  it  lay,  being  partially  or  wholly  dried,  by  kindling  the 
fire  at  llie  windward  end  of  these  rows.  After  the  first 
burn  some  of  the  remaining  fragments  were  "  niggered  " 
into  pieces  that  could  be  easily  moved,  and  the  whole 
was  drawn  together  with  oxen  and  "logged  up  "  for  the 
Hnal  burning.  Many  in  the  neighborhood  usually  joined 
in  this  work,  and  the  "  logging  bees,"  or  "  log  frolics," 
were  at  the  same  time  occasions  wiien  work  was  done  and 
social  intercourse  enjoyed.  When  the  burning  was  com- 
pleted anil  the  ashes  collected  the  ground  was  sometimes 
made  ready  for  the  seed  by  harrowing  with  a  three-cor- 
nered harrow,  which  was  often  hewed  from  a  crotched 
tree,  with  either  large  wooden  pins  set  at  intervals,  or 
vory  large  and  strong  iron  teeth.  Such  a  harrow  was 
drawn  over  the  ground  among  the  stumps  to  fit  the  soil 
for  its  first  crop  when  the  roots  were  not  sufficiently  de- 
cayed to  permit  the  use  of  a  plow.  In  using  this  primi- 
tive harrow  in  these  clearings  the  driver  found  it  neces- 
sary to  kee[)  always  at  a  respectful  distance,  for  it  often 
bounded  from  side  to  side  in  a  manner  not  com[)atible 
with  safety  at  close  quarters.  In  cases  where  plowing 
could  be  done  the  old  bull  plow  was  used.  This  was  an 
uncouth  implement,  with  wrought  iron  share  and  a 
wooden  moldboard,  such  as  is  now  scarcely  ever  seen, 
even  among  relics  of  the  past.  In  rare  cases  a  wooden 
plow,  hewn  out  of  a  crotched  tree,  was  used. 

The  wheat  sown  or  corn  planted  in  ground  prepared  in 
this  rude  way  often  gave  good  returns,  such  was  the  fer- 
tility of  the  soil  before  it  was  exhausted  by  repeated 
cropping.  When  the  crop  was  grown  and  ri|)ened,  it 
was  cut  with  sickles,  a  handful  at  a  time.  Sickles  may 
occasionally  be  seen  at  the  present  day;  but  there  are 
few  who  ever  saw  them  used.  For  harvesting  grain 
among  the  stumps  of  the  first  clearings  the  sickle  was 
best  adapted  of  all  instruments,  and  no  other  was  known; 
but  when  these  stumps  had  decayed,  and  the  grain  cradle 
had  been  introduced,  many  looked  upon  it  as  a  perni- 
cious invention,  by  the  use  of  w'hich  more  than  sufficient 
grain  would  be  wasted  to  pay  for  the  labor  of  harvesting, 
and  some  insisted  that  more  (ould  be  harvested  in  the 
same  time  with  the  sickle — so  strongly  are  people 
attached  to  old  customs. 

The  grain  was  first  thresh.ed  with  the  flail  on  the 
ground,  and  partially  separated  from  the  chaff  by  [lour- 
ing it  from  a  height  in  the  wind  and  afterwards  de.x- 
trously  manipulating  it  in  a  "corn  fan,"  a  description  of 
which  would  be  quite  difficult.  For  many  years  after 
barns  were  erected  on  all  farms  the  flail  and  the  feet  of 
horses  were  the  only  threshing  machines,  but  fanning- 
mills  superseded  the  old  corn  fan. 

Hay  was  cut  with  the  old  fashioned  scythe,  which  has 
changed  but  very  little,  and  the  hand  rake  only  was  used 
to  gather  it.  Among  the  stumps  and  stones  in  early 
times  these  were  the  most  available  tools,  but  their  use 
continued  long  after  improved  implements  were  avail- 
able, and  after  such  implements  had  been  invented. 

In  those  days  the  conveyance  most  in  use  was  the  ox- 
cart.    It  was  made  available  for  almost  everything,  from 

hauling   manure  to  going  to  meetinj:  or  to  lulls  and  wed 
dings.     Its  use  was  thus  imiversni  because  it  was,  likr 
the  other  tools  spoken  of,  adapted  to  e,\isting  condiiion> 
The  rough  and  stum]>y  roads  r-lmost  forbade  the  use  <>l 
four-wheeled  conveyances. 

It  seems  hardly  necessary  to  call  attention  lo  the 
wagons,  plows,  harrows,  threshing-machines,  harvest- 
ers, mowers,  wheelrakes,  etc.,  etc.,  of  the  present  da;, 
and  contrast  them  with  the  awkward  and  uncouth  imple- 
ments of  former  times  ;  but  if  this  is  done  the  adaiJta 
tion  of  these  to  their  existing  circumstances  should  be 
remembered,  and  the  arldiiional  fact  should  be  borne  in 
mind  that  the  improved  tools  of  the  present  day  would 
not  then  have  been  available. 

During  some  years  after  the  first  setllemcnl  of  this 
region  trade  was  carried  on  in  a  manner  i|uite  different 
from  the  way  in  which  it  is  now  conducted.  Now  all 
produce  has  a  cash  market  and  a  cash  value;  and  all 
the  necessaries  or  superlluities  that  are  purchased  are 
reckoned  according  to  the  same  standard.  Then  there 
was  not  sufficient  money  in  the  country  to  be  made  the 
medium  of  exchange,  and  trade  was  carried  on  almost 
wholly  by  what  was  termed  barter.  By  reason  of  thi-. 
nearly  exclusive  exchange  trade,  mercantile  establishments 
were  quite  unlike  those  of  the  present  time,  'fhen  every 
store  was  a  commercial  microcosm.  In  it  w^s  kept  every- 
thing that  the  inhabitants  retpiired.  As  one  who  lived  in 
those  times  says:  "  Every  merchant  kept  dry  goods,  grocer. 
ies,  crockery,  glassware,  hardware,  dye  stuffs,  iron,  nails^ 
paints,  oil,  window-glass,  school-books,  stationery,  rum. 
brandy,  gin,  whiskey,  drugs  and  medicines,  ending  with 
a  string  of  etceteras,  or  every  other  article  usually  kept 
in  a  country  store.  Things  were  sometimes  curiously 
grouped;  as,  for  example,  silks  and  iron,  laces  and  fish, 
pins  and  crowbars,  pork  and  tea,  molasses  and  ta  ,  cot- 
ton yarn  and  log  chains,  wheel  heads  and  hoes,  cards  and 
l)itrhforks,  scythes  and  fur  hats."  In  exchange  for  these 
the  pioneer  merchant  received  almost  every  article  of 
country  jirodiice.  Coarse  grain  was  converted  into  spirits 
at  his  distillery,  or  that  of  some  one  in  the  vicinity,  for 
distilleries  sprung  up  early.  Pork  was  "packed,"  and 
other  kinds  of  produce  were  received  for  goods  and  sent 
by  teams  over  the  turnpike  to  Easton,  and  thus  to  I'liila- 
delphia,  where  they  were  exchanged  for  the  goods  that 
were  brought  back  by  the  same  route;  and  so  the  barter 
trade  was  kept  up.  Some  heavy  articles,  such  as  ir<in_ 
salt,  etc.,  were  brought  by  boats  on  the  river.  Expcnsixc 
methods  of  transportation  necessarily  rendered  the  price 
of  goods  high  and  that  of  produce  low,  and  this  condi- 
tion of  things  continued  till  better  facilities  for  transport- 
ation cheapened  merchandise  .mil  inli.uK  i-d  tliu  fn'u  c  of 

Oradually  since  that  time  has  iraik  i  li.iiii;L-U  till  it 
has  reached  a  cash  basis,  and  along  with  this  change  has 
come  another  important  one— the  "division  of  business." 
Now  dry  goods,  groceries,  hardware,  books,  driis-v. 
liquors,  etc.,  etc.,  are  sejiarate  branches  of  busine--^:  '-.A 
produce  dealing  is  separated,  from  all  of  them. 

A  no  less  marked  contrast  is  to  be  seen  in  the  in.niu 



factures  of  those  times  and  the  present.  Tlien  almost 
every  article  and  utensil  that  was  used  was  either  "home- 
made" or  manufactured  at  the  shops  which  sprung  up  to 
supply  the  wants  of  the  early  settlers.  Then,  as  has 
been  stated,  the  cloth  in  which  every  one  was  clad  was 
of  domestic  manufacture.  The  spinning-wheel  and  the 
loom  were  portions  of  the  furniture  of  almost  every  house, 
and  clothieries,  or  wool-carding  and  cloth-dressing  estab- 
lishments, were  as  common  as  grist-mills.  Almost  every 
hamlet  had  its  tailor's  shop,  where  the  knight  of  the 
shears  cut  tlie  clothing  for  the  jicople  of  the  vicinity,  and, 
to  avoid  the  responsibility  of  misfits,  warranted  "to  fit 
if  ])roperly  made  up."  This  clothing  was  made  up  by 
tailoresses,-or,  as  the  tailors  sometimes  termed  them,  "she 
tailors."  The  trade  of  a  tailoress  was  reckoned  a  very 
good  one  ;  for  she  received  for  her  skilled  labor  two 
shillings  as  currency  was  then  talked)  per  day  ;  while 
the  price  of  housework  liclp  was  four  shillings  per 

Shoemakers'  shops  were  abundant  also,  though  there 
were  itinerant  shoemakers  who  "whipped  the  cat,"  as 
going  from  house  to  house  with  their  "kits"  was  termed. 
After  the  establishment  of  tanneries  the  people  were  in 
the  habit  of  having  the  hides  of  their  slaughtered  animals 
tanned  on  shares,  and  the  leather  thus  obtained  was 
worked  up  by  these  circulating  disciples  of  St.  Crispin. 

The  ubitjuitous  tailor  shop  has  entirely  disa|jpeared, 
and.only  here  and  there  is  to  be  seen  a  solitary  cobbler's 
sign.  E\ery  \-illage  has  its  shoe  stores,  and  the  de- 
scendants of  Abraham  vie  with  each  other  in  supplying 
the  gentiles  with  clothing  "  ferry  sheap." 

Very  early  it  was  a  portion  of  the  blacksmith  business  to 
make  the  nails  that  were  required  where  wooden  pins  could 
not  be  used.  Now  an  old  fashioned  wrought  nail  is  a 
curious  relic  of  the  past;  and  even  the  rivets,  bolts,  and 
horse-shoe  nails  that  were  formerly  made  upon  every  anvil 
are  now  made  by  machinery,  and  furnished  more  cheaply 
than  they  can  be  hammered  out  by  the  vulcans  or  their 

So  of  almost  everything.  Where  joiners  formerly  took 
lumber  "in  the  rough  "  and  did  all  the  work  of  building 
a  house,  now  houses  are  almost,  like  Byron's  critics, 
"ready  made;"  for  little  is  required  but  to  put  together 
the  parts  that  are  made  by  machinery. 

The  wheelbarrows,  carts  and  wagons,  and  even  the  cra- 
dles and  coffins,  that  were  formerly  made  in  the  shops 
that  sprang  up  when  the  country  was  first  settled  are 
now  made  by  machinery,  and  sold  at  rates  far  lower  than  i 
those  at  which  handmade  work  can  be  afforded'  and  the 
old  hand  manufactories  have  gone  to  decay  or  degenerated  j 
into  simple  repair  shops. 

In  early  times  wild  animals,  especially  bears  and  wolves, 
and  to  some  extent  i)anthers,  were  sources  of  great  an- 
noyance. It  is  not  known  that  any  person  ever  became 
a  x'ictim  to  ihe  rapacity  of  these  animals,  but  instances 
are  recorded  of  terrible  frights.  Many  swine  that  were 
permitted  to  roam  and  feed  in  the  woods  were  destroyed 
by  bears,  and  great  care  was  necessary  to  protect  sheep 
against  wolves.     P"or  years  the  slumbers   of  people  were 

interrupted  and  night  was  made  hideous   by  the  howling 
of  the  latter. 

It  is  recorded  that  during  twelve  years  following  1808 
the  aggregate  bounty  i^aid  for  the  scalps  of  panthers  in 
Luzerne  county  was  $1,822,  and  during  the  same  time 
$2,872  for  those  of  wolves.  Of  course  during  the  years 
that  preceded  that  time  these  animals  were  more  abund- 
ant. The  howl  of  the  wolf  and  the  screech  of  the  pan- 
ther are  not  now  heard  in  this  region.  Occasionally  a 
bear  is  captured  in  the  mountains,  but  the  time  is  not  far 
distant  when  bruin  will  no  more  be  seen  here. 


OLD  i,i/;ernk  couNl^■   in    rnK  kiovoi.ution. 

HE  Revolutionary  history  of  this  region  limits 
itself  to  that  of  the  Wyoming  valley.  Be- 
yond this  valley  there  were  at  the  com- 
mencement of  the  Revolution  hardly  any 
settlements  nearer  than  those  on  the  Dela- 
i^^f  ware,  which  were  sixty  miles  distant,  through 
'  "  a  wilderness  of  swamps  and  mountain  ranges;  or 
Sunbury,  which  lay  an  equal  distance  down  the  Susque- 
hanna river;  a  few  isolated  settlers,  nearly  all  of  whom 
were  tories,  had  just  located  at  Tunkhannock  and  at 
points  further  up  the  river.  Wyoming  was  not  on  the 
outskirts  of  civilization;  it  was  an  isolated  settlement  in 
the  midst  of  a  country  inhabited  by  sa\ages  that  after- 
ward became  hostile.  The  country  of  the  warlike  Iro- 
(juois  included  the  head  waters  and  upjier  branches  of 
the  Susquehanna,  down  which  a  war  party  of  these  sava- 
ges could  at  any  time  sail  in  their  light  canoes  when 
tempted  to  do  so  by  the  hope  of  obtaining  scalps  or 
plunder.  In  this  isolated  condition,  away  from  the 
theater  of  active  hostilities  and  distant  from  any 
thoroughfare  ever  which  hostile  parties  could  pass  on 
expeditions  against  regions  on  either  side  of  them,  it  was 
but  reasonable  to  suppose  that  they  stood  in  very  little 
peril  except  from  the  incursions  of  marauding  savages. 

In  order  to  form  a  just  idea  of  the  condition  of  the 
Ijeople  here  at  that  time,  it  must  be  remembered  that  the 
population  of  the  valley  consisted  almost  entirely  of  set. 
tiers  from  Connecticut,  who  had  acquired  their  land  titles 
from  the  Susquehanna  Company  and  who  had  been  en- 
gaged in  actual  hostilities  with  the  Pennamites  ias  they 
termed  those  who  claimed  these  lands  under  titles  which 
they  acquired  from  the  proprietaries!  and  those  who 
aided  them  in  their  attempts  to  enforce  their  claims.  It 
must  be  remembered,  too,  that  tolerance  of  those  who 
differed  with  them  in  opinion  was  never  a  distinguishing 
characteristic  of  the  Puritans  who  peopled  the  province 
of  Connecticut,  or  of  their  descendants,  from  among 
whom  these  settlers  came;  and  that  the  repeated  attempts 
of  these   Pennamites   to   unjustly  deprive  them  of  their 





lands  and    expel    them    from    the  valley  aroused    to  its 
fullest  activity  their  intolerance- 

On  the  other  hand,  a  hatred  of  the  Yankees  equally 
intense  existed  among  the  Pennamites,  many  of  whom 
doubtless  considered  themselves  unjustly  dispossessed  of 
lands  to  which  they  had  acipiired  a  legitimate  title.  This 
rancorous  feeling  in  the  members  of  the  opposing  parties 
naturally  engendered  in  each  a  hatred  of  everything  upon 
which  the  other  looked  with  favor;  and  that  doubtless 
was  the  reason  why  fifty-eight  of  the  sixty-one  lories  in 
the  valley,  as  stated  by  one  historian,  were  of  the  Pen- 
namites who  remained,  and  it  will  also  account  for  the 
remarkable  unanimity  among  the  Yankees. 

The  population  of  the  valley  at  that  time  has  been  va- 
riously estimated.  By  some  historians  it  has  been  set 
down  at  2,500,  and  by  others  at  5,000.  Had  there  ex- 
isted among  these  people  no  ]5eculiar  local  influences, 
there  is  reason  for  the  supposition  that  at  least  as  large  a 
proportion  of  them  would  have  been  loyalists  as  in  other 
localities.  They  were  located  in  a  valley  of  surpassing 
beauty  and  fertility.  The  soil  gave  ample  returns  for  the 
labor  which  they  bestowed  on  it,  the  surrounding  forests 
abounded  with  game,  and  the  river  was  plentifully  stocked 
with  fish.  They  were  subject  only  to  such  laws  as  they 
enacted  for  their  own  government,  and  the  oppressive 
acts  of  the  mother  country  were  scarcely  felt  by  them. 
They  were  contented  and  happy,  and  but  for  the  frequent 
invasions  of  the  valley  by  those  who  sought  to  dispossess 
them  it  would  have  been  almost  the  terrestrial  paradise 
which  romancers  and  poets  have  represented.  .  Under 
such  circumstances  they  could  see  but  little  for  them  to 
gain  by  a  separation  of  the  colonies  from  Great  Britain, 
and  that  little  more  ideal  than  real.  On  the  other  hand, 
they  could  see  that  by  actively  espousing  the  cause  of  the 
patriots  they  would  subject  themselves  to  the  predatory 
and  cruel  warfare  of  the  savages,  by  whom  they  were  sur- 
rounded and  whose  alliance  would  be  sought  by  the 
mother  country;  and  that  possibly  other  forces  might  be 
sent  against  them  for  strategic  purposes.  That  under 
such  circumstances  even  a  larger  pro])ortion  of  the  peo- 
ple here  than  in  other  regions  should  adhere  to  their  loy- 
alty would  be  no  matter  of  sur|)rise. 

At  nearly  the  same  time  when  the  colonies  severed 
their  allegiance  to  Great  Britain  the  people  of  Pennsyl- 
vania threw  off  the  proprietary  government,  under  which 
the  Yankees  had  several  times  been  driven  from  the  val- 
ley, and  adopted  a  State  constitution.  With  the  failure 
of  the  rebellion,  and  the  re-establishment  of  the  regal 
authority  in  the  colonies,  would  come  the  restoration  of 
the  pro|)rietary  government  and  a  renewal  of  hostilities 
against  the  Connecticut  settlers;  while  the  success  of  the 
revolution  and  maintenance  of  the  State  government 
gave  them  reason  to  hope  although  vainly,  as  subsequent 
events-proved  for  a  cessation  of  their  ]>ersecutions.  In 
view  of  these  circumstances,  it  would  be  reasonable  to 
expect  that  the  line  between  Yankees  and  Pennamites 
should  almost  exactly  coincide  with  that  between  Whigs 
and  tories. 
The  spirit  of  intolerance  to  which  allusion  has  been  inade 

manifested  itself  with  increased  intensity  when  the  objects 
of  that  intolerance  came  to  occupy  the  position  of  foes  to 
their  country  as  well  as  local  enemies  On  the  other  hand, 
the  feeling  of  enmity  which  the  I'ennamitis  had  enter- 
tained toward  the  Yankees,  who  had  resisted  their  claims 
to  the  land  in  the  valley,  became  greatly  intensified  when 
they  came  to  regard  those  Yankees  as  rebels  against  the 
government  to  which  they  were  loyal.  Su<:h  were  the 
relations  of  parties,  and  such  was  the  animus  of  those 
pirties,  at  the  commencement  of  the  Revolution. 

The  attempted  invasion  of  the  valley  by  Plunkelt  in,  1775,  was  the  last  hostile  demonstration  against 
the  Connecticut  settlers  by  the  Pennamites  previous  to 
the  Revolution.  In  .\ugust  of  that  year  the  Yankees  had 
at  a  town  meeting  for  the  town  of  Westmoreland  as  the 
w'lole  region  was  then  called)  expressed  by  resolution 
their  willingness  "  to  make  any  accommodations  with  ye 
Pennsylvania  party  that  shall  conduce  to  ye  best  good  of 
ye  whole,  not  infringing  on  the  property  of  any  person, 
and  come  in  common  cause  of  liberty  in  ye  defense  of 
.\merica;  and  tliat  we  will  amicably  give  them  ye  offer  of 
joining  in  ye  proposals  as  soon  as  may  be."  At  a  meeting 
held  a  week  later,  pursuant  to  adjournment  of  this,  it  was 
resolved  that  "we  do  now  a|)point  a  committee  to  atten- 
tively observe  the  conduct  of  all  persons  within  this  town 
touching  the  rules  and  regul.iiions  prescribed  by  the  Hon- 
orable Continental  Congress,  and  will  unanimously  join 
our  brethren  in  America  in  the  common  cause  of  defend- 
ing our  liberty." 

Notwithstanding  the  overtures  thus  made,  and  the  patri- 
otic resolution  adopted,  the  attempt  of  Plunkett  »o  expel 
the  Yankees  was  made;  and  though  hostilities  were  then 
suspended  till  after  the  Revolution  the  latent  bitter  feeling 
was  without  doubt  more  intense  by  reason  of  this  attempt. 
As  the  difficulties  with  the  mother  country  thickened,  and 
hope  of  recftnciliation  diminished, the  patriotic  ardor  of  the 
settlers  increased.  Measures  were  adopted  to  provide 
means  of  defense,  and  as  early  as  March,  1776,  by  resolu- 
tion at  a  town  meeting,  the  selectmen  were  directed  to 
dispose  of  the  grain  in  the  hands  of  the  collector  or  treas- 
urer, and  ])urchase  powder  and  lead  to  the  amount  of  forty 
pounds.  By  another  resolution  a  bounty  of  ;^io  was  of- 
fered to  the  man  who  <-hould  first  manufacture  fifty  pounds 
of  good  saltpetre.  Mr.  Miner  states,  on  the  authority  of 
Mrs.  John  Jenkins,  that  the  women  took  up  the  floors  of 
their  houses,  leached  the  earth  which  they  dug  from 
under  them,  and  made  saltpetre  by  boiling  the  lye;  then 
mixed  it  with  charcoal  and  sulphur,  and  thus  ]>roduced 
powder  for  public  use. 

On  the  breaking  out  of  the  war  many  young  men  from 
the  Wyoming  valley  hastened  to  the  scene  of  hostilities^ 
and  in  the  winter  of  1775-6  some  removed  their  families 
to  Connecticut  that  they  might  join  the  army.  Lieuten- 
ant I  )badiah  Gore,  with  twenty  or  thirty  others,  went  to  the 
field  direct  from  the  valley.  After  the  dc<  laration  of  inde- 
pendence it  became  evident  that  forf;  for  the  defense  ol 
the  valley  and  lor  ])laces  of  refuge  in  times  of  danger 
should  be  erected;  and  at  a  town  meeting  held  -Vugusi 
24th,  1776,  it  was  voted  "  that  this  meeting  do  recommend 




it  to  the  people  to  proceed  forthwith  in  Isiiilding  said 
forts  without  either  fee  or  reward  from  ye  town."  Pur- 
suant to  this  recommendation  was  built  Fort  Jenkins, 
a  stockkade  around  the  house  of  John  Jenkins  at  what  is 
now  West  Pittston,  just  above  the  northwest  end  of 
the  Pittston  ferry  bridge.  Fort  Wintermoot,  about  a 
mile  farther  down  the  river,  near  a  fine  spring,  was  built 
by  some  settlers  from  New  Jersey,  who  were  after- 
ward more  than  suspected  of  being  lories;  and  Forty  Fort, 
so  named  from  the  forty  original  proprietors  of  the  town- 
ship of  Kingston,  was  built  near  the  center  of  the  town- 
ship and  included  about  an  acre  of  ground.  W'ilkes-Uarre 
Fort  was  situated  just  above  the  mouth  of  Mill  creek,  to 
guard  the  mills  on  the  stream.  Wyoming  Fort  was  on 
the  east  bank  of  the  river,  not  far  from  the  foot  of  South 
street  in  Wilkes-Barre;  and  Stewart's  block  house  was 
also  on  the  east  bank  of  the  river,  about  three  miles 
below,  in  Hanover.  There  was  also  a  stockade  at 
Pittston,  nearly  opi^osite  Fort  Jenkins. 

By  reason  of  representations  that  had  been  made  to 
Congress  of  the  exposed  condition  of  the  valley  to  incur- 
sions by  the  Indians,  who  were  becoming  insolent  and 
were  suspected  of  favoring  the  British,  Congress  by  reso- 
lution .August  23d,  1776,  authorized  the  raising  in  the 
town  of  Westmoreland  of  two  full  companies  to  be 
"stationed  in  proper  places  for  the  defense  of  the  inhab- 
itants of  said  town  and  parts  adjacent  till  further  order 
of  Congress."  These  companies  were  by  the  terms  of 
the  resolution  "liable  to  serve  in  any  part  of  the  United 
States  when  ordered  by  Congress."  On  the  26th  of  the 
same  month  Congress  appointed  as  ofificers  of  these  com- 
jjanies  Robert  Durkee  and  Samuel  Ransotn,  captains; 
James  Wells  and  Perrin  Ross,  first  lieutenants;  Asahel 
Buck  and  Simon  Spalding,  second  lieutenants;  and  Her- 
man Smith  and  Matthias  Hollenback,  ensigns.  Lieuten- 
ant Buck  resigned  and  John  Jenkins,  jr.,  was  appointed 
to  (ill  the  vacancy.  These  companies  were  already  in 
existence,  under  the  captains  named,  as  volunteer  organ- 
izations, but  they  had  not  their  full  quotas  of  men  till 
the  17th  of  September,  when  they  were  mustered  into  the 
United  States  service  as  the  two  independent  companies 
of  Westmoreland.  The  following  is  a  copy  of  the  muster 
roll  of  the  first  independent  company  from  Wyoming  in 
the  Revolutionary  army.  Exce])t  Waterman  Baldwin 
who  enlisted  January  7th,  1777,  the  members  of  this 
I  ompany  enlisted  September  17th,  1776. 

faptain,  Robert  Duikf-e;  first  Iknitonant,  .lames  Wells;  second  lieu- 
tenant, Asahel  ISvick ;  ensign,  Herman  !<wift:  first  sergeant,  Thomas 
Mct'lure  ;  seconrt  sergeant,  Peiegrine  (iarilner ;  thirrt,  Thomas  Baldwin  ; 
fourth,  .Tohn  Hutchinson;  corporals  -Eilwarfl  Setter,  Azel  H.vdc,  Jere- 
nnah  Coleman,  Jien.iamin  Clark  :  privates— Walter  Daldwin,  .James  liat;- 
le.v,  Eleazer  llu tier,  Moses  Brown,  Charles  Iteiniet.  William  lUiek,  jr., 
.\sa  Urown,  .Tames  Brown,  .jr.,  David  lirctwn.  Waterman  Baldwin,  John 
Car.v,  .lesse  Coleman.  Wiliiam  Cornelius,  Samuel  Cole,  William  Davison, 
Douglass  Da\ison,  William  Dunn,  Daniel  Denton.  Samuel  l^Lnsi^'U,  Na- 
tlianicl  Evans.  .lohn  Foster,  Eiederiek  Follet,  Nathaniel  Fry,  .Tames 
Frisli.v,  .ir..  Elisha  Garret,  .lames  Gould,  Titus  (iarret,  Mumford  Gardner, 
-•kbraham  Ilamester,  Israel  Harding,  Ilenr.v  Harding,  Thomas  Harding, 
Stephen  Harding,  Oliver  Harding,  Itiehard  Halsled,  Thonuis  Hill,  .Tohn 
Halsted,  Ben.iamin  Harvey.  Solomon  .Tiduison,  -Asahel  .Teiome,  .Tohn 
Kelly,  Stephen  Mun.son,  Seth  Marvin,  Martin  Nelson,  Stephen  Te(til>one, 
Stephen  Preston,  Thomas  Porter,  Aaron  Perkins,  .lolui  I'erkins,  lOhene- 
zer  Phillips,  Ashabel  lioliinson,  Ira  Stevens,  Klislia  Sills,  Elicnezer  Shiner, 
Asa  Smith,  Robert  Sharer,  Isaac  Smith,  Luke  Sweetland,  Shadraeh  Sills. 
Samuel  Tubbs,  William  Terry,  John  Tubbs,  Ephraim  Tyler,  Edwaiil 

Walker,  Ohadiah  Walker,  James  Wells,  jr..  Nathaniel  Williams.  Thomas 

The  following  is  a  copy  of  a  pay  roll  of  the  2nd  inde- 
]jendent  company  from  Wyoming.  Its  term  of  service 
was  three  years  from  January  ist,  1777. 

Captain,. Samuel  Ransom;  captain,  Simon  Spalding;  lieutenant,  Si- 
mon Spalding;  lieutenatit,  Timotliy  Fierce  :  lieutenant,  John  Jenkins; 
ensign,  Timothy  Pierce ;  lirst  sergeant,  Parker  Wilson ;  second  sergeant, 
,Tosiah  Pasco;  privates— Caleb  Atherton,  Mason  F.  Alden,  Samuel  Hil- 
lings, Jesse  Bezale,  Jehial  liillings,  Isaac  Benjamin,  Oliver  licnnet,  Asa- 
hel Burnham,  liufus  Bennet.  Benjamin  Clark,  Gordon  Ch\irch,  Price 
Cooper,  Josiah  Corning,  Benjamin  1  'ole,  Nathan  Church,  Daniel  Franklin, 
Charles  Gaylord,  Ambrose  Gaylord,  Justin  Gaylord,  Benjamin  Hemp- 
.stead,  Timothy  Hopkins,  William  Kellog,  Lawrence  Kinney,  Daniel 
Lawrence,  Nicholas  Manswell,  Elisha  Matthewson,  Constant  Matthew- 
son,  William  MeClure,  Thomas  Neal,  Asahel  Nash,  John  O'Neal.  Peter 
Osterhout,  AmosOrmsburg,  Thoiuas  Packett,  Ebenezer  Roberts,  Samuel 
Saucer,  Asa  Sawyer,  Stephen  Skiff,  John  Swift,  Constant  Searle,  William 
Smith,  jr.,  Elisha  Satterlec,  Robert  Spencer,  John  Vangordon,  Thomas 
Williams,  Caleb  Warden,  Richard  Woodstock,  Elijah  Walker,  Zeber 

Of  those  who  left  this  company  and  returned  to  Wyo- 
ming to  take  part  in  the  battle  on  the  3d  of  July,  1778, 
the  following  were  killed:  Captain  Robert  Durkee,  Cap- 
tain Samuel  Ransom,  Lieutenant  Timothy  Pierce,  Lieu- 
tenant James  \\'ells,  and  privates  Samuel  Cole,  Daniel 
Denton,  William  Dunn,  Daniel  Lawrence  and  Constant 

It  will  be  remembered  that  in  the  autumn  of  1776  the 
army  under  General  Washington  retired  from  Long 
Island,  followed  by  the  advancing  army  of  General 
Howe,  and  on  the  8th  of  December  crossed  the  Dela- 
ware. On  the  I  2th  of  the  same  month  Congress,  by  reso- 
lution, directed  "  that  the  two  companies  raised  in  the 
town  of  Westmoreland  be  ordered  to  join  General  Wash- 
ington with  all  possible  expedition;"  an  order  which  they 
at  once  obeyed,  and  reached  the  army  before  the 
of  the  year.  They  were  in  the  battle  of  Millstone  on  the 
2nd  of  January,  1777,  and  their  good  conduct  there  elicited 
the  commendations  of  their  commanding  officers.  They 
were  also  in  the  battles  of  Bound  Brook,  Brandywine, 
German  town  and  Mud  Fort. 

During  the  year  1777  the  situation  in  the  Wyoming 
\'alley  was  not  materially  changed.  The  alliance  between 
the  British  and  Indians,  which  had  from  the  first  been 
feared,  notwithstanding  the  professions  of  neutrality  of 
the  latter,  was  formed  on  the  20th  of  June,  when  the 
Indians  were  taken  by  General  Burgoyne  into  the  Brit- 
ish service  and  the  price  of  $10  each  for  human  scalps 
was  offered  them  by  him.  Tories  resided  on  the  north- 
ern border  of  the  settlement,  as  well  as  between  Tunk- 
hannock  and  Wyalusing;  and  between  these  and  the 
Indians  in  the  vicinity  of  Tioga,  Chemung  and  Newtown 
it  was  learned  that  communication  was  kept  up.  Evi- 
dences of  sympathy  with  the  British  government  on  the 
part  of  settlers  to  the  north  and  west  from  the  valley  who 
came  from  New  York,  Delaware  and  lower  Pennsylvania, 
became  more  and  more  apparent.  Several  persons  who 
were  suspected  of  tory  sentiments  had  been  arrested  and 
sent  to  Connecticut  by  the  committee  of  inspection,  and 
in  the  autumn  of  this  year  several  scouting  parties  were 
sent  by  the  same  committee  up  the  river  and  between 
thirty  and  forty  tories  were  arrested,  some  of  them  taken 
vith  arms  in  their  hands.       A  conspiracy  among  them  to 


bring  the  Tioga  Indians  on  the  settlement  was  broken  ii)) 
by  the  arrest  of  these  tories. 

Hon.  I'eter  M.  Osterhout  rehites  that  Zebulon  Marcy 
was  with  one  of  these  scouting  parties  a  short  distance 
above  Tiinkhannock,  and  that  "  a  tory  by  the  name  of 
.Adam  Wormian  (a  Dutchman)  came  out  of  his  house 
armed  with  a  gun.  His  wife  called  to  him,  'Shoot,  Adanil 
Shoot  !  '  Adam  fired,  and  the  bail  struck  an  old  fashioned 
iron  tobacco  box  in  the  vest  pocket  of  Marcy  and  lodged, 
making  an  indentation  of  the  size  of  the  bullet  but  doing 
no  other  damage.  One  of  the  party  lired,  giving  Wort- 
rnan  a  mortal  wound.  He  begged  for  help  and  asked 
that  they  should  send  for  a  jihysician.  Dr.  William 
Hooker  Smith,  a  noted  surgeon  who  was  called,  remarked 
as  he  set  out  that  if  lie  was  not  dead  when  he  arrived  he 
would  not  live  long  afterward.  The  tobacco  box  is  still 
in  possession  of  the  family." 

It  is  proper  here  to  state  that  these  tories  alleged  they 
had  been  driven  to  their  atTiliation  with  the  British  and 
Indians  by  the  hostile  attitude  of  the  Yankees  at  Wyo- 
ming, who  had  persecuted  and  annoyed  them  because  they 
had  obtained  the  titles  to  their  lands  from  the  State  of  Penn- 
sylvania; and  that  the  Indians  became  hostile  to  the  .Amer- 
icans because  of  the  conduct  of  the  Connecticut  settlers. 

Although  the  Indians  had  up  to  the  close  of  this  year 
made  no  descent  on  the  valley,  they  had  taken  prisoners 
some  whom  the  tories  had  betrayed  into  their  hands,  and 
among  them  Lieutenant  John  Jenkins,  who  was  taken  to 
Niagara  and  afterward  to  Montreal.  He  subsequently 
escaped,  and  arrived  home  in  June  of  the  next  year. 

The  patriotism  of  the  people  here  is  attested  by  the 
fact  that  burdens  greatly  disproportioned  to  those  of  other 
citizens  of  Connecticut  were  imposed  on  them  and  borne 
for  the  sake  of  the  cause  with  but  few  murmurs.  The 
two  companies  that  had  been  raised  in  Westmoreland 
tor  the  defense  of  the  town,  and  ordered  to  the  field  in 
an  emergency,  were  retained  to  contribute  toward  the  half 
filled  quota  of  Connecticut.  According  to  a  calculation 
by  the  excellent  historian  Miner,  Westmoreland  had  in 
the  field  more  than  eight  times  its  proportion  of  the  quota 
of  that  State ;  and  these  troops  were  retained  as  before 
stated  to  swell  the  quota  of  Connecticut,  leaving  only  old 
men  and  boys  to  defend  the  settlement  against  sudden 
irruptions  of  Indians,  notwithstanding  its  isolated  con- 
dition. Six  forts  were  in  process  of  construction  by  these 
people  "without  fee  or  reward,"  and  the  military  organ- 
izations of  these  exempt  men  were  constantly  in  reijui- 
sition  to  guard  against  surprise  or  to  go  upon  scouts. 
The  town  was  taxed  by  the  State  of  Connecticut  to  the 
amount  of  ^2,000.  In  view  of  the  fact  that  the  town  had 
steadfastly  maintained  its  allegiance  to  the  province, 
w^ithout  assistance  from  the  latter,  when  it  was  repeatedly 
invaded,  and  had  sent  the  flower  of  its  youth  to  help  fill 
the  quota  of  the  State,  it  is,  as  Miner  says,  a  matter  of 
surprise  "that  a  sum  so  considerable,  or  indeed  any  sum, 
should  be  demanded  of  Wyoming  for  the  purposes  of  the 
State  treasury  at  Hartford." 

A  few  quotations  will  show  by  what  kind  of  a  spirit  the 
people  were  animated  at  that  time: 

".\t  a  town  meeting  legally  warned,  holden  December 
30th,  1777,  John  Jenkins  was  chosen  moderator  for  ye 
work  of  ye  day." 

"  Voted  by  this  town,  that  the  committee  of  inspection 
be  empowered  to  supply  the  sogers'  wives  and  the  sogei-' 
widows  and  their  tamilies  with  the  necessaries  of  life." 

Of   this    xote   Miner   says:    "  Let    it  be    engraved  on 
plates    of    silver!     Let   it  be  printed  in   letters  of  gold! 
Challenge   Rome  in  her  republican  glory,  or  Oreece  in 
her   democratic    pride,  to    produce,  circumstances   con 
sidered,  an  act  more  generous  and  noble." 

Of  the  women  it  was  said:  "Justice  and  gratitude  de- 
ninnd  a  tribute  to  the  praiseworthy  spirit  of  the  wives 
and  daughters  of  Wyoming.  While  their  husbands  and 
fathers  were  away  on  public  duty  they  cheerfully  assumed 
a  large  portion  of  the  labor  which  females  could  do. 
They  assisted  to  plant,  made  the  hay,  husked  and 
gathered  the  corn  and  gathered  the  harvest." 

The  commencement  of  the  year  1778  found  the  aspect 
of  affairs  somewhat  changed  in  .\merica.  deneral  Bur- 
goyne  had  been  defeated  and  had  surrendered  at  Sara- 
toga, and  there  was  no  effective  British  force  to  prosecute 
a  campaign  for  that  year.  The  avowed  policy  of  the 
enemy  was  therefore  to  carry  on  a  devastating  frontier 
warfare  by  tories  and  Indians.  Under  these  circuin- 
starices,  of  course,  the  fenrs  of  the  inhabitants  of  this 
valley  were  excited  for  their  own  safety.  By  their  ener- 
getic measures  against  the  tories  up  the  river  they  had 
incurred  their  deadly  hatred,  and  they  had  well  grounded 
reasons  to  apprehend  an  attack  from  these  and  the  Indians 
of  the  Six  Nations  beyond.  They  also  had  reason  to  fear 
that  for  strategic  purposes  the  settlement  would  be  at- 
tacked. Its  destruction  would  remove  the  only  barrier 
to  a  descent  on  the  German  settlements  farther  south,  or 
an  attack  on  it  would  divert  the  .American  forces  from 
other  i)oints.  Early  in  the  year  it  became  known  that 
preparations  were  being  made  for  attacks  on  the  frontiers 
of  New  York,  Pennsylvania  and  Virginia,  and  appeals 
were  made  to  Congress  for  protection.  To  these  ap- 
peals Congress  responded  by  authorizing  the  town  of 
Westmoreland  to  raise  a  company  of  infantry  for 
the  defense  of  the  town  and  the  settlements  of  the 
neighborhood  against  Indians  and  other  enemies,  "and 
that  the  said  company  find  their  own  arms,  accou- 
trements and  blankets."  In  other  words,  they  appealed 
for  help  and  received  a  gracious  permission  to  help  them- 
selves, after  their  means  for  doing  so  had  been  exhausted. 
Miner  justly  says:  "Wyoming  seems  to  have  been 
doomed  by  a  selfishness  which  cannot  be  designated 
except  by  terms  which  respect  forbids  us  to  employ." 

As  early  as  May  it  was  expected  from  the  appearance 
of  Indian  scouts  in  the  vicinity  that  an  attack  on  the 
valley  was  meditated,  and  these  suspicions  were  confirmed 
when,  on  the  2nd  of  June,  Lieutenant  John  Jenkins  re- 
turned from  his  captivity  and  informed  the  settlers  that 
the  plan  had  been  formed  at  Niagara  to  invade  the  fron- 
tier. At  about  the  same  time  an  Indian  spy  who  came 
into  the  settlement  was  made  drunk,  and  while  in  tha' 
condition  revealed   the  fact  that   an  attack  on  the  valley 



was  soon  to  be  made.  During  the  month  of  June  attacks 
were  made  on  frontier  settlements  at  various  points. 
Jenkins  says:  "The  whole  frontier  was  aglow  with  fire- 
desolation  and  death,  beneath  the  fagot,  tomahawk,  rifle 
and  scalping  knife  of  the  Indians  and  their  cruel  and  im- 
placable allies  the  British  and  tories." 

"During  the  month  of  June  some  acts  of  hostility  by  the 
Indians  and  tories  occurred.  On  the  12th  William 
Crooks  was  shot  and  scalped  about  two  miles  above 
Tunkhannock  at  the  abandoned  house  of  the  tory  John 
Secord;  and  on  the  ryth  a  recon.ioitering  party  of  si.K 
were  fired  on  about  si.x  miles  below  Tunkhannock,  and 
one  of  the  party,  named  Miner  Robbins,  killed,  and 
another,  named  Joel  Phelps,  wounded. 

When  tlie  threatening  aspects  of  affairs  in  the  valley 
came  to  be  known  in  the  field.  Captains  Durkee  and 
Ransom,  of  the  companies  from  Westmoreland,  with 
Lieutenants  Wells  and  Ross  and  about  20  privates,  left 
and  hastened  home.  The  comijanies  were  then,  by  a 
resolution  of  Congress  passed  June  23d,  1778,  consoli- 
dated, under  Captain  Simon  Spalding;  and  afterward,  it 
is  said,  were  ordered  to  march  to  Lancaster,  and  still 
later  to  Wyoming,  but  not  in  season  to  be  of  service. 

In  the  latter  jjart  of  June  it  became  known  that  the 
forces  of  the  enemy  were  concentrating  at  Newtown  and 
Tioga,  preparatory  to  a  descent  on  the  valley.  These 
forces  consisted  of  about  four  hundred  British  and  tories, 
under  Major  John  Butler,  and  four  or  five  hundred 
Indians,  largely  composed  of  Senecas.  They  descended 
the  Susquehanna  and  landed  not  far  from  the  mouth  of 
Bowman's  creek,  where  they  remained  until  they  were 
joined  by  about  two  hundred  more  Senecas,  who  had 
been  to  the  west  branch.  They  left  the  large  boats  here 
and  passed  with  the  smaller  ones  down  to  the  "Three 
Islands,"  fifteen  miles  above  the  valley.  They  marched 
thence  to  Sutton's  creek,  where  they  were  encamped  on 
the  evening  of  the  30th.  On  the  morning  of  that  day  a 
party  of  twelve  from  Fort  Jenkins  passed  up  the  river  a 
few  miles  to  their  work.  Toward  evening  they  were 
attacked  by  the  Indians  ;  several  were  killed,  others 
taken  prisoners  and  four  escaped,  arriving  at  the  fort  on 
the  morning  of  July  ist.  While  the  settlers  were  march- 
ing on  that  day,  under  the  command  of  Colonel  Zebulon 
Butler,  of  the  Continental  army  Uhen  at  home-,  and 
Colonel  Denison  and  Lieutenant  Colonel  Dorrance,  to 
bring  down  tlie  bodies  of  their  slain  neighbors,  the  enemy 
were  marching  toward  the  valley  on  the  northwestern 
side  of  the  mountain,  on  the  eastern  side  of  which  they 
encamped,  in  full  view  of  the  valley.  On  the  morning  of 
the  2nd  Fort  Wintermoot  was  opened  to  them  by  its 
tory  occupants,  and  on  the  evening  of  the  same  day  the 
garrison  of  Fort  Jenkins  capitulated.  The  day  was  spent 
by  the  settlers  in  gathering  the  women  and  children  in 
places  of  safety,  mostly  in  Forty  Fort,  which  was  about 
four  miles  below  Fort  Wintermoot,  and  in  making  i)re- 
parations  for  defense.  Steuben  Jenkins  thus  describes 
the  condition  of  things  in  the  valley  on  the  3d: 

"The  upper  pint  (if  tlie  valley,  cm  the  west  side  of  the  river,  was  in 
the  hands  of  the  enemy,  nnmtjerinjf  1,11*1  men,  well  armed  and  equipped, 
thirsting:  for  conquest  and  blood. 

"So  complete  and  etfeetive  was  their  possession  that  no  person  had 
been  able  to  pass  their  lines  to  five  information  of  either  their  numbers, 
position  or  purpose. 

"  Jenkins's  Fort,  on  the  Susquehanna,  just  above  the  west  end  of  the 
Pittstcju  ferry  bridg-e,  was  in  their  posssession,  havinjr  capitulated  the 
day  before,  but  possession  had  not  been  taken  until  this  uiornins-. 

"  W'intermoot  Fort,  situate  on  the  liunk  of  the  plain,  about  a  mile  and 
a  half  below  and  about  half  a  mile  from  the  river,  had  b:>en  in  their  po.s- 
session  all  the  day  before,  and  was  used  as  their  headquarters. 

"  Forty  Fort,  some  four  miles  further  down  the  river,  situate  f)n  the 
west  bank  of  the  Susquehanna,  was  the  largest  and  strong-est  fort  in  the 
valley.  Thither  had  tied  all  the  people  on  the  west  side  of  the  river  on 
the  1st  and  ;ind,  and  this  was  to  be  the  gathering  point  of  the  patriot 
band.  The  Wilkes- ISarre  and  Pittston  forts  were  the  srathering  points 
for  the  people  in  their  immediate  neighborhood. 

"  The  forces,  such  as  they  were,  were  distributed  throughout  the  val- 
ley somewhat  as  follows : 

"  The  Kingston  eompan.v,  commanded  by  Captain  Aholiab  Buck,  num- 
bering about  forty  men,  was  at  Forty  Fort. 

"The  L^hawnee  company,  commanded  by  Captain  Asaph  Wliittleaej', 
numbering  about  forty-four  men,  was  at  Forty  Fort. 

"The  Hanover  company,  commanded  by  Captain  William  MeKar- 
rachen,  numbering  about  thirty,  was  at  home,  in  Hanover. 

"The  upper  Wilkes-Barre  eompan.v,  commanded  by  Captain  Ke/.in 
fleer,  nmuliering  about  thirty  men,  was  at  Wilkes-Barre. 

"  The  lower  Wilkes-Barre  company,  commanded  b.v  Captain  Jantes  Bid- 
lack,  jr.,  numbering  about  thirty-eight  men,  was  at  Wilkes-Barre. 

"The  Pittston  company,  commanded  by  Captain  .leremiah  Blanehard, 
numbering  about  forty  men,  wasat  Pittston  Fort. 

"The  Huntington  and  Salem  company,  commanded  by  Captain  .John 
Franklin,  numbering  about  thirty-tive  men,  was  at  home. 

"  These  were  the  militia,  or  train-bands,  of  the  settlement,  and  in- 
eluded  all  who  were  able  to  bear  arms,  without  regard  to  age.  old  men 
and  boys  were  enrolled  in  them. 

"  Then  there  was  Captain  Detrick  Hewitt's  company,  formed  and  kept 
together  under  the  resolution  of  Congress,  to  which  reference  has  al- 
ready been  made. 

"  Besides  these,  there  was  a  number  who  were  not  enrolled  in  any  of 
the  companies,  numbering  about  one  hundred  ;  and  in  addition,  there 
were  a  number  in  the  valley  who  had  been  driven  from  the  settlements 
up  the  river.  Making  altogether  in  the  valley  a  force  of  men  of  all  ages. 
and  boys,  numbering  about  four  hundred." 

Colonel  Zebulon  Butler,  who  had  been  designated  to 
command  the  forces  in  the  valley,  was  at  Wilkes-Barre- 
placing  things  in  order  for  defense  there.  On  the  morn- 
ing of  the  3d  a  flag  was  sent  by  Major  Butler  demanding 
the  unconditional  surrender  of  Forty  Fort,  with  Captain 
Hewitt's  company  and  the  public  stores,  and  threatening 
to  move  on  them  at  once  in  case  of  a  refusal.  Colonel 
Denison,  who  was  in  command  of  the  fort,  refused,  and 
sent  immediately  for  Colonel  Butler,  who  ordered  up  the 
two  companies  from  Wilkes-Barre  and  the  one  from 
Hanover.  It  was  decided  on  consultation  to  hold  the 
fort;  and  in  order  to  secure  delay  for  the  possible  arrival 
of  the  company  of  Captain  Spalding,  who  it  was  learned 
was  on  the  way,  and  also  that  of  Captain  Franklin,  a  fl.ig 
was  sent  to  Major  Butler,  asking  for  a  conference.  This 
flag  was  fired  on,  as  were  two  others  that  were  afterward 
sent  out.  At  3  P.  M.  a  force  of  about  four  hundred 
including  old  men  and  boys,  left  Forty  Fort  and  marched 
up  the  valley  to  protect  it  against  the  prowling  Indians. 
They  proceeded  about  a  mile  and  halted  at  Ab-iham's 
creek,  where  the  road  now  crosses  it  on  a  stone  bridge. 
Another  flag  was  sent  from  that  point,  but  it  was  fired 
on,  and  up  to  this  time  the  scouts  which  had  been  sent 
out  had  brought  no  definite  information  as  to  the  strength 
and  probable  designs  of  the  enemy.  A  discussion  arose 
here  as  to  the  measures  proper  to  be  adopted  in  view  of 
the  circumstances,  and  the  debate  became  very  earnest, 
and  even  personal.  Some  of  the  most  sanguine  demand- 
ed to  be  led  forward  and  attack  the  enemy  at  once, 
while    the    more    cool      and     judicious     opposed     this 



course.  Scouts  reported  that  the  enemy  was  ijiob- 
ably  preparing  to  leave  the  valley.  Charges  of  cow- 
ardice were  made,  and  the  Hanover  company  be- 
came mutinous  and  threatened  a  revolt.  .An  ad- 
vance was  decided  on,  and  they  proceeded  to  a 
point  near  the  hill  just  below  the  monument,  where  they 
were  met  by  scouts  who  reported  Fort  Wintermoot  on 
fire  and  the  enemy  leaving  the  valley.  They  advanced 
to  a  point  near  the  southwestern  bounds  of  the  fair 
ground,  where  they  formed  in  line  of  battle,  extending 
soiTie  1, 600  feet  northwesterly  from  the  edge  of  the  terrace 
which  forms  the  plain.  In  this  order  they  advanced  cau- 
tiously about  a  mile,  and  when  within  forty  or  fifty  rods  of 
Fort  Wintermoot  they  counted  the  line  off  into  odds  and 
evens,  and  each  advanced  alternately  ten  paces  and  fired 
while  the  others  loaded.  .As  they  advanced  the  enemy 
fell  back  before  them.  When  the  line  had  reached  a 
point  as  far  up  as  Fort  Wintermoot,  the  line  of  the 
British  and  lories  was  formed  beliind  a  log  fence  on  the 
opposite  side  of  a  cleared  field.  The  firing  had  become 
general  along  these  lines.  The  Indians,  who  were  con- 
cealed behind  the  shrubbery  of  a  marsli  to  the  left,  broke 
from  their  cover  and  made  an  impetuous  attack  on  that 
flank.  To  prevent  them  from  gaining  the  rear,  Colonel 
Denison,  who  commanded  the  left  wing,  gave  the  order 
to  fall  back  and  form  an  oblique  line.  This  order  was 
misunderstood  and  confusion  was  the  result.  Jenkins 
says  of  the  battle  after  this: 

"The  IiKliiuis,  meantime,  riislicil  in  upon  them,  yelling-,  liranilishintf 
their  sp&iis  and  tnmahawks,  anil  the  liritish  and  tories  pressed  down 
upon  them  in  front,  pourinjr  in  a  terrildc  tire. 

•'  Uroken,  borne  ilown  li.v  overwhelminff  nuinliers,  and  pressed  b.v  an 
irrcsistiljle  foree.  the  left  trave  way  and  fell  liaek  on  the  rijrht.  The 
movement  was  rapid  and  eonfiisod  ami  brought  confusion  on  the  right. 
From  contusion  to  disorder,  from  disorder  to  broken  lines,  and  thence 
to  flight,  weie  but  steps  in  regular  gradation.  The  llight  became  a 
slaughter,  the  slaughter  a  niassjicre.    Such  was  the  battle. 

"  It  was  ini|)ossible  that  the  result  of  the  battle  should  have  been  dif- 
ferent. The  enemy  was  three  to  one,  and  hail  the  advantage  of  position. 
Our  men  fougiit  bravely,  but  it  was  of  no  avail. 

"Every  captain  fell  at  his  position  in  the  line,  and  there  the  men  lay 
like  sheaves  of  wheat  after  the  harvestei-s."    ■ 

The  fugitives  were  pursued  by  the  Indians   and  tories, 

who   vied    with    each    other    in    the   work    of  slaughter. 

Space  will  not  permit  a  detail  of  all  the   horrors   of  that 

night.     The  following  account  of  the  tragedy  at  what  is 

known  as  Queen  Esther's  Rock  (which    still   lies  on  the 

field  ,  is  taken  from  Jenkins's  centennial  address: 

"(In  the  evening  of  the  battle  sixteen  of  the  prisoners  taken  on  the 
held  of  battle  and  in  the  flight,  under  promise  of  ijuarter.  were  collected 
together  by  their  savage  eaptoi-s  around  a  rock  near  the  brow  of  the 
hill  at  th.' southeast  of  the  village  of  W.voming,  and  a  little  nuire  than 
a  mile  from  the  Held  of  action.  The  roek  at  that  time  was  about  two 
feet  high  (m  its  eastern  front,  with  a  surface  four  or  five  feet  .square, 
running  back  to  a  level  with  the  ground  and  beneath  it  at  its  western 
extremity.  Thi'  prisoners  were  arranged  in  a  ring  around  Iliis  rock,  and 
were  surn)unded  with  a  bod.v  of  two  hunclred  savages,  uniier  the  lead- 
ei-ship  and  inspiration  of  (^ueen  llsther.  a  fury  i[i  the  form  of  woman, 
who  assumed  the  olliee  of  exeenlioner.  The  victims,  one  at  a  time,  were 
taken  from  the  devoleil  circli'  ami  led  to  the  east  front  of  the  roek, 
where  they  were  made  to  sit  down.  Thc-y  were  then  taken  by  the  hairand 
their  heads pulle<l  back  on  the  rock,  when  the  bloody  yween  Ksther  with 
death-maul  would  dash  out  their  brains.  The  savages,  as  lach  victim 
was  in  this  manner  inunolated,would  clance  around  in  a  ring,  holding  each 
others'  hands,  shouting  and  hallooing. closing  with  the  death-whoop. 
In  Ihlsnutnner  fourteen  of  the  party  had  been  put  to  death.  The  fury 
of  the  savage  ipieen  increased  with  the  work  of  blood.  Seeing  there 
was  no  other  way  or  hopeof  deliverance,  I.ebbeus  llanunond,  one  of  the 
prisoners,  in  a  lit  of  desperation,  with  a  sudileii  spring  broke  through 
the  circle  of  Indians  and  tied  toward  the  mountain.    Kifles  cracked  I 

Tomahawks  fli.w  :  Indlann  yelleii:  Ilul  llammoinl  helil  on  his  eourx' 
for  about  firiy  rods,  whi'ii  he  xlumbli'il  anil  fell,  but  iipniiig  n|>  agalM. 
Stopping  for  a  moment  to  listen,  he  found  his  pursuernon  tiieh  side  of 
hiui,  or  a  little  ahead,  running  and  yelling  like  iletni.iin.  He  ulepixil  Ih-- 
hlnd  a  large  pine  Irei-  to  lake  bmilh,  when,  n-flectliig  that  his  pur»uers 
being  already  ahenil  of  him  he  would  gulii  nothing  by  going  on  In  thai 
direction,  he  turned  anil  nin  for  the  river  In  such  a  courw  as  lo  a\o|il 
the  parly  around  the  fatal  rock,  and  yel  to  ki-<|i  an  eye  on  Ihem.  lie 
passed  by  without  being  se<n,  went  down  and  plunged  Into  the  lijgh 
grass  in  the  swampy  ground  at  the  fool  of  llii' hill,  where  In-  n-nuilniil 
concealed  for  about  two  hours,  walehing  Ihe  movements  and  listening 
to  the  yells  of  lis  savage  pursuers.  He  llmilly  cniwled  out  of  Ills  con- 
cealment, iiiiitliMisly  made  his  way  to  the  river,  and  llienei'  down  10  the 

On  the  morning  of  the  4th,  Major  Butler  sent  a  llag  lo 
Forty  Fort,  inviting  Colonel  Denison  lo  come  to  his 
headquarters  and  agree  on  terms  of  capitulation.  During 
the  time  that  was  granted  for  consultation  Colonel  /ebu- 
lon  Butler  and  the  survivors  of  Captain  Hewitt's  company 
fled,  to  avoid  being  given  up  as  prisoners,  as  dtmanded 
at  first  by  Major  Butler.  The  terms  of  capitulation 
agreed  on  were  honorable,  and  it  is  believed  that  Major 
Butler  exerted  liimself  lo  have  them  strictly  carried  out. 
The  Indians,  however,  as  he  alleged,  could  not  be  con- 
trolled. They  set  fire  to  the  village  of  Wilkes-Barre. 
which  was  consumed  and  plundered,  and  burned  the 
proijerty  of  the  settlers,  in  violation  of  these  terms.  He 
said  to  Colonel  Denison:  '  Make  out  a  list  of  the  prop- 
erty lost,  and  I  pledge  my  honor  it  shall  be  paid  for."  It 
is  just  to  state  that  Major  Butler  requested  to  have  a 
quantity  of  whiskey  which  was  in  the  fort  destroyed  be- 
fore he  took  possession,  to  prevent  the  Indians  from 
being  made  mad  with  it;  and  that  the  barrels,  si.xteen  in 
number,  were  rolled  into  the  river,  and  the  heads  were 
knocked  in  after  they  were  afloat. 

It  is  but  justice  to  say  of  Major  Butler  that  his  con- 
duct was  not  marked  by  the  atrocities  that  some  have 
imputed  to  him.  Miner  says  of  him  that  his  haste  to  de- 
part from  the  valley  "  can  only  be  accounted  for  on  the 
supposition  that  he  was  sickened  by  the  tortures  already 
committed,  dreaded  the  further  cruelties  of  the  Indians, 
and  desired  by  his  absence  to  escape  the  responsibility  of 
their  future  conduct."  He  left  the  valley  on  the  8th.  A 
portion  of  the  Indians  remained  after  his  departure  and 
continued  the  work  of  wanton  destruction. 

The  statements  of  the  number  slain  in  this  battle  and 
massacre  have  varied  from  160  to  360.  Probably  it  may 
be  safely  estimated  at  300.  The  names  which  have  been 
ascertained,  and  inscribed  on  the  monument  that  has 
been  erected  to  the  memory  of  the  heroes  of  this  battle, 
are  given  in  the  history  of  the  village  of  Wyoming. 

On  the  night  of  the  massacre  most  of  the  inhabitants  of 
the  valley  had  fled,  either  down  the  river  or  to  the  cast^ 
and  many  of  those  who  remained  escaped  on  the  night  of 
the  4th  The  number  who  thus  became  fugitives  is  not 
known,  but  it  has  been  estimated  at  2,000.  Most  of 
them  were  women  and  c  hildren,  whose  protectors  were  m 
the  Continental  army  or  were  lying  dead  on  the  batik- 
field.  On  crossing  the  river  they  plunged  into  the  moun- 
tain wilderness,  beyond  which  lay  a  wide  and  dismal 
swamp.  How  many  perished  in  their  flight  over  the 
mountains  and  through  this  swamp,  or  by  what  sufterings 
and  lingering  tortures  they  died,  will  never  be  known 



It  is  known,  however,  lliat  hundreds  were  never  again 
seen  after  they  left  the  valley,  and  because  of  the  number 
that  perished  in  the  swamp  it  was  called  "  The  Shades  of 

At  the  time  of  the  battle  Captain  Spalding's  company 
was  within  forty  or  fifty  miles  of  the  valley,  marching 
toward  it.  On  the  evening  of  the  sth  they  met  the  fore- 
most of  the  fugitives.  They  continued  their  march  till 
they  arrived  at  the  top  of  the  mountain  range  overlooking 
the  valley,  when  they  separated  into  parties  to  protect  the 
fugitives,  and  after  a  few  days  followed  them  in  their 
night,  scouring  the  forest  and  assisting  those  who  were 
exhausted  by  fatigue  and  hunger.  In  this  way  they  saved 
many  from  perishing.  They  thus  assisted  the  fugitives  in 
their  flight  as  far  as  Stroudsburg  and  remained  till  the 
4th  of  August.  They  then,  accompanied  by  many  of 
these  fugitives,  returned  to  the  valley,  of  which  they  held 
possession  until  the  close  of  the  war. 

Although  no  force  was  afterward  during  the  year  1778 
sent  against  the  valley,  the  Indians  continued  to  prowl 
around  the  settlements,  and  from  time  to  time  steal  on 
those  whom  they  found  in  their  fields  or  houses  unpre- 
pared to  defend  themselves,  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining 
scalps,  prisoners  or  plunder. 

In  September  Colonel  Hartley,  of  the  Pennsylvania 
troops,  with  a  force  of  130  men,  including  a  company  of 
Wyoming  volunteers  commanded  by  Captain  Franklin, 
made  a  successful  expedition  against  the  Indians  on  the 
west  branch  and  at  Tioga,  destroying  their  towns  and 
property.  After  the  return  of  this  expedition  the 
Indians  re-appeared  in  this  vicinity,  and  from  their 
secure  hiding  places  in  the  mountains  continued  their 
predatory  attacks  on  such  settlers  as  returned  and  at- 
tempted to  cultivate  their  fields.  Many  were  killed  by 
savage  scalping  parties  in  their  stealthy  descents,  and 
many  others  carried  into  captivity.  Among  the  latter 
was  Frances  Slocum,  whose  romantic  story  has  often 
been  told.  She  was  taken  on  the  2nd  of  November, 
when  only  five  years  old,  from  her  father's  house  near 
Fort  Wilkes-Barre  and  carried  into  captivity.  No  tidings 
were  ever  received  of  her  till  about  sixty  years  later, 
when  she  was  discovered  near  Logansport,  Ind.,  and 
visited  by  her  brothers  She  had  forgotten  her  native 
language,  had  survived  her  Indian  husband  and  reared 
a  family  of  children.  She  refused  to  return  to  her  kin- 
dred, preferring  to  remain  with  her  family  and  the 
people  among  whom  her  life  had  been  passed,  and  whose 
habits,  religion,  etc.,  she  had  adopted. 

The  bodies  of  those  who  were  slain  at  the  l)attle  and 
massacre  of  the  3d  of  July  remained  on  the  field  till  the 
22nd  of  the  following  October,  when  a  guard  was  detailed 
from  Camp  Westmoreland,  under  Lieutenant  John  Jen- 
kins, for  the  protection  of  those  to  whom  was  assigned 
the  melancholy  duty  of  interring  these  martyrs. 

During  about  two  months  in  the  winter  of  1778-9  the 
depredations  of  the  prowling  Indians  were  suspended; 
but  in  March,  1779,  a  force  of  about  250  appeared  in 
the  valley,  and  after  a  demonstration  against  a  block 
house  in  Kingston,  and   the  theft   of  some  sixty  head  of 

cattle,  failing  to  draw  the  forces  defending  the  valley 
into  an  ambush,  they  boldly  approached  the  Wilkes- 
Barre  fort,  which  was  garrisoned  by  only  100  men. 
though  urgent  appeals  for  more  had  been  made  by 
Colonel  Butler.  They  were  repulsed  from  the  fort,  but 
continued  their  work  of  plunder  in  the  valley.  Colonel 
Butler  was  reinforced  by  a  German  regiment  of  about 
three  hundred,  and  soon  drove  the  marauders  from  the 
open  portions  of  the  valley.  They  hovered  about  in  the 
mountains,  however,  waylaying  people  in  the  passes,  and 
with  much  audacity  making  occasional  descents  into  the 
valley.  Near  Laurel  Run,  some  four  miles  from  the  fort, 
they  ambushed  Major  Powell,  with  a  small  regiment  that 
was  marching  to  the  valley,  and  succeeded  in  throwing 
his  forces  into  confusion.  Succor  from  the  fort  arrived 
and  escorted  this  small  force  to  the  valley. 

During  the  spring  and  early  summer  of  1779  active 
preparations  were  made  for  a  campaign  into  the  country 
of  the  Six  Nations.  General  Sullivan  was  placed  in 
command  of  this  expedition,  and  the  force,  consisting  o( 
about  three  thousand  men,  made  their  rendezvous  on  the 
flats  below  Wilkes-Barre  and  in  Fort  Durkee.  These 
preparations  were  of  course  watched  by  the  wily  fee, 
who  knew  well  what  was  the  object  of  the  expedition, 
and  who  sought  by  attacks  on  Freeland's  Fort  on  the 
west  branch,  Minisink,  in  Orange  county,  N.  Y.,  and  a 
settlement  on  the  Lackawaxen,  to  divert  the  attention  of 
General  Sullivan  and  divide  his  army;  but  this  expedient 

On  the  24th  of  July  a  large  fleet  of  boats  from  the 
lower  Susquehanna  arrived,  loaded  with  military  stores. 
On  the  28th  ninety  wagons,  loaded  also  with  military 
stores,  arrived,  and  on  the  31st  the  expedition  marched, 
leaving  a  garrison  at  Wyoming  under  Colonel  Z.  Butler. 
The  land  force  marched  up  the  east  side  of  the  river, 
halting  from  time  to  time  and  waiting  at  their  camping 
places  to  enable  the  boats  to  keep  within  a  safe  distance. 
According  to  Colonel  Hubley's  journal,  as  published  in 
the  appendix  to  Miner's  history,  they  encamped  the  first 
night  at  the  confluence  of  the  Lackawanna  and  Sus- 
quehanna' rivers.  On  the  ist  of  August  they  marched 
about  seven  miles,  to  a  place  called  Quilutimunk,  where 
they  encamped.  A  portion  of  the  army  passed  over  the 
mountain  to  guard  against  surprise  by  the  savages,  and 
the  encampment  was  not  reached  till  near  morning. 
They  remained  at  this  place  through  the  2nd,  and  on  the 
3d  marched  to  a  point  above  the  mouth  of  the  Tunkhan- 
nock.  On  the  4th  they  marched  about  fourteen  miles 
and  encamped  on  Vanderlip's  and  Williamson's  farms. 
On  the  5th  they  marched  to  Wyalusing,  passing  a  place 
called  DejHie's  farm,  where  Colonel  Hartley  had  been 
attacked  by  the  Indians  the  previous  year.  On  the  9th 
they  arrived  at  Shesequin  or  Queen  Esther's  Plains,  and 
on  the  nth  at  Tioga  Point.  Here  a  junction  was  effect- 
ed with  General  Clinton,  who  with  his  force  had 
come  down  from  Otsego  lake,  the  head  waters  of  the 
Susquehanna,  in  boats  on  an  artificial  freshet,  made  by 
damming  the  outlet  of  that  lake.  After  the  junction  the 
combined   army  nio\'ed  forward,  penetrated   the  country 



of  the  savages  on  thf  Siisi|uolianiin  and  (ienesee  rivefN, 
burned  tlieir  towns,  destroyed  llieir  crops  and  iiroperty, 
and  inflicted  on  them  injuries  from  which  they  never  re- 
covered. Having  accomplished  their  work  lliey  returned 
to  Wyoming,  where  tliey  arrived  early  in  ()(:tol)er,  and 
were  welcomed  at  a  sumptuous  entertainment  by  Colonel 

In  this  campaign  only  forty  men  were  lost,  by  sickness 
or  otherwise,  out  of  more  than  three  thousand.  On  the 
lotli  of  October  this  army  left  Wyoming  for  Easton. 
Says  Marshall,  as  ipioted  by  Miner:  "While  Sidlivnn 
laid  waste  the  country  on  the  Suscpiehanna  another 
expedition  was  carried  on  from  Pittsburg  up  the  Alle- 
gheny against  the  Mingo,  Muncy  and  Seneca  tribes.  .\i 
the  head  of  between  six  and  seven  hundred  men  he 
advanced  two  hundred  miles  up  the  river  and  destroyed 
the  villages  and  cornfields  on  its  head  branches." 

It  was  confidently  hofied  that  the  chastisement  whic  h 
Sullivan  had  indicted  on  the  savages  had  so  cri])pled  them 
as  to  prevent  further  depredation,  and  a  sense  of  security 
began  to  be  entertained  among  tlie  settlers  who  remaincti. 
This,  however,  was  of  sliort  duration.  Exasperated  and 
thirsting  for  revenge,  the  Indians  reappeared  among  the 
mountains  about  Wyoming  in  prowling  marauding  bands 
in  the  spring  of  1780,  and  many  depredations  were  com- 
mitted on  the  settlers  who  had  ventured  fartheraway  from 
ihe  forts  in  the  towns  of  Kingston,  I'lymouth  and  Han- 
over. (  Did  space  permit  many  instances  might  be  given 
of  the  murder  or  capture  of  the  inhabitants  and  the  adven- 
tures and  escapes  of  the  prisoners.  The  garrison  at 
\V'ilkes-Barre  had  come  to  be  so  weak  that  pursuit  from 
it  was  not  feared,  and  many  scalping  parties  passed  the 
settlement  for  the  purpose  of  committing  depredations 
farther  south.  In  September,  1780,  a  band  secretly 
passed  Wyoming,  crossed  the  river  near  the  mouth  of 
Nescopeck  creek  and  surprised  a  party  of  men  at  Sugar- 
loaf  valley,  killing  thirteen;  took  away  some  prisoners 
and  booty,  and  on  their  return  burned  the  Shickshinny 
mills  and  many  grain  stacks.  In  December  a  raid  on  the 
valley  was  made  by  nineteen  white  men  and  five  Indians 
and  seven  prisoners  were  taken  away. 

The  Lackawanna  valley  was  not,  like  Wyoming,  the 
theater  of  active  operations  in  the  Revolutionary  war. 
It  was  scarcely  settled  till  after  the  close  of  that  contest, 
and  only  afforded  hiding  places  for  scalping  parties  of 

During  the  years  1781  and  17.S2  the  valley  and  the 
\icinity  were  several  times  visited  by  small  jjarties  of  In- 
dians, who  pillaged,  murdered  and  took  away  i>risoners, 
but  no  attack  was  made  by  any  considerable  force.  It 
is  worthy  of  remark  that  no  settlement  on  the  frontiers 
suffered  more  severely  in  proportion  to  its  population 
during  the  Revolution  than  Wyoming  valley.  The  loss 
at  the  battle  July  3d,  1778,  as  before  stated,  has  been  es- 
timated at  300,  and  it  was  thought  that  200  more  perished 
in  their  flight.  These,  along  with  those  who  were  from 
time  to  time  during  the  succeeding  four  years  murdered 
by  the  Indians,  amount  to  more  than  one-fifth  of  the  en- 
tire population  of  the  valley  at  the  time  of  the  massacre. 

In  addition  to   this  the  sufferings  of  the  survivors  wer. 
great  and  the  destruction  of  property  was  immense. 

(  IIAITKR   \  11. 

civil.      IIHIUKV  —  KOfNKARIKS,     ORi;  A.NIZ  A  HON,      COUNTV 
IU'll.t>IN(;S    AM)    Civil.    I.ISI. 


'  "''  IF      ^ '''  '*"'"S^K'^'  •""■  'lie  possession  of  this  region 

{by  settlers  who  ( l.iimed  it  as  a  part  of  Con- 
necticut  has  been  described.  The  govern- 
|t'  i>>-l  'I'ent  of  Connecticut  look  the  same  position; 
I'S)  'I'liJ  the  .\sscinbly  of  that  St.iie  in  January.  1774. 
iT-jfr-"  created  from  the  lerriiory  claimed  by  it  west  of 
the  Delaware  river  the  town  of  Westmoreland,  as 
a  part  of  Litchfield  county.  On  the  east  this  v.isi  town 
was  bounded  by  the  Delaware  river;  on  the  west  by  a 
meridian  passing  fifteen  miles  west  of  the  Wyoming  set- 
tlements; on  the  south  by  the  forty-first  and  on  the  north 
by  the  forty-second  parallel  of  north  latitude— Ihe  present 
Pennsylvania  and  New  York  line. 

On  the  2nd  of  the  following  M.irch  the  voters  of  the 
new  town,  in  town  meeting  assembled,  organized  West 
moreland  by  the  election  of  a  hundred  oflficcrs  about 
half  the  voting  population),  consisting  of  treasurer,  select- 
men, constables  and  collectors  of  rates,  surveyors  of 
highways,  fence  viewers,  listers,  leather  sealers,  grand 
jurors,  tithing  men.  sealers  of  weights  and  measures  and 
key  keepers.  Colonel  Zebulon  Huller  was  elected  treas- 
urer; Christopher  Avery.  John  Jenkins,  Nathaniel  Lan- 
don,  Samuel  Ransom,  Caleb  Bates,  Silas  I'arke  and  Ros- 
well  Franklin,  selectmen;  and  Asa  Stevens.  Tim.iihy 
Smith,  Jonathan  Haskel.  .\saph  Whiillesy,  Noah  .\dains. 
Phineas  Clark  and  William  Smith,  constables  and  collect 
ors  of  rates. 

At  the  autumn  session  of  the  Connecticut  Legislature 
in  1776  Westmoreland  was  made  a  county,  and  at  the 
next  session  John  Jenkins  was  appointed  judge  of  the 
county  court  for  the  ensuing  year.  The  whole  period  of 
Westmoreland's  administrative  connection  with  Conne< 
ticut  corresponds  very  nearly  with  the  duration  of  the 
Revolutionary  war.  When  made  a  town  it  contained  the 
townships  of  Wilkes- Barre.  Hanover,  Plymouth.  Kingston 
and  Pittston,  established  by  the  Sus(|uehanna  Company; 
and  to  these  were  added  before  its  severance  from  Con- 
necticut Huntington,  Salem,  Newport,  I'rovidence,  Exeter. 
Bedford.  Northumberland.  Tunkhannock,  Braintrim, 
Springfield,  Clavcrack  and  I'Ister.  The  population  of 
Westmoreland  in  1774  was  1,922.  The  assessment  ai  ■ 
companying  the  tax  list  of  1775  was  ^13,083. 

The  following  list  o(  justices  of  the  peace  at  Wyoming 
under  Connecticut  was  kindly  contributed  by  the   Hon 
Steuben  Jenkins; 

ITTJ.  Jotiii  Smilli,  Kiniriloii;  ITTI.  Thiiiiiiii  MoilMi  iiml  iNiiir  lliililwlii, 
ritttiton:  im-r:,  John  Jc-nkinis  Kxi'tor:  ITT«-".  ITs2.  ZctiiilDn  lliill.i. 
Wllkfw-lliirrv;  1774,  I77«,  ITKI.  i'Si,  Nulhnii  lieiilwiii,  Klnpilnn  :  ITTi.l-llii- 



I'arks,  Lackawanna  :  1773,  Bushnall  Hostick,  Joseph  tsUnnaii  and  Increase 
Moselcy  ;  1774, 1777, 177il.  Uriah  Chapman  :  1776, 1778, 177(1,  William  Judd ; 
1777, 177K,  17H-',  Obadiah  Gore.  Kingston  ;  1777, 1778,  William  McKarraehan, 
Hanover;  1777,  1778,  Christopher  Avery,  Wilkes-Barre;  1778,  Asaph 
Whittlesey,  Plymouth,  and  Caleb  Bates,  Pittston;  177!l,  Zcrah  Beach. 
Salem,  Stephen  Harding,  Exeter,  Zebulon  Marey,  Tunkhannock,  and 
.Idhn  Hurlhiirt.  Hanover;  1783.  Nalhaniel  Landon,  Kingston  ;  1781, 1782, 
Ahel  Pierce,  Kinfiston,  and  Hugh  Fordsnian,  Wilkes-Barre ;  1780-82,  .John 
Franklin,  Huntington;  177li,  John  Vincent. 

Also  the    following   list    of  justices   of   the   peace  at 
Wyoming  under   I'ennsylvania  ])re\'ious  to  the  organiza-, 
tion  of  Luxerne  county;  all  of  them  appointed   in    April, 

Alexander  Patterson,  Hobert  Martin,  John  Chamliers  and  David 
Mead,  of  Xorthunibcrland  county  ;  John  Seely,  Henry  Shoemaker  and 
Luke  lirodhcad,  of  N'orthampton  county;  Nathan  nenison,  of  Wyo- 
ming ;  his  name  was  used  without  his  consent,  and  he  refused  to  act. 

Under  the  constitution  of  1776  and  the  act  of  Assem- 
bly approved  on  the  26th  of  September,  1786,  justices 
were  elected  in  the  county  in  the  three  districts  formed 
by  the  act  erecting  the  county,  to  serve  for  seven  years. 
The  following  were  so  elected: 

1787,  Matthias  HoUenback  and  William  Hooker  Smith,  first  district ; 
lienjamin  Carpenter  and  James  Nisbett.  second  district ;  <  tbadiah  Gore 
and  Nathan  Kingsley.  third  district;  178.S.  Noah  Murray,  second  district; 
1781),  Christopher  Ilurlliut,  lirst  district ;  17!I0,  Lawrence  Myers,  Kings- 
ton township. 

Under  the  constitution  of  i  790  the  governor  appointed 
the  justices  of  the  peace,  to  serve  during  good  behavior, 
in  districts  to  be  made  up  of  one  or  more  townships.  The 
following  were  so  appointed: 

1791,  Lawrence  M.vers,  Kingston  township;  Arnold  Colt  and  William 
Koss,  Solomon  Avery  and  John  Phillips,  Wilkcs-Iiarre  district;  Guy 
Xhi.xwell.  Tioga  district ;  Peter  Orubh  and  Nathan  Beach,  Kingston  dis- 
trict; Christopher  Hurlbut,  Wilkes-Barre  district;  Joseph  Kinney  and 
Isaac  Hancock,  Tioga  district ;  Minna  Dubois,  Willingborough  town- 
ship; John  Paul  Schott,  Wilkes-Barre  town  and  township  ;  179.3,  Moses 
CooUiaugh,  Tioga  township;  17Hti,  Asahcl  Gregory,  Willingborough 
township;  1797,  liesolved  Sessions,  Tioga  township;  1798,  Noah  Wadhams, 
.jr.,  Kingston  district;  Oliver  Trowbridge,  Willingborough  township; 
.John  T.  Miller.  Kingston  district ;  James  Campbell  and  Joseph  Wright, 
I  Wilkes-Barre  township;  1799,  Charles  E.  Gaylord,  Huntington  township; 

Constant  Searle,  Providence  township;  Matthew  Covell,  Wilkes-Barre 
township;  Henry  V.  Champion,  Wyalusing  township ;  Elisha  Harding, 
Tunkhannock  township  ;  David  Paine,  Tioga  township;  1800,  George 
Espy,  Hanover,  Wilkes-Barre,  &c  ,  townships;  Jacob  Bittenbeuder, 
Nescopeck,  Wilkes-Barre,  &c.,  townships;  Benjamin  Newberry,  North- 
moreland,  Tioga,  &c..  townships;  Thomas  Duane,  WUkes-Jlarre  town- 
ship ;  Asa  Eddy.  Willingborough  township  (revokeil  28th  March,  1805); 
Jonathan  Stevens,  liraintrim  townsliip ;  Guy  Wells,  Wyalusing  town- 
shiji;  Benjamin  Carpenter,  Kingston  township  ;  William  Means,  Tioga 
township;  Zebulon  Marey,  Tunkhannock;  John  Marey  and  Thomas 
Tillany,  Willingborough  township;  1801, David  Barnum, Willingborough 
township;  18li:i,  John  Mars.v,  Nicholson,  \-c.,  townships;  1804.  Bartlett 
Hines,  Hush,  &c,  townships. 

District  number  i,  for  which  the  first  appointment 
was  made  in  :8o6,  was  composed  of  Huntington,  Nesco- 
])eck,  Salem  and  Sugarloaf  townshiiis  until  181 1;  then  of 
Huntington,  Nescopeck  and  Salem  townships  six  or  seven 
''  years;  then  of  Wilkes-Barre  borough  and  township  and 
part  of  Covington  townshij)  till  1835,  when  it  comprised 
only  Wilkes-Barre  borough  and  township;  part  of  Coving- 
ton township  also  belonged  to  it  in  1836  and  1837.  Jus- 
tices for  this  district  were  commissioned  as  follows: 

1801),  Alexander  Jameson;  1809  Abiel  Fellows;  1810,  George  Drum;  1811. 
William  Baird  ;  I8I:!,  John  Buss;  Islii,  Conrad  Sa.\  ;  1820,  John  Myers  and 
Boswell  Wells;  182:i,  James  Stark;  182(1.  Uichard  Drinker;  18:31,  A masa 
Hollister,  jr.;  18;i3,  Charles  L.  Terwilliger;  18:!.5,  Benjamin  Perry;  183fi, 
John  Stark;  lsi7,  Eleazer  Carey. 

District  No.  2  was  at  different  times  made  up  as  fol- 
lows: 181 2, Wilkes-Barre,  HanoverandNew])ort  townships; 
1816,   Ki-.igston   and  Plymouth  townships;   1819,   King- 

ston, Plymouth  and  Dallas  townships;  1831,  Kingston,  Ply- 
mouth, Dallas  and  Lehman  townships;  1832,  Kingston, 
Plymouth  and  Dallas  townships:  1836,  Kingston,  Ply- 
mouth, Dallas  and  Lehman  townships.  Justices  commis- 
sioned as  follows: 

1806,  Cornelius  Courtright  and  Thomas  Dyer:  I8()8,  Jonathan  Kellog  ; 
1812,  Christian  Stout ;  181:3,  Francis  MeShane;  1814,  Isaac  Hartzell ;  1816, 
Samuel  Thomas;  1817,  Jacob  J.  Bogardus;  1819,  Doctor  John  Smith  ; 
1820,  Benjamin  Reynolds;  1822,  Alvah  C.  Phillips  ;  182.i,  John  Bennett; 
1826,  Thomas  Irwin  ;  1829,  Reuben  Holgate  ;  18:31,  James  Nisbitt  and  Sim- 
con  F.  Rogers  ;  1832.  Fisher  Gay  ;  18:33,  Jared  R.  lialdwin  and  Watson 
Baldwin;  lH:i."i.  Sharp  D.  Lewis;  183H.  Jacob  J.  Bogardus;  18,37,  Caleb 
Atherton  and  John  P.  Kite ;  1838,  Peter  Allen  and  Henderson  Gaylord  ; 
1839,  Addison  C.  Church. 

District  No.  3  was   originally  composed    of  Plymouth, 

Kingston  and  Exeter  townships.     Salem,  Huntington  and 

Union  townships  were  made  to   compose  this  district  in 

1818,  and  Fairmount  was   added  in  1835.     Justices  were 

commissioned  as  follows: 

1808,  James  Sutton  and  David  Perkins;  1809,  William  Tru.x  and  Moses 
Scovil;  18111,  Stephen  Hollister;  1813,  Charles  Chapman;  1818,  lehabod 
Shaw;  1821,  Shadrach  Austin  ;  1822,  Christian  Stout;  1823,  John  Dodson  ; 
isat,  Sebastian  Seybert ;  1827,  Jonathan  Westover ;  1832,  Andrew  Cort- 
right  and  Lot  Search  ;  18:3.5,  Jacob  Ogden  and  Newton  Boone. 

District  No.  4  consisted  originally  of  Pittston  and 
Providence  townships  (revoked  March  27th,  1820;,  and 
after  1819  of  Hanover  and  Newport  townships.  The 
justices  appointed  were: 

1804,  Joseph  Fellows  and  Asa  Dimock  :  1806,  William  Sloeuni ;  1809, 
Enos  Finch  ;  1819,  Jacob  Kara  bach ;  1822,  Samuel  Jameson  ;  1823,  Bate- 
inan  Downing;  ISil,  Thomas  Williams;  1838,  John  Vandemark  ;  1839, 
John  Forsman. 

District  No.  5  in  1810  included  Sugarloaf  township;  in 
181 1,  Tunkhannock  and  Abington  townships;  after  1814 
Sugarloaf  and  Nescopeck  townships.  The  appointments 
were  as  follows: 

1810,  Roger  Orvis;  1811,  Cyrus  Avery;  1814,  Valentine  Seiwell ;  1817, 
Daniel  Hitter  ;  1818,  Abraham  Shirtz  ;  1824,  George  Drum,  jr.;  1826,  Jonas 
Buss ;  1828,  Christian  Kunckel ;  1832,  Moses  S.  Brundage  and  Henry  Yost ; 
1834,  John  Briggs. 

In  1809  district  number  6  comprised  Braintrim  and 
^Vyalusing  townships;  in  1816,  Pittston,  Providence  and 
Exeter;  in  i8r8,  Pittston,  Providence,  Exeter,  North 
moreland  and  Blakely  townships;  in  1833,  part  of  Mon- 
roe township  was  added;  in  1838,  Carbondale  township, 
and  in  1839  Jefferson  township.  The  list  of  justices  for 
this  district  is  as  follows: 

1806,  Josiah  Fassett ;  1808,  James  Gordon  and  Charles  Brown  ;  1809,  Asa 
Stevens;  181.5,  James  Connor  ;  1816,  David  Dimock  and  Isaac  Hart  ;  1818, 
Peter  Winter,  Elisha  S.  I'otter  and  Isaac  Harding ;  1820,  Sherman  Loomis 
and  Deodat  Smith;  1821,  Ebenezer  Slocum  ;  1822,  Orange  Fuller ;  1829, 
■  David  I.  Blanehard;  ls:!0.  Ziba  Davenport ;  ls:!l,  Moses  Vaughn  ;  1832, 
Daniel  Harding  and  Joseph  Grifiin  ;  1833,  Thomas  Hadley  and  Amzi  Wil- 
son ;  1835,  Erastus  Smith  and  Elisha  Blackman ;  1838,  Samuel  Hogdon 
and  SylvanusHeermans;  1837,  James  Pike;  1838,  Judson  W.  Burnham, 
Gilbert  Burrows  and  Elisha  Hitchcock;  18:39,  John  Cobb  and  Alva 

District  number  7  was  at  different  dates  constituted  as 
follows:  1804,  Burlington,  etc.,  townships;  1807,  Wysox 
township;  1809,  Wysox  and  Burlington  townships;  1810, 
Wysox,  Burlington  and  Towanda;  181 6,  Abington  and 
Nicholson;  1818,  Abington,  Greenfield  and  Nicholson; 
in  1826  a  part  of  Falls  township  was  added.  The  fol- 
lowing were  the  justices  appointed: 

1804,  Isaac  Chapel  ;  1805,  Reuben  Hale  and  Reed  Brockway  ;  1807,  Wil- 
liam Mycr  and  Eliphalet  Mason  ;  1899,  George  Scott  ;  1810,  -\sa  C.  Whit- 
ney; 1816,  Nathan  Bacon;  1818,  Lemuel  St(nie;  1822,  Caleb  Roberts; 
1826,  Samuel  Vail;  1830,  Benjamin  F.  Bailey  and  John  Marey  ;  1831,  John 
Lowry  ;  18:34,  Thomas  Smith  ;  1837,  Peter  Corsclius. 




In  1820  district  miniher  8  consisted  of  Tunkhannock, 
Braintrim,  Eaton  and  Windham  townships;  for  ten  years 
from  1825,  of  the  same  and  part  of  Falls  township  ;  1835, 
Tunkhanno(  k,  Braintrim,  Eaton,  Windham  and  [tart  of 
Falls  townshi|)s;  Monroe  townslii))  was  iddcd  in  1837  and 
Washington  in  183S.     Tlic  list  of  justices  follows: 

1C07,  Parley  Coburii ;  ISiil.  Klisliii  Iliir.liii);,  Jr.:  1«S!.  Alfii'd  llini'  ;  1S.'4, 
.liispcr  Fnsiiott :  litil,  MiU-s  .\vi  ry  iiiui  l.umaii  Kcii-y ;  iK.'ii.  Kzckiel  Miiw- 
ry;  isiiil,  Mofi'S  Ovciflclil.  Isiiac  I.iiccy,  ii-..  ami  Daniel  Miilci :  l.^ll.  Wll- 
liarn  S.  .layiu' ;  !.'<:!!,  .lames  llniwn;  ls:i4,  .lames  Kelly;  IWi.  Seliiiyler 
Fas,sett  anil  Henry  Osterlniut ;  IsiT.  Klllui  I'arrisli  and  Cleiiineey  T.  ciay- 
lord;  1W8.  IVter  .M.OsterlKiiit,  TiniDthy  .M.  Wliiteomli.  KilwanI  Itnik 
ami  (ieorttp  .Mowry  ;  1S3!I,  -Milo  (iay. 

Justices  were  commissioned  as  follows  for  district  num- 
ber 9,  consisting  of  Rush  and  Bridgewater  townships: 

180!<,  Asa  DIrnock  and  Salmon  noswortli ;  IHdll,  Isaai'  T»ri>«  nson  ami 
Joshua  Waldo  Haynsforil. 

Nicholson,  Willinghorough  and  l.awsville  townships 
composed  the  loth  district,  for  which  the  justices  were: 

ISIM.  'I'lionias  Till'any  :  ISOri,  Hosea  Tiltany  :  ISKI.  William  'I'liompson. 

I'nder  the  constitution  of  1838  justices  of  the  i)eace 
and  aldermen  were  elected  in  cities,  boroughs  and  town- 
shi|)s  to  serve  for  five  years,  and  under  the  act  of  As- 
sembly of  the  2ist  of  June,  1839,  the  first  election 
took  place  in  1840. 

Under  the  constitution  of  1873  justices  of  the  i)eace 
and  aldermen  were  to  be  elected  for  five  years,  and  under 
the  act  of  Assembly  of  the  22nd  of  March,  1877,  com- 
missions were  to  take  effect  from  the  first  Monday  of 
May,  the  governor  having  power  to  appoint  to  vacan- 
cies up  to  30  days  after  the  next  municipal  election. 

The  justices  for  townships,  and  aldermen  for  boroughs 
under  the  constitution  of  1838  and  subsecpient  ena<  t- 
ments  will  be  found  in  the  township,  borough  and  city 

When  this  region,  by  the  Trenton  decree  of  1782, 
finally  came^under  the  jurisdiction  of  Pennsylvania,  it 
became  a  part  of  the  county  of  Northumberland  county 
seat  Sunbury  .which  had  been  taken  in  1772  from  North- 
ampton (county  seat  Easton",  the  latter  covering  a  large 
section  of  the  original  county  of  Bucks,  from  which  it 
was  formed  in  1752. 

"To  extend  to  the  remote  settlement  at  Wyoming  the 
advantage  of  civil  government,  in  which  they  might  par- 
ticipate, affording  them  an  opjjortunity  to  administer 
their  local  affairs  by  persons  having  the  confidence  of  the 
inhabitants,  chosen  by  themselves;  to  give  the  people  an 
efficient  representation  in  the  council  and  Assembly,  so 
that  their  voice  might  be  heard,  their  interests  e.\|)lained 
and  their  influence  fairly  appreciated,"  a  new  county  was 
formed  on  the  26th  of  September,  1786,  from  part  of  the 
territory  of  Northumberland.  It  was  named  I.u/erne  from 
the  Chevalier  de  la  Lu/erne,  a  most  popular  minister 
from  the  F'rench  court  during  the  Revolution  and  for 
many  years  afterward  a  prominent  figure  in  the  public 
eye;  and  was  bounded  as  follows:  "Beginning  at  the 
mouth  of  Nescopeck  creek,  and  running  along  the  south 
bank  thence  eastward  to  the  head  of  said  creek;  from 
thence  a  due  east  course  to  the  head  branch  of  I.ehigh 
creek;  thence  along  the  east  bank  of  said  Lehigh  creek  1 
to  the  head   thereof;  from    thence  a  due  north  course  to      1 


the  northern  boundary  of  the  State;  thence  westward 
along  said  boundary  until  it  crosses  the  cast  branch  of 
Sus(|uehanna,  and  then  along  the  said  northern  lioundary 
fifteen  miles  west  of  the  said  river  Susquehanna;  thence 
by  a  straight  line  to  the  head  of  Towanda;  thence  along 
the  ridge  which  divides  the  waters  of  the  east  branch  of 
the  Suscpichanna  from  those  of  the  west  hrancli,  to  a 
point  due  west  from  the  mouth  of  ihe  \r-,,,^,<:  V ;  thence 
east  to  the  place  of  beginning." 

The  act  creating  the  county  provided  lor  an  election 
on  ihe  second  Tuesday  of  the  following  October,  to 
choose  county  officers  and  representatives  in  the  Legis- 
lature; and  that  /.ebulon  Butler.  Nathaniel  Landon. 
Jonah  Rogers,  Simon  Sp.ilding  and  John  I'hillips  should 
be  a  commission  to  buy  a  site  for  the  county  buildings. 

On  Ihe  27th  of  May.  1787.  the  Court  of  Common  I'leas 
convened  for  its  first  session  at  the  house  of  /ebulon 
Butler,  corner  of  Northampton  and  River  streets, 
WilkcsBarre.  The  jusii(es  constituting  the  court  were 
William  Hooker  Smith,  Hi-nj.imin  Carpenter  and  James 
Nesbit.  They  admitted  to  pr.icticeas  attorneys  Hbene/.er 
Bowman,  Putnam  ('atlin.  Roswell  Wells  and  William 
Nichols.  Colonel  Timothy  Pickering  was  commissioned 
Ijroihonotary  of  the  court,  surrogate  and  county  clerk. 

The  original  territory  of  Lu/erene  county  was  first  re- 
duced by  the  annexation  of  a  part  to  Lycoming  county 
in  1804;  in  1808  its  boundaries  were  extended  south  of 
Nescopeck  creek;  in  1810  Susipiehanna  and  part  of 
Bradford  were  taken  off,  and  in  1842  Wyoming;  and  in 
1856  the  present  southern  boundary  was  established  by 
the  annexation  of  ])art  of  F'oster  township  to  Carbon 
county.  The  latest  and  most  important  change  was  the 
creation  of  Lackawanna  county,  of  which  an  account  is 
given  in  the  history  of  that  county. 

In  1 790  the  county  court  divided  the  county  into  eleven 
townships.  These  retained  the  old  names  of  Wilkes- 
Barre,  Pittston,  Hano\er.  Newport.  Exeter,  Plymouth. 
Kingston,  Salem.  Tioga.  Wyaliising  and  Tunkhannock. 
but  the  territory  of  those  townships  which  had  existed 
under  the  Connecticut  jurisdiction  was  extended.  The 
further  formation  and  modification  of  townships  are  de- 
scribed in  the  township  histories. 

'I'he  commissioners,  named  above,  to  procure  a  site 
for  county  buildings  made  choice  of  the  public  sipiare  in 
Wilkes- Barre;  and  in  1791  there  was  erected  a  two-story 
hewn  log  building,  about  sixty  feet  long  and  half  as  wide, 
of  which  the  second  story  was  the  court-room  approached 
by  steps  outside  ,  and  the  lower  floor  was  for  the  jail  and 
the  jailer. 

This  structure  gave  way  in  1801  for  the  building  of  a 
new  court  house  on  the  same  site.  The  old  one  was  oc- 
cupied, however,  during  the  construction  of  the  new. 
which  was  finished  in  1804.  when  the  log  building  became 
the  Wilkes-Barre  .Academy. 

The  new  cojrt-house,  which  was  in  the  shape  of  across 
and  had  a  low  tower  and  a  belfry  in  the  center  of  the 
roof,  cost  $9,356.06.  and  was  used  more  than  fifty  years. 
In  the  year  after  the  commencement  of  its  construction 
a  jail  was  built  on  the  corner  of  Market  and  Washington 


streets,  and  between  1809  and  1812   a   fireproof  building 
for  the  county  records,  the  three  costing  about  ^24,000. 

In  1835  the  Legislature  authorized  the  erection  of  the 
present  court-house,  and  its  corner  stone  was  laid  August 
1 2th,  1S56.  LTnder  the  supervision  chiefly  of  Benjamin 
F.  I'fauts,  William  A.  Tubbs  and  Silas  Dodson  it  was 
completed  and  furnished  at  a  cost  of  $85,000.  The  ar- 
chitect was  J.  C.  Wells,  of  New  York,  and  the  builder  1). 
A.  Fell.  Provision  is  made  in  this  building  for  the  pub- 
lic offices,  which  formerly  occupied  a  separate  one. 

The  jail  begun  in  1802  served  until  1870,  although  long 
before  that  time  it  had  proved  inadequate  to  the  de- 
mands upon  it  and  was  unworthy  of  the  advanced  posi- 
tion of  the  commonwealth  in  the  matter  of  jjrison  disci- 

On  the  2nd  of  .\pril,  1867,  the  contract  for  the  build- 
ing of  a  new  jail  was  awarded  to  Lewis  Ha\ens,  at  iftiSg,- 
575.  On  the  iSth  of  August,  1870,  the  sheriff  was  or- 
dered to  remove  the  prisoners  to  this  jail,  and  on  the  4tli 
of  November  in  the  same  year  the  building  was  accepted 
from  the  contractor.  An  expenditure  of  $18,500.93 
above  the  contract  ])rice  was  incurred  for  additional  and 
extra  work.  From  a  report  furnished  by  the  clerk  of  the 
county  commissioners  it  appears  that  the  building  and 
furniture  cost  $302,536.92.  It  is  located  above  North 
street,  between^River  street  and  the  Susquehanna,  in  the 
city  of  Wilkes-Barre.  It  is  built  of  stone  brought  from 
Campbell's  ledge,  opposite  Pittston.  It  occupies  a  lot  of 
five  acres,|and  the  building  covers  three-fourths  of  an 
acre.  It  is  a  fireproof  structure,  and  it  is  at  the  same 
time  substantially  and  tastefully  built  and  elegantly 
painted  inside.  It  has  in  both  wings  seventy-two  cells, 
thirty-two  of  which  are  double,  sufficient  in  all  for  104 

The  building  is  heated  by  three  furnaces,  and  all  the 
cooking  and  heating  of  water  are  done  by  them.  It  is 
ventilated  by  a  fan,  which  is  propelled  by  an  engine — pre- 
cisely as  coal  mines  are  ventilated. 

There  are  few,  if  any,  prisons  in  this  portion  of  the 
State  that  are  equal  to  this  in  the  excellence  of  their  con- 
struction and  arrangements,  especially  with  regard  to 
cleanliness  and  healthfulness. 

Under  the  old  State  system  each  city,  borough  and 
township  maintained  and  ccr-.d  for  the  poor  within  its 
limits.  About  the  year  1858,  the  question  of  erecting  a 
county  poor-)iouse  was  submitted  to  the  people  in  ac- 
cordance with  an  act  of  Assembly,  and  decided  in  the 
negative.  By  special  legislation  portions  of  the  county 
were  then  erected  into  poor  districts,  each  under  a  special 

In  i860,  by  an  act  of  Assembly,  the  townshijj  of 
Wilkes-Barre  was  made  a  poor  district  and  a  farm  was 
purchased  in  the  township  of  Newqjort,  about  four  miles 
below  Nanticoke,  on  the  east  side  of  the  river.  In  1861 
the  Central  poor  district  of  Luzerne  county  was  incor- 
porated. This  district  embraces  the  townships  of  Wilkes- 
Barre,  Plains,  Kingston,  Plymouth,  Hanover  and  New- 
port, the  boroughs  of  Kingston,  Plymouth,  Ashley,  Sugar 
Notch  and  Nancicoke,  and  the  city  of  \A'ilkesBarre. 

In  1863  the  first  jjoor-house  was  built,  on  the  farm 
purchased  by  Wilkes-Barre  in  i860.  It  was  a  framed 
building  35  by  74  feet,  three  stories  in  height  above  the- 
basement,  which  was  finished  for  cooking  and  dining 
apartments.  This  with  the  old  farm  house  and  a  small 
kitchen  constituted  the  poor-house  up  to  1879,  when 
another  building  was  erected.  This  w-as  of  brick,  35  by 
76  feet,  three  stories  in  height,  with  a  finished  basement, 
which  is  used  as  a  laundry.  The  female  paupers  occupy 
this  building,  the  old  wooden  structure  being  used  exclu- 
sively for  males. 

This  was  incorporated  on  the  8ih  of  May,  1857,  under 
the  corporate  name  of  "  The  Poor  District  of  Jenkins 
township,  Pittston  borough  and  Pittston  township."  The 
first  directors  were  John  D.  Stark,  Peter  Winters,  William 
Ford  and  Ebene/.er  Drake. 

This  board  of  directors  in  1857  purchased  a  farm  of 
160  acres  in  the  township  of  Ransom,  now  in  the  county 
of  Lackawanna.  The  farm  house  standing  on  this  farm 
was  used  as  a  poor-house  till  the  year  1877,  when  the 
present  fine  brick  structure  was  erected.  This  is  three 
stories  in  height  above  the  basement,  which  is  used  as  a 
kitchen  and  place  of  work.  The  building  is  capable  of 
accommodating  one  hundred  paupers.  The  jiresent 
directors  are  Paul  Bohan,  L.  C.  Hessler,  Francis  Yates 
and  Charles  Banker. 

Criminals  convicted  of  capital  offenses  have  been  exe- 
cuted at  Wilkes-Barre  as  follows:  July  ist,  1779,  Michael 
Rosebury,  by  order  of  General  Sullivan,  for  instigating 
desertions  from  the  latter's  command;  James  Cadden, 
March  2nd,  1849,  f'^''  ''''^  murder  of  Daniel  Gilligan 
below  Wilkes  Barre;  Reese  Evans,  September  gth,  1853, 
for  shooting  Lewis  Reese  on  the  Kingston  flats  in  order 
to  rob  him;  James  Quinn,  April  21st,  1854,  fqr  the  murder 
of  Mahala  AViggins  on  the  canal  near  the  Nanticoke  dam; 
William  Muller,  April  30th,  1858,  for  the  murder  of 
George  Mathias,  a  few  miles  from  Wilkes-Barre,  on  the 
Easton  road. 

In  1790  Luzerne  county  had  a  population  of  4,904;  in 
1800,  12,839;  1810,  18,109;  1820  (after  the  formation  of 
Susquehanna  and  Bradford',  20,027:  1830,  27,305;  1S40, 
44,006;  1850  'after  the  formation  of  Wyoming  county, 
56,072;  1860,90,254;  1870,160,755. 

In  the  early  history  of  political  parties  in  this  county, 
the  Federalists,  who  favored  a  strong  national  govern- 
ment, had  a  large  majority.  Within  the  memory  of  the 
present  generation  the  Democrats  have  oftenest  had  the 
ascendency.  Below  will  be  found  lists  of  the  citizens 
who  have  administered  the  affairs  of  the  county  and 
represented  it  in  various  legislative  bodies. 

In  the  spring  after  the  formation  of  the  town  of  West- 
moreland Zebulon  Butler  and  Timothy  Smith,  and  in  the 
autumn  of  that  year  Christopher  Avery  and  John  Jenkins 
appeared  before  the  Assembly  of  Connecticut  on  behalf 
of  the  new  town.  Timothy  Smith  had  attended  the  last 
three  previous  sessions;  Joseph  Sluman  the  last  two  and 
John  Jenkins  the  last  one.  Captain  Butler  and  Joseph 
Sluman  were  the  next  representatives  in  that  body  of 
whom  we  find  record.     Butler  was  also  a  member  in   the 




autumn  session  of  1775,  in  which  Major  Ezekiel  Pierce 
was  his  colleague,  and  in  the  spring  session  of  1776  we 
find  John  Jenkins  and  Solomon  Strong.  Colonel  Nathan 
Denison  was  a  member  in  the  siiring  sessions  of  177S  and 
1779,  and  the  autumn  sessions  of  1776,  i77Sand  1.S80. 
JoJin  Jenkins  and  Isaac  Tripj)  were  the  Assemblymen  at 
both  sessions  of  1777;  Anderson  Dana  in  the  spring,  and 
Asahel  Buck  in  the  October  session  of  1778.  John 
Hurlbut  served  in  the  spring  sessions  of   1779,  1780  and 

1781.  and  the  autumn  session  of  1780.  Jonathan  Fitch 
was  a  member  in  the  spring  sessions  of  1780,  1781  and 

1782,  and  the  autumn  session  of  1782.  Obadiah  Ciore 
and  John  Franklin  were  the  members  at  the  spring  ses- 
sion of  1 781,  and  the  former  attended  both  sessions  in 

John  Sherman  of  Westmoreland  was  appointed  judge 
of  probate  and  justice  of  the  peace  for  Litchfield  county, 
Conn.,  in  1775. 

Stewart  Pearce  gi\es  the  following  list  of  president 
judges  after  the  adoption  of  the  constitution  of  1790: 
Jacob  Rush,  1791-1806;  Thomas  Cooper,  1806-11;  Seth 
Chapman,  1811-13;  John  I!.  Cibson,  1813-16;  Thomas 
Burnside,  1816-18;  David  Scott, 1818-38;  William  Jessup, 
183S-41;  John  N.  Conyngham,  1841-70.  C.arrick  M. 
Harding  was  the  incumbent  in  1870-79.  Charles  E.  Rice 
was  commissioned  in  January,  iSSo. 

Under  the  act  of  June  27th,  1867,  creating  the  ofiftce 
of  additional  law  judge  in  Luzerne  county,  H.  M.  Hoyt 
was  appointed  to  that  office.  At  the  election  the  same 
year  E.  L.  Dana  was  elected  for  the  term  of  ten  years. 
John  Handley  was  elected  under  an  act  giving  still 
another  law  judge  to  the  county.  In  1877  W.  H.  Stanton 
was  elected.  He  resigned  in  about  a  year.  In  1879 
Charles  E.  Rice  was  elected,  but  was  commissioned  pres- 
ident judge  in  January,  1880,  and  Stanley  Woodard  was 
appointed  additional  law  judge. 

Up  to  i860  this  county  belonged  to  a  Congressional 
district  which  also  included  Berks,  Bucks,  Northampton, 
Northumberland  and  other  counties.  The  first  repre- 
sentative from  Luzerne  county,  David  Scott,  of  Wikes- 
Barre,  was  elected  in  1816.  He  resigned  on  being 
appointed  president  judge.  Representatives  from  the 
district  including  Luzerne  county  have  since  been  chosen 
as  follows: 

1818, 183(1,  George  Denison  and  John  Murray;  1830-32,  Cox  Ellis,  George 
Krcnmer,  Samuel  McKoan,  rhiliimler  Stoplicns,  Lewis  Drwart  and  A. 
Marr;  18:13  (Luzerne  and  Coluniliia),  18 U.  .\ndiew  lleaiiniiint ;  IXK,  18.18, 
David  Petrekin:  1840.1812,  Benjamin  .\.  Itidlaek  :  1844.  Owen  1).  Lelli ; 
184ii.  1848.  Chester  Under;  18.1(1  (Luzerne,  Wynminif,  I'olnniliia  and  Mnii- 
tour),  18.->4,  Henry  M.  Fuller;  IXa,  Ilendriek  U.  Wri«lit;  1S."«1,  John  <;. 
Montifoniery— died,  and  was  sueeceded  the  next  year  by  Paul  I«idy  ; 
1858, 1.%!),  Geiirg-e  W.  Seranton—dicddurinif  his  seiond  term,  and  H.  II. 
Writfht  was  chosen  at  a  special  election  in  .lune,  18151 ;  I8«2  (Luzerne  anil 
Susi|uehanna),  18«1,  Charles  Deniaon  ;  18(i8,  (ieori?e  W.  Woodard ;  18T2, 
Lazarus  n.  .'Shoemaker;  ISTti,  Wiuthrop  W.  Keteham  ;  1877.  W.  It.  Stan- 
ton :  1878,  Hendriek  II.  Wright. 

Members  of  the  ujjper  house  of  the  Legislature  have 
been  chosen  from  the  district  including  Luzerne  county 
as  follows: 

Coiiiiri/.-1787  89,  Nathan  Denison  ;  178ii  (October  .•Kltlil.  17im,  Lord  Ilut- 
Icr.  .Si-n«(<-.— 17!IU  (Luzerne.  Northumberland  and  HunlinKtoni.  William 
MontKomery;  17)ti,  William  Hepburn;  17i>l  iLuz<'rne,  Norlhuinberlaml 
Mifflin  and  Lycomin)fi,(ieor|jre  Wilson:  17!«l  c^une  district),  Samuel  Dale: 
17!«,  Samuel  Mcflay  ;  WO,  .lames  Harris  ;  isni  (Luzerne,  Northamptou 

and  Wnyncl.  Jonas  llnrlzell;  IWl,  Thomas  MeWhortrr;  1W5,  Wllllnm 
Lattimon-:  Ii«r7,  Malthias  (iress;  1808  (Luzi'rne  and  .\iirthumlierland>. 
Nathan  Paliiier:  Islii,  Jamix  Ijiird  :  Islu'.  William  Uow,  Islt  (Lu/jtuc. 
Northumberland,  I'ldon.  ColumbUiand  Sutwitiehannai,  Thomas  Murm.i . 
Jr.;  18III,  Charli-s  Frazer;  1818,  Simon  .Snyiler ;  1820,  l(e<lmonil  ConynK- 
hiun;  IK:M  iLuzenie  and  Cidumlilal.  ItolK-rt  MiMiru :  1H28,  IKIO,  Jae<di 
Drumheller:  \XXi.  I'zid  Hopkins;  IKtl  (Lun-rne,  Monroe.  Wayne  and 
Plkei,  KlM>ni-z<-r  KInif-bnry,  Jr.;  IKH.  S.  F.  Hi-adley  :  IMI.  L\ilher  KlddiT ; 
1814  (Luzerne  and  l'olUMibla>.  William  S.  UfMx;  1847.  Vali'mim' Ik-I :  Is.'<' 
iLuzerne.  ('(dnmbla  and  Montour.  IKVI.  Charles  It.  Iliiekalew  :  I8.'<1. 
Geortre  P.  Sd'eli;  IkVi  <  Ln»'rnei.  WInlhrop  W.  Keieham;  ImL",  J.  II.  Slark; 
I8«."i,  L.  D.Shoeumker;  IHiK  Samuel  J.Turner;  1»7I  (LuziTue.  Monroe  and 
Plki'l,  Fnnieis  D.  Collin-,  .MIktI  (i.  Hrodlieud  :  1872.  GiKirije  H.  Ilowlnnd; 
Is74,  I).  H.  Stanton,  H.  II.  Payne;  IsTT.  K.  C.  Wndhnins.  J.  II.  Seniiiuns 

Members  of  the  lower  house  of  the  Legislature  have 
been  sent  from  the  district  including  or  consisting  "I 
Luzerne  county  as  follows,  the  district  comprising  Lu- 
zerne, Bradford  and  Susquehanna  from  1814  to  1828, 

John  Paul  Sehott,  1787;  obadiah  Gore,  17C8-IW;  .Simon  S|HiMlnK.  ITUl. 
17H2:  Kls'uezer  Ilowman.  Kai:  Ifc-njamln  Cariwuler.  17U4 ;  John  Frank- 
lin. 17lfi.  K'.iil.  Kliy-lMSI :  It.wwell  Wells.  i:'.r7.17»i.  we,  WM-il;  L..ri|  lluller, 
1801;  John  Jenkins,  IKCI;  Jonas  Ingham.  18IH  ;  Nathan  lleaih.  Iwk'.,  1KT7 : 
.Mows  CoolbaUKh,  IHW ;  Charles  Miner,  lHit7,  Isiw,  |sl2:  lltnjuniln  Dor- 
rance,  |8Hs.i(P,  1812,  1814,  181!i,  ls2iP,  Km ;  ThiuniLs  Gniliam.  |hi«i-ii  ;  J,,na- 
than  Sti-veus,  1811  :  Jalsv.  Hyde.  Jr..  and  Jii-<Mdi  Prnner.  I»i:i  (Liiwrne 
and  Sus<|nelianna>:  Putnam  Callln.  |S14;  lt<xlnionil  Con.>nKliam.  Isl.'i: 
George  Denison.  Isl.'i.  Islil.  lK27-'ln:  Jonah  lln-wstor.  Islil-ll):  Jam< « 
Ki-eder,  |8|7.  1818;  Corni'lius  CortrlKlit.  1820.  |82I.  Isil;  Andrew  Ihiiu- 
nionl,  1821.  183:1.  1849:  Jabez  Hyde,  Jr.,  1822,  18-.5I;  Jae<di  Drunihi-ller,  Jr., 
1822-:14;  Philander  Stevens,  I.S24-'.>J:  G.  M  Hollenlwek,  18S4.  182.'i ;  Samuel 
Thomas.  1835,  I82(i;  fiarriek  .MaUiry,  ls2«-2!i;  Almon  11.  Unid,  IK27  :  Isaac 
Post,  1838:  Alliert  (;.  Hrodhead,  KU-tl;  Nicholas  Oierlleld.  IKIl  :  Chester 
Ilntier,  18:13.  1838.  Kto,  |84:l;  Zil«i  llennetl.  )xi\.  KM:  II.  A.  Itidlaek.  KM. 
Wis  Jami-^  Nesliitt.  Jr.,  Is.f>i  Hinrj  Slark.  KM.  Kr;  ;  Wlllium  C.  Key- 
nolds,  IKK!.  KK;  John  Sturdi>\anl.  IKfS;  Jos<'ph  Grinin.  XKli;  Andn-w 
Cortriuht.  IK40.  1841 :  Hendriek  II.  Wriifhi.  1840-42;  Mos4k  OwrlW'Id.  IMS: 
William  Merritleld.  Isi.M.'.;  Jami-s  S.  Camt>bell,  1H44.  184.'i:  Nalluiii  Jack- 
son. 1840;  George  Fensternmcher,  I84«:  Samuel  ll<>n<sliet.  1847 ;  James 
W.  0(111.1847;  Henry  M.  Fuller,  1848;  Thmnas  Gillespie,  1848;  John  N. 
Conynghan.  1840;  Jami's  \V.  Ithodi-s,  K.0,  l8.-d;  Silas  S.  Ilenisllct,  1H.'<I,1851: 
Truman  Atherton,  Ik'c!.  IS.',:! ;  .Vl)ram  It.  Dunnlmr.  18.'i2-.".4  :  GhUsm  W. 
Palmer,  I8.V4  :  Harrison  Wright.  IKVi;  Hendei-son  GaylonI,  1kY>:  Sleubon 
Jenkins,  ls.-(i,  l.-v-,7  :  Thomas  Smith.  I8.V1:  Siunuel  (i.  Turner,  I8.'i7  ;  P.  C. 
Gritman.  ls.->7.  |.'<.'>.s;  Lewis  Pnghe.  IKV.  INII;  WInthrop  W.  Kelcliam,18&8: 
.John  Stone.  18V.I:  Peter  ll>  rw.  l,8-,!t.  I8i»);  Dyer  L.  Chapiii,  1H3B:  H.  II.  Hill- 
man.  1800;  William  S.  Iti.s.  18(11:  It.  F.  Uussi'll.  1801;  H.  V.  Hull.  IMI ; 
S.  W.  Trimmer.  18U2;  Jai.'<ib  Hobinson,  l8i£.',  18(CI :  Peter  Walsh,  lfW^ 
1803.  Harry  Hakes,  InJI.  I8«4;  Anthony  Gnidy,  I8tM.  Isik'i:  D.  K. 
Seybert.  I.^-ll.  ISAi;  D.  S.  Koon,  18iV>,  IMHH ;  William  lln-nnan.  1800. 
1807;  James  .McHenry.  1800.  1807;  Siunnel  F.  Ilussard.  1S(17.  ls«8.  |8i»; 
Daniel  L.  o'Neil,  Isos,  isiW;  Nathan  G.  Wrestler,  Isfts,  inM;  S.  W.  Kcene, 
1870,1871;  George  Corny,  1870, 1871 :  J(dHi  F.  MeMahoii.  Is70:  lllehard 
Williams.  1871. 1872;  Patrick  Delaivy.  1872.  1.-7^1;  Peter  l/ulgley.  1872. 1873; 
n.  D.  Ko(Mis.  1872.  Is7:i:  K.  P.  KIsner.  1873;  Tliomas  Wnddell,  1S74 ;  A.  L. 
Cressler.  1.'74:  T.  W.  Loflus.  1874;  M.  Crogan.  1874;  Charle-  A.  Miner.  1K7.'»- 
80;  T.  H.  II.  Lewis,  187.'i,  1870;  J.  J.  Shonk.  l87.'i-78;  J.  c.  Flneher.  187.''..  1870; 
James  MeAsoy.  187."i.  1870;  F.  W.  Gnnsler.  187."i.  1870;  M.  F.  Synotl.  |87.'>. 
1870:  C.  K.tiorman,  1870.  1870;  T.  W.  Ixiftu.«.  187.'i,  1870;  John  II.  Smith. 
1877-80;  Charles  Mc-Carron.  1877.  1878 ;  (Jeorge  Judg(N  1877.  1878  ;  James  A. 
Kiersted.  1877,  1878;  D.  M.  Jiaies.  Is77.  1878;  A.I.  Ackerly.  1877.  1878. 
187'.l.  1880;  S.  S.  Jones.  1877.  1878  ;  W.  H.  HInes.  I87H.  1880;  (ietirgi*  W. 
Drum,  1879,  1880;  Dennis  ll'U-iilhan,  187W.  188U;  John  E.  Iliirreil.  I-71'. 
1880:  T.  1).  I*wls,  1870. 1780;  Thomas  Mooiioy.  187«,  1880. 

The  following  will  be  found  a  correct  list  of  all  the 
sheriffs  of  Luzerne  county  from  its  organization  up  to 
i88o.    The  year  in  which  eai  ii  was  elected  is  given: 

Lord  Ilutler,  1787:  Jesse  Fell.  1789;  John  Franklin.  1702:  WlllUim  Slo- 
cinn.  I7!i"i;  ,\rnold  Ctdt.  Itus  ;  lu-njamin  llorranee.  IsiH  ;  Jame»  Wheeler. 

1804  ;  Jacob  Hart.  1807:  Jals-z    Hyde.  Jr..   l-lo;  FJIJali  Sh l,  ,     i-i;i: 

Stephen  Van  L i.   IsIO ;  Isiuic  ll<iwnmn.   Isl'.i;  Jonathan  i 

Napthali  Hurlburt.  IS2.1;  Oliver   ll.lme.   182.- ;  Thomas  K.i  i 

In  October.  1831.  di(sl  in  a  few  himrs  after  he  was  swoni  In.  uu<l    llenju- 

mln  Keyn(dds  wasappcOnte<l  by  the  governor  lo  the  vnenney  ft.r  one 

year  or  until  the  next  ehs-t  Ion.  when  Jail' 

lK>r.  KCi.  and  served  until  Kl".;  Tlionms  M 

George  P.  SI(S-le.  1841 ;  James  W.  (;olT,  Isii :  "  -  • 

A.  Palmer.  IKVI;  Abniin  Drum.  KVl :  Ja-iwr  II  • 

Loon.   Is-VU;    Samuel   II.   Patcrlniugh.  18<K  ;  J..^  , 1.     :.:  v,. 

James  WUhoad«.l8<Vs;  Auron  Whilaker,  1871;  WlllUm  P.  Klrkendall. 
Ili7i;  P.J.Kciiuy,  len. 



CHAPTER    Vni. 

AND    MEXICO    AND    AT    HOME. 

^^■"""^'T  does  not  appear  that  previous  to  the  Revo 
fm'^AM'-m     valley    any    regular     military    organization 


utionary  war  there  e.xisted  in  the  Wyoming 

•alley    any    regular     military    organization. 

As    a   historian    of    those    times    (James  A. 

Gordon)  has  said,  "  Every  settler  was  practi- 
^^  cally  an  independent  company  of  himself.  He 
carried  his  own  rifle,  marched  generally  under  the 
orders  of  the  'town  meeting'  either  against  the  Indian. 
Pennamite  or  tory,  as  the  case  might  be;  furnished  his 
own  rations  and  ammunition,  and  paid  himself  from  his 
own  military  chest — if  he  had  one.  But  after  the  l^ecla- 
ration  of  Independence  the  State  of  Connecticut  as- 
sumed the  military  control  of  this  region,  and  two  com- 
panies were  raised  here  under  her  authority." 

Even  after  the  decree  of  Trenton,  by  which  Pennsyl- 
vania acquired  territorial  jurisdiction,  no  organization 
except  of  voluntary  unauthorized  companies  for  resist- 
ance to  the  Pennamites  e.xisted  prior  to  1786.  In  that 
year  the  county  of  Luzerne  was  organized,  and  the  mili- 
tia laws  of  Pennsylvania  were  extended  over  it,  as  in 
other  portions  of  the  State.  A  brigade  and  regiments 
were  formed  here,  and  from  the  record  of  his  commis- 
sion in  the  recorder's  office,  bearing  date  April  nth, 
1793,  it  appears  that  Jesse  Fell  was  appointed  brigade 
inspector  for  a  term  of  seven  years. 

Now  this  same  Jesse  Fell  was  a  Quaker,  recently  from 
Bucks  county;  yet,  notwithstanding  he  was  a  professed 
noncombatant,  he  donned  the  regular  uniform,  with  the 
appropriate  feathers,  and,  mounted  on  his  charger,  per- 
formed the  functions  required  of  him,  much  to  the  cha- 
grin of  the  "  meeting  "  to  which  he  belonged. 

The  following  notice  is  found  in  the  files  of  the  IVilkes- 
Barre  Gazette,  under  the  date  of  January  i6th,  1798: 

"Militia. — The  Militia  officers  commanding  compa- 
nies in  the  Luzerne  county  brigade,  who  have  not  made 
returns  of  the  absentees  on  the  company  and  regimental 
days  in  October  last,  are  requested  to  complete  their  re- 
turns by  the  first  day  of  February  next;  and  those  per- 
sons liable  by  law  to  militia  duty  charged  with  fines  as 
absentees  are  reipiested  to  make  payment  by  the  day 
aforesaid,  or  they  }niist pay  tlic  fees  of  collecting. 

"Jesse  Fell,  Brigade  Inspector." 

It  thus  appears  that  those  liable  to  military  duty  were 
required  to  meet  for  "training"  two  days  each  year,  un- 
der penalty. 

Among  the  old  manuscripts  in  the  possession  of  Steu- 
ben Jenkins  is  the  record  of  a  draft  made  from  the  com- 
panies of  the  third  regiment  in  January,  i  794,  and  another 
in  October,  1797;  but  it  does  not  appear  for  what  pur- 
poses these  drafts  were  made.  As  elsewhere  stated,  the 
militia  of  the  State  was  reorganized  in  1822. 

To  meet  emergencies  which  arose  from  time  to  time 

volunteer  companies  were  organized  in  Luzerne  county. 
Such  organizations  did  service  in  the  suppression  of  the 
whiskey  insurrection,  during  the  prospect  of  war  with 
France  in  1800,  and  in  the  war  of  1812. 

In  the  early  part  of  the  present  century  several  inde- 
pendent military  organizations  existed  here  at  different 
times.  The  earliest  among  these  of  which  anything  is 
known  was  the 

wvoMiNv;  blues. 

This  company,  which   it  ai)pears  originated  about  the 

close  of  the  last  century,  had  a  prosperous  existence  for 

some  years.     Gordon  says: 

"  The  members  of  this  company  were  made  up  of  the  diU  of  Wilkes- 
Barre  anil  its  immediate  vicinity.  It  is  to  be  regretted  that  a  complete 
muster  roll  cannot  now  be  made  up.  It  is  barel}'  possible  that  a  roll  of 
its  organic  members  maybe  found  in  the  adjutant  general's  office  at 
Harrisburg,  but  not  probable.  My  first  petsonal  memory  of  the  com- 
pany was  in  the  spring  of  1805.  Joseph  Slocum  was  then  captain,  and  I 
suppose  he  was  their  first  commander  under  their  legal  organization. 
They  were  then  in  full  uniform,  and  had  a  flag  ;  not  the  star  spangled 
banner,  but  a  flag  bearing  the  coat  of  arras  of  Pennsylvania,  represent- 
ing *  the  lion  and  the  unicorn  fighting  for  the  crown  '  over  the  body  of 
the  American  eagle.  Benjamin  Perrj-  was  the  bearer  of  that  standard 
at  that  time.  I  think  Isaac  Bowman  was  the  lieutenant.  They  met  on 
this  occasion  for  inspection  and  drill.  I  remember  seeing  on  that  parade 
Joseph  Slocum,  captain;  Isaac  Bowman,  lioutenant;  Benjamin  Perry, 
sergeant ;  and  the  latter  seemed  to  have  more  to  do  and  say  in  the  fix- 
ing up  than  anybody  else.  Of  those  in  the  ranks  I  remember  Charles 
Miner,  Matthew  Covel,  Thomas  Duane,  Thomas  Wright,  jr.,  Sidney 
Tracy,  Jehoida  P.  Johnson,  Arnold  Colt,  Peter  Yarrington,  Josiah 
Wright  and  Zebulon  Butler,  jr.  Colonel  Benjamin  Dorrance  was  about, 
but  not  in  the  ranks  nor  in  uniform." 

Mr.  Gordon  then  sketches  the  feast  which  followed 
"at  John  P.  Arndt's  old  Red  Tavern  on  River  street," 
and  continues: 

"  In  1808  Isaac  Bowman  was  elected  captain,  Charles  Miner  and  Benja- 
min Perry  lieutenants,  and  I  think  Godfrey  Perry  sergeant.  I  speak 
from  memory.  I  was  present  at  their  first  meeting  after  the  election. 
It  took  place  on  Bowman's  Hill,  on  the  lawn  in  front  of  the  captain's 
residence,  where  now  lives  Mrs.  A.  H.  Bowman.  On  that  occasion  Cap- 
tain Bowman  treated  the  company  to  a  liberal  collation,  and  everybody 
was  in  good  humor  and  flue  spirits.  In  the  manual  drill  Joseph  Slocum, 
ex-captain,  acted  as  fugleman. 

"  From  this  time  until  the  expiration  of  Captain  Bowman's  term  of 
service  the  Wyoming  Blues  were  regarded  as  the  star  company  of 
Northern  Pennsylvania,  and  as  far  as  their  discipline  was  concerned 
could  have  competed  with  any  company  in  the  United  States  army.  Be- 
sides this,  its  membership  was  made  up  of  the  best  blood  of  the  old 
Yankee  settlers  of  Wyoming. 

"  In  I8II  an  election  took  place,  and  Zebulon  Butler,  a  son  of  Colonel 
Zebulon  Butler,  of  Revolutionary  fame,  was  elected  captain." 

After  the  war  of    1812  broke  out  the   existence  of  this 

organization  ceased,  by  reason  of  opposition  in  political 

sentiment  among  its  members. 


In  iSoi  a  cavalry  company  existed  in  this  county,  but 
when  it  was  organized,  or  how  long  the  organization  con- 
tinued, has  not  been  ascertained.  Under  the  date  of 
March  in  that  year  a  notice  was  published  requiring  the 
"First  Company  of  Cavalry"  to  meet  at  the  house  of 
Jesse  Fell  on  the  2nd  Saturday  in  April,  at  10  A.M.  This 
notice  was  over  the  signature  of  "  Eleazer  Blackman, 


Gordon  says  : 

"The  Volunteer  Matross  of  Kingston  was  organized  under  the  command 
of  Henry  Buckingham,  a  merchant  of  Kingston,  recently  from  Connec- 
ticut, probably  about  1809,  perhaps  earlier.  Captain  Buckingham    *   »   * 



6 1 

was  a  most  oltioicnt  nlHcor  in  every  respect,  a  Lii|iUal  ilrill-iimstcr,  iiiul 
about  the  only  man  in  tliecompany  who  knew  anythlnff  aliniit  artiMiTy 
practice.  •  ♦  •  I  remember  as  tirst  members  iinih-r<  iiplulii  lliicklnir- 
ham,  ZIba  Hoyt,  the  father  of  our  present  governor:  I'hini  as  I'mler- 
wooil,  .VtisaloMi  Uoberts,  Morris  rramer,  Alexander,  Wllllaiii  I'uee 
and  Hallet  (iiilliip.  »  •  »  Their  iinifiirm  was  a  lontr  tailed  blu<'.  with 
brass  buttons,  ^ray  ]nints  and  jraitersor  le^f^in^s  eoveriiiK  the  front  of 
the  shoe  l)y  a  tfore.  I  remember  their  lln*t  panide  in  Wiikirs-lliirre,  in 
1810.  I  think,  with  a  brass  si.\  pounder  which  was  said  to  be  one  of  the 
field  pieces  captured  from  Uurtfoyne  at  Saratoga.  1  do  not  know,  how- 
ever, that  tins  was  a  fad. 

*' On  this  occa.sion  tlie  company  occupied  the  publii' square  for  (heir 
parade  ground.  Their  handling  of  their  guns  <-alled  forth  tlie  highest 
commendations  from  the  spectiitors.  and  Captain  Samuel  llowinan  said 
of  them  that  they  would  pass  muster  in  any  artillery  <'orps  in  the 
Inited  States  army." 

On  the  breaking  out  of    hostilities  between  the  United 

States  and  Great  Britain,  in   1812,  the    Matross  promijtly 

offered  their  services  to  ti'.e  government.      Tlie  company 

tlien  consisted  of  the  following  men: 

Captain,  Samuel  Thomas;  1st  lieutenant,  I'hineas  Cnderwood  :  2nd. 
Ziba  Hoyt:  3rd,  .\ndrew  Sheets:  ensign,  Kdwani  (iildu-ist  :  sergeants- 
John  Carkhutr,  .lacob  Taylor,  .Vbsalom  Uoberts,  Henry  .lones,  George 
W.  Smith,  John  Bowman  ;  corporals— Christopher  Miner,  Daniel  Cocho- 
Tour,  Samuel  Varrish.  Ebenezer  Freeimui,  John  Hiane :  gunners- 
Stephen  Evans,  Isaac  Hollister,  Ji'ihn  Prince,  ,lanies  llird,  Morris  Cra- 
mer, Festus  Freeman,  .lames  L)e\'a!is:  druminci-.  Alexander  Lord; 
flfer,  Araba  Amsden  :  pri\atcs— l>anicl  lloo\er,  .lidni  Daniels,  James  \V. 
Barnum,  William  Pace,  James  Dodtish,  Godfrey  llownnin,  llenjamin 
Hall,  Solomon  Parker,  Ezekiel  Hall,  Sylvanus Moore,  Hallet  Gallup. 

They  left  Kingston  on  the  13th  of  April,  1813,  and 
embarked  on  a  raft  at  the  moutli  of  Shoup's  creek.  They 
landed  at  Danville,  whence  they  marched,  by  way  of 
Lewiston  and  Bedford,  throiigii  Fayette  county,  recruit- 
ing as  they  went,  and  arrived  at  Erie  95  strong. 

In  the  cannonading  at  Presque  Isle  harbor  the  com- 
pany did  efificient  service.  When  volunteers  were  solic- 
ited to  man  the  fleet  of  Commodore  Oliver  Perry  before 
the  battle  of  Lake  Erie  four  from  this  company,  among 
whom  was  James  Bird,  of  Pittston,  promptly  offered 
themselves,  and  all  distinguished  themselves  by  their 
bravery  in  the  battle.  Bird  was  afterward  tried  by  court 
martial  for  desertion,  convicted  and  shot.  He  had  left 
his  post  to  join  General  Jackson  at  New  Orleans,  and 
though  his  purpose  was  ])atriotic  and  laudable  he  was 
technically  guilty  of  desertion,  and  the  stern  discipline  of 
war  did  not  relax  in  his  favor. 

After  the  battle  of  Lake  Erie  the  Matross,  which  was 
attached  to  the  regiment  of  Colonel  Hill,  crossed  into 
Canada  and  marched  on  Maiden,  which  the  enemy 
abandoned  on  their  approach.  They  followed  him  to 
Detroit,  which  he  also  evacuated  ;  thence,  under  tleneral 
Harrison,  they  pursued  him;  in  the  battle  of  the  Thames 
the  Matross  was  commanded  by  Lieutenant  Ziba  Hoyt, 
Captain  Thomas  having  been  left  with  fourteen  of  his 
men  at  Detroit. 

A  recruiting  office  was  opened  in  Wilkes-Barre  during 
the  war,  and  many  volunteers  were  sent  to  the  army  from 
this  county.  Infantry  barracks  were  established  on  the 
bank  of  the  river,  and  cavalry  barracks  on  Franklin 

THE  RM.i.v   IX    1814. 

In  1814,  when  Baltimore  was  threatened  by  the  Brit- 
ish, five  companies  of  the  militia  of  Luzerne  and  the 
counties  adjoining  marched  for  its  defense.  They  pro- 
ceeded as  far  as  Danville;  when,  on  the  receipt  of  intelli- 

gence of  the  repulse  of  the  enemy,  they  were  ordered  to 
return.  On  this  expedition  went  the  following  dctath- 
ments  :  From  the  45th  regiment.  Captain  Joseph  Camp, 
Lieutenant  Joseph  Lolt,  Ensign  Robert  Reynolds;  UQth 
regiment — Captain  Frederick  Uailey  and  .Amos  Tiffany, 
Lieutenant  Cyrrcl  (biddings,  Ensign  Hiat  Tupper;  luth 
regiment — Captain  George  Hidley,  Lieutenant  John 
Wortman,  Ensign  .Abraham  Roberts  ;  35th  regiment — 
Captain  Peter  Hallock,  Lieutenants  Hosca  Phillips  and 
Jeremiah  Fuller,  Ensigns  William  Polen  and  George 
Denison  ;  a  detat  hment  under  Captain  Jacob  IJittcn- 
bender  and  F^nsign  John  Myers. 

Such  of  the  volunteers  as  survived  the  usual  casualties 
and  perils  of  war  and  returned  were  received  and  wel- 
comed with  those  honors  to  which  the  brave  defenders 
of  the  country  are  always  entitled  from  their  fellow 

Of  the  comjiany  here  named  and  others  Mr.  Gordon 
wrote  as  follows: 


"This  s<iuad  was  orgiuii7.>'d  in  thi-  spring  of  Wi.  tinder  the  command  of 
Lieutenant  Swi'cncy,  of  the  liiih  regimcnl  Cnilisl  Stnl<^  infwnlry,  Ihi-n 
on  recruiting  servliTat  Wilki's-Harre.  II  was  never  li-ifiHy  ■•rganlwxl, 
and  I  should  not  notice  it,  only  thai  In  after  ymrs  lt»  menil«crshlp  f"r- 
nished,  to  a  large  extent,  tlieiifflcers  for  imlepemlent  eompnnlen  sulw- 
<iuently  organlwil  \Mider  the  militia  laws  of  I'ennsylvanhi.  IJeuti'imnI 
Sweeney  was  an  accomplished  ilrlll-nuister.  and  uniler  hln  Instruction 
they  made  rapid  progress  in  the  military  art  They  were  nev<-r  uni- 
formed nor  arnie<l.  The  only  liailge  they  wore  was  a  Itonnin  Imt,  om«- 
niented  with  the  black  eoekade  and  the  Amerkun  eajfle  There  w»!i 
not  a  member  of  the  I'ompany  who  had  then  reached  hto  twenly- 
flrst  year." 

He  mentions  among  the  members  John  S.  Hyde,  Samuel 
D.  Bettle,  (ieorge  F.  Gordon,  John  M.  Gordon,  John  S. 
Butler,  one  or  two  of  the  Danas.  Sterne  and  Strange 
Palmer,  James  W.  Bowman,  William  and  Benjamin  D 
Wright.     He  continues: 

In  \SM  the 

".IfXIOIl    VOI.fNTr.EIIS, 

"the  Wyoming  Guards,  and  the  Plttxlon  llifieseame  to  the  fnmt,  with  an 
incipient  effort  to  raise  a  liorst- company  from  WJIkm-Uarpc  townnhlp. 
aldetl  by  recruits  f  i-oni  Hanover. 

"The  Junior  VolunIi><TS  was,  as  its  name  Indli-alisl,  i'.>mpow<lalmo«t 
wholly  of  young  men  who  had  not  n^iehtsl  their  majority.  •  •  •  Kll- 
jah  Worthinglcm,  an  ap|>rentii-e  in  the  Wyoming  llrnilil  olBiv.  w««  the 
first  lieutenant,  and  Zalnuin  Moor,  a  Ji>urneynnin  tailor  with  .\nIhony 
Hrower,  was  orderly  s<Tgeiinl.  and  a  capilal  ollli'er.  J(din  K.  Duia-y  wb» 
their  sei-oml  captain,  wlm  fiourlshedat  thi'ir  lieiiil  for  a  ynir  or  two.  when 
the  company  was  nicrgtsl  in  the  Citizen  Volunteers,  retjilning  the  uni- 
form of  the  Juniors,  which  was  simply  a  summer  dress  of  white  dimiiy. 
roundabout  anil  pants,  Honnin  hat  and  lilaek  on-kade  and  engle.  The 
first  capwin  under  the  new  organiaition   was,  I    think,  William  ."i.  Uow. 

•  •  •  Subsfsinently  he  was  promoKsl  to  the  loniniand  of  a  brigmle 
or  a  division,  of  the  Pennsylvania  militia.  General  Hoss  was  nwlly  a 
military  man,  and  nmde  a  giM>d  olllcwr.        •        •       • 


a  rifie  company,  came  into  the  field  ntxiut  the  same  limn  a.«  the  Junior 
Volunteers  iptiJI.  Thi'y  wen'  commandtsi  by  Captain  Jidui  .M.Mr-,  with 
a  Mr.  Illani-hard  for  first  li.'ulemint.  They  often  paradisl  in  Wllke»- 
llarre.  and  alMuil  one-half  of  their  mcml>en"  were  n-sldi-iils  of  lhi>  town- 
ship. Then  came  iheWyoming  C<iunly  Guards,  a  light  Infantry  c<mip«n\. 
first  commande<l  by  Strong  IJarnuni,  who  lunl  serveil  one  or  two  cam- 
paigns at  West  Point.  I  reinemlMT  the  name*  of  only  n  few  of  themem- 
bcrs-Theron  Illinium,  first  lieuteiiunl:  Kd.  Taylor.  Wllltani  H.  Ale«- 
ander,  Merrill  Slocum.  lieorge  .M.  Ilollenlwck.  Henry  Colt,  Jn;n<-«  W. 
lUiwman.  Lewis  X,  Ketcham,  Keiisxiiicr  Wells  and  Abmm  Toll"  •  — 
among  the  first  meniU'r*,  with  some  'roni  Plains  and  al">ut  half  i 
from  Kingstiui.      •     •     •     The  company  disUinded  jiNmiI  KH  ■■■ 

•  •  •  III  aililltlon  to  Hie  Indepenilent  ouiiiMinlwalriwIy  nollee«l  IheiT 
wasuivuipany  of  light  hopMMnen  •  •  *  not  Inferior  to  any  organl- 
7Allon  of  the  kind  In  Pcnniiylvanlu.    In  IKT.' 

I  nh  1 





was  or«i"anizpfl  Viy  massing:  the  ^'olunteer  companies  then  in  the  tield. 
'I'he  Itatlalion  Avas  composed  of  the  Wj'omin^'-  Ouards,  Pittston  Itlues 
and  a  company  from  Lehman,  nnder  the  command  of  Captain  Jacob  L. 
nogardiis.  f^nhseipiently  it  went  into  a  lejriment,  and  H.  B.  Wriijht  was 
honored  with  the  command,  and  held  that  station  for  some  fourteen 


"This  company  was  (n'ganizcd  in  ist:i,  and  its  mcmliers  were  all 
of  foreifrn  birth.  .\t  their  first  organization  they  were  riflemen,  but 
subscqncntl.v  they  {'hanifcd  to  lif?ht  infantry.  The  following  is  believed 
to  be  a  correct  list  of  the  comissioned  officers  from  1S4:!  to  its  final  dis- 
organization in  lsi!:i:  .Tchn  Rcichard,  I'aptain  :  Jacob  Welder,  lirst  lieu- 
tenant :  Joseph  Coons,  second  lieutenant.  At  the  ne.xt  electi(m,  in  1847, 
John  lieichard  was  re-elected  captain.  Lieutenant  Jacob  Waelder  had 
.joined  the  Wyoming  Artillerists  and  gone  to  Me.\ico,  and  Joseph  Coons 
was  elected  in  his  place,  and  Afartin  Baur  was  elected  second  lieutenant. 
In  18.'i,s  Captain  lieichard  became  brigade  inspector,  and  Joseph  Coons 
became  captain,  Martin  Baur  first  lieutenant,  and  Philip  Nachbar  second 
lieutenant.  At  tiie  breaking  out  of  the  Uebelliim  the  company  was  in  a 
demoralized  condition,  but  on  the  call  of  the  President  in  18iil, under  the 
energetic  measures  talsen  by  George  W.  was  resurrected  and 
joined  Colonel  A.  II.  Emley's  regiment  nt  three  months  men,  with 
(ieorge  W.  Keicliard  captain,  John  rrellinch  first  lieutenant  and 
fiustave  Ilahn  second  lieutenant.  The  members  served  their  terra  with 
great  credit,  but  on  their  return  home  suffered  themselves  to  relaj^se 
into  military  indolence  until  1803,  when  they  promptly  responded  to  a 
call  for  troops  to  repel  the  threatened  invasion  of  Pennsylvania  b.v 
General  Ijce.  These  troops  were  known  as  '  emergency  men.'  Oiistave 
Hahn  was  captain,  Henry  Rhode  lirst  lieutenant,  and  Joseph  lioyer  was 
second  lieutenant." 


Tlie  organization  of  the  Wyoming  Artillerists,  of  Wilkes- 
Barre,  begun  some  time  prior,  was  completed  and  uni- 
forms, guns  and  equipments  obtained  early  in  the  year 
1842.  Under  the  energetic  efforts  of  F.  L.  Bowman,  its 
first  captain,  the  company  soon  acquired  a  reputation  for 
excellence  in  drill  and  discipline. 

Captain  Edmund  I..  Dana  succeeded  to  the  command, 
and  in  November,  1846,  in  response  to  a  call  by  the  Presi- 
dent for  troops  to  serve  during  the  war  with  Me.\ico,  the 
services  of  the  Wyoming  Artillerists  were  tendered  and 
accepted.  The  ranks  were  filled  up  by  enlistments  to 
the  requisite  number,  and  aided  by  the  liberality  of  the 
citizens,  the  company,  under  Captain  Dana,  on  Monday, 
the  7th  of  December,  1846,  after  listening  to  addresses 
in  the  old  church  on  the  public  square,  and  bidding 
adieu  to  relatives  and  friends,  embarked  on  board  an  old 
freight  boat  on  the  North  Branch  Canal,  and  in  the  midst 
of  a  snow  storm  started  for  Pittsburg,  where,  after  much 
toil  and  suffering,  it  arrived  on  Tuesday,  the  15th  of  De- 
cember. On  the  following  day  it  was  mustered  into  the 
service  of  the  United  States,  and  designated  as  Company  I 
in  the  ist  regiment  of  Pennsyl\ania  volunteers.  F.  L. 
Bowman,  2nd  lieutenant,  was  elected  major  of  the  regi- 
ment, and  Jacob  Waelder  was  chosen  to  fill  the  vacancy. 

From  Pittsburg  the  company  voyaged  to  Vera  Cruz, 
encamping  for  a  time  at  New  Orleans  and  at  l^obos 
island,  and  landing  on  Mexican  soil  March  9th,  1847.  On 
the  loth  and  nth  the  investment  of  the  city  and  castle 
was  completed.  In  the  movement  of  troops  on  the  loth 
the  Wyoming  Artillerists  encountered  an  ambuscade  in 
the  chapparal  and  received  the  first  infantry  fire  from 
the  enemy;  a  halt  was  ordered,  the  fire  returned  with 
such  precision  and  effect  that  the  enemy  fled,  and  the 
company  resumed  its  march   and  took  its  position  in  the 

line  of  investment.  It  was  actively  engaged  in  the  skir- 
mishes which  ensued,  in  repelling  attacks  upon  and 
maintaining  possession  of  the  sand  hills  overlooking  the 
city,  in  digging  trenches,  constructing  batteries  and  trans- 
porting to  them  guns  and  ammunition  from  the  beach. 
On  the  afternoon  of  the  22nd  of  March  fire  was  opened 
from  the  American  works.  On  the  29th  the  Mexican 
garrison  moved  out  of  the  city,  and  in  the  presence  of 
two  lines  of  Americans,  among  whom  were  the  ist  Penn- 
sylvania regiment  and  the  Wyoming  men,  laid  down 
their  arms,  ecpiipments  and  flags. 

On  the  9th  of  April  General  Patterson's  division,  with 
Pillow's  brigade,  to  which  the  Wyoming  Artillerists  were 
attached,  started  towards  the  capital.  In  the  battle  of 
Cerro  Gordo,  April  i8th,  the  Wyoming  company  was  de- 
ployed on  a  declivity  below  and  in  front  of  the  enemy's 
main  works,  and  distant  from  them  about  two  hundred 
yards,  but  suffered  slight  loss.  Early  on  the  morning  of 
the  7th  of  July  the  Wyoming  Artillerists  with  Company 
A  of  their  regiment  stormed  in  gallant  style  the  hill 
commanding  the  Pass  of  El  Pinal  or  the  Black  Pass,  and 
dispersed  a  force  of  the  enemy  posted  there  to  obstruct 
the  passage  of  our  troops. 

On  the  afternoon  of  July  8th  the  command  entered  the 
City  of  Puebia,  Company  I  and  the  other  five  composing 
the  battalion  were  detailed  under  Colonel  Childs  to  oc- 
cupy the  city  and  to  take  charge  of  about  2,000  sick  and 
a  large  amount  of  government  property.  The  rest  of  the 
army  moved  out  on  the  loth  of  August  and  on  the  follow- 
ing day  the  large  and  turbulent  population  of  the  city 
began  to  show  unmistakable  signs  of  hostility.  Small 
bulletins  were  published,  calling  on  the  citizens  to  rise 
and  crush  out  "the  600  sick  Yankees,"  and  a  few  days 
later  a  considerable  military  force  under  General  Rea 
entered  the  city.  It  became  necessary  to  divide  the  gar- 
rison into  three  detachments,  of  which  one,  including  the 
Wyoming  company,  occupied  an  old  brick  structure 
called  the  Cuartel  of  San  Jose,  on  the  eastern  edge  of  the 
city,  on  a  small  stream  which  furnished  the  water  supply 
for  the  garrison. 

In  the  latter  part  of  September  a  summons  to  sur- 
render was  sent  by  the  enemy,  in  which  their  forces 
were  stated  to  be  8,000.  The  deinand  was  promptly 
refused.  On  the  12th  of  October  the  troops  and  wagon 
train  of  General  Lane  were  discovered  approaching  the 
city  and  the  enemy  fled.  The  heroic  defense  of  its 
position  and  trust  by  the  small  garrison  including  the 
Wyoming  boys  against  overwhelming  numbers,  the  pro- 
tection of  the  sick  and  of  the  government  stores  so  that 
not  one  dollar  was  lost,  was  regarded  at  the  time  by  the 
army  as  one  of  the  remarkable  achievements  in  the  cam- 
paign in  Mexico.  Captain  Dana  and  Lieutenant  Waelder, 
who  was  attached  to  the  staff  of  Colonel  Childs  as  acting 
adjutant  general,  were  specially  commended  in  the  official 

The  regiment  next  inarched  to  the  city  of  Mexico, 
arriving  there  on  the  8th  of  December,  1847.  All  the 
officers  who  were  engaged  in  the  siege  of  Puebia  were 
specially  thanked  and  commended  by  General  Scott. 




Two  weeks  later  the  regiment  was  quartered  at  San 
Angel,  an  old  town  a  few  miles  southwest  of  the  city,  and 
except  when  detached  to  escort  a  train  to  Vera  Cruz,  and 
other  temporary  services,  remained  there  until  the  sign- 
ing of  the  treaty  of  peace  in  June,  1848.  Returning  with 
the  army,  the  regiment  landed  at  New  Orleans,  came  up 
the  Mississippi  and  Ohio  rivers  to  Pittsburg,  where  the 
Wyoming  Artillerists  were  mustered  out  and  honorahly 
discharged  on  the  20th  of  July,  1848.  They  returned 
from  Pittsburg  as  they  went  there,  by  canal  boat,  but  the 
season  of  the  year,  the  glad  greetings,  with  firing  of  (  an- 
non  and  display  of  flags  at  every  town  on  the  route, 
contrasted  agreeably  with  their  former  tedious  passage 
through  the  ice  and  snows  of  December,  1846.  At 
Wilkes-Barre  nearly  the  entire  po|)ulation  of  the  valley 
was  assembled,  and  a  splendid  recejilion  with  an  address 
of  welcome  awaited  them. 

The  total  strength  of  the  company,  including  recruits, 
was  109;  fifty-one,  or  less  than  one-half,  returned  with 
the  company. 

The  following  is  a  roll  of  this  company  as  it  served  in 
the  Mexican  war,  with  individual  casualities,  dates  of 
discharge,  etc.;  where  not  otherwise  noted  the  men 
returned  with  the  company  : 

Officox-f'aiitaiii,  Edtiuiiui  L.  Danii;  tiii-t  licutenanls— K.  11.  Ciilliiis, 
(liscliaiyJ  at  Veni  Cruz,  April  St,  1H4T:  1-'.  L.  Bowinaii.  olcclfil  Majiir 
ill  December,  IMtt.  Second  lieutenants— A.  IT.  GolF,  killed  at  Peiote, 
April  13,  1.S4K  ;  .Tacob  Waeldor.  First  sergeant  ;  Arnold  (".  Lewis,  ap- 
pointed second  lieutenant  to  date  from  April  15,  llilS.  Second  ser- 
fteunt,  .losepli  W.  Potter;  diseharKed  at  Perote.  Third  sern-eant,  Doni- 
iuick  Dcvanny.  Fourth  sergeant,  .Tosepli  W.  Miner  ;  elected  first  lieu- 
tenant June  15, 184T.  First  corporal,  Wni.  II.  Ileauinont;  appointed  llrst 
sergeant.  Second  corporal,  D.  W.  ('.  Kitchin;  wounded  at  Cerrti 
(lOrdo  and  diseharjred.  Third  corporal,  Charles  M.  Stout  ;  appointed 
lieutenant  in  the  11th  iufantr.v.  Fourth  corporal,  .lidni  li.  \'au);hn  :  dis- 
charged at  .Talapa.  Drummer,  Wilson  li.  Connor;  discharged.  Fifer, 
Wallace  J.  Belding4  discharged. 

frirad-K.— Grandison  Abel.  Joscpli  Atwaril.  John  liarnes;  left  sick 
at  Cincinnati.  Alfred  Bentlcy  ;  died  at  Jalapa.  Luke  Iturke.  Obcd  C. 
Ilurdcn.  William  Dachinan.  Llojd  M.  Colder;  dicil  at  Perote,  July  1. 
1*1".  George  Collings;  appointed  corporal.  Jacob  L.  Cooper.  William 
II.  CarkhulT;  died  at  Perote,  July  M,  l.siT.  James  F.  Dill ;  died  at  Perote. 
Thonnis  <i.  Dripps  :  appointed  serjreant.  M.  M.  Debcrger ;  discharged  at 
Vera  Cruz  in  April.  l.SiT.  John  C.  Drinkhonstf :  discharged  at  \'era  Cruz. 
April  Hi.  lt<47.  James  Kills;  discharged  at  Vera  Cruz,  in  June,  ]S4S.  I,e\  I 
Finery.  George  W.  Fell.  Luke  Floyil ;  wounded.  Samuel  Fo.\  ;  dis- 
charged at  Jalapa,  Ma.v  1»<,  1S4T.  F^rederick  Funk.  Joseph  C.  t^arey  ; 
discharged  at  Vera  Cruz.  Ai)ril  lii,  im7.  I'atrick  Gilroy  ;  discharged  at 
Vera  Criiz.  Aaron  Gangawcre.  Magnes  Gonerman ;  died  at  Perote, 
July  29,  1(<47.  John  Goodermooth  ;  died  at  Puebla,  Oct.  «,  ]>S47.  Henry 
Hcrnbroad ;  appointed  first  corporal  Ma.v  !,  1K4.S.  Peter  Hine  ;  <lischarg- 
cil  at  Vera  Cruz.  Nathaniel  G.  Harvey ;  died  at  Perote.  .\le.\andcr 
Huntington.  John  Hunt  ;  discharged  at  .lalapa.  .lohn  Howaril.  David 
H.  Howard,  .\nthouy  llaberholt.  Charles  .lohnsou.  Pairick  King. 
Lyman  C.  Kidder;  discharged  at  .lalapa.  May  is,  IH47.  Frederick  Lehunui; 
dischiirgedat  Vera  Cruz.  Mch.  ;!0,1S4S.  Joseph  Leopard.  Saiiuiel  .\.  Lewis. 
Charles  D.  Lutes;  discharged  at  Vera  Cruz  in  .Vpril,  1S17.  Jcdiu  \V.  Myci-s: 
died  at  Perote.  John  M(trehouse.  l)a>'id  K.  Morrison.  Walk*'r  M.  Miller : 
discharged  at  Veni  Cruz  in  .\pril,  l.s47.  Samuel  Marks.  John  11.  Price:  dii'd 
at  Jalapa,  June  li,  1K47.  John  Preece.  killed  at  the  siege  of  Piiebla,  .Kiig. 
28,  1*47.  Jules  Phillips.  Isaac  Rothermell  ;  died  at  Veni  Cruz.  Mch. 
13, 1S47.  James  W.  Kigg.  John  Shadell.  Levi  H.  Stevens.  James  Stev- 
ens; disehargedatVera  Cruz(wouiidedl,  in  .\piil,  1X47.  John  Swan.  Hiram 
Spencer;  discharged  at  Perote.  .loliii  Sliker;  <lied  at  Penttc.  .Inly  7.  IH47. 
James  Sliker.  Thompson  Price;  disi-harge^l.  Wilson  K.  Sitsj-;  diH4'liargi>d 
at  Perote.  Charles  Tripp:  died  at  the  siege  of  Puebla..'^ept.  12. 1S47.  (ieorge 
Tanner  ;  died  at  Perote,  JuneW.  1S47.  John  Smith  ;  died  at  Perote,  .\iig. 
28, 1M7.  N'ormanVanwinkii',  discharged  at  Perote,  .\ug.  2!«,  1H47.  Iloldin 
P.  Vaughn  •  discharged  at  .lalapa.  May  Is,  1*47.  Gei'sliom  P.  Vangordeii ; 
diedat  Perote  .May2t,lHI7,  Kdmuiid  W.  Wandell.  Walslngham  G.  Ward; 
disehargeilat  Vera  Cruz,  .\pril  3,  1SI7.  Thomas  G.  Wilson;  ilied  at  .lalapa. 
May20,l.'>47.  William Vanderburg.  William  Whittaker.  I'liomas  J. Wright. 
Annon  Westhoven.  Daniel  W.  Wltzell.  William  T.  Wilson.  Daniel  W. 
Varlott.  William  Diamond;  discharge<l  at  New  Drleans.Jan.  II>,1SI7.  Kiius 

KJInger  :  dle<l  at  Mil.  Jan.  31,  |k|7.  Patrick  (I'LMhnell ;  •  iil  .New  Or- 
leiins.  Jan.  2.  Is47. 

lUrniilf.  Siuiiiiet  Knorr:  lo>'t  atul  ••nppi»M>4l  klll(*4lul  Nalloiuil  llrldge. 
Jan..  1H|7.    .Augustus  I'^helx.   fjiiidlln  Fist.    John  Gniil.    ('Iiarle«  Gordon 

Kriifsl  (ionlon.    William  Hills n.     Fn-<lerlik  Musler.    Jiiliii  McKi-oiiii 

Anthony  Verni'l.  .Michael  Woir>ioii.  Henry  Welile.  Adam  Koblnlioli  : 
dlisl  <in  Ohio  rlver..liily  1.1.  IKtH.  (ieorge  O'Cnift  :  lirnt  July  3,  1Mb: 
suppos4>d  drowneil. 

Captain  Dana  retained  for  a  time  the  command;  was 
reelected  and  comtnissioncd  .April  26th,  1851.  He  was 
followed  successively  by  'i"homas  Parker,  K.  B.  Collings. 
K.  B.  Harvey,  Samuel  Bowman,  Nathaniel  Picrson  and 
A.  H.  Emiey. 

When  in  1861  the  call  for  three  months  inen  was  made, 
their  serviies  were  again  offered  and  accepted.  Mr. 
Emley,  their  captain,  on  their  arrival  at  Harrisburg  was 
elected  colonel  of  the  8th  Pennsylvania  regiment,  to 
which  they  were  attachetl,  and  was  succeeded  in  ilu- 
command  of  the  company  by  Captain  E.  W.  Finch 

After  the  exjjiration  of  their  term  the  143d  Pennsylvania 
volunleers,  under  Colonel  Edmund  I,.  Dana,  was  formed, 
and  the  old  company  formerly  commanded  by  him  w.ts 
recruited  to  the  retiuisite  number  under  Captain  George 
N.  Prichard,  and  on  the  4ih  of  .Viigust,  1862,  was  mus- 
tered in,  and  assigned,  as  Company  (",  to  that  regiment. 
For  nearly  three  years,  and  up  to  the  close  of  the  war,  it 
saw  active  service  with  the  .Army  of  the  Potomac,  and  on 
many  sanguinary  fields  sustained  its  reputation  for  cour- 
age and  discipline. 

In  1870  the  company  was  again  recruited  and  John 
Espy  was  elected  captain.  In  1871  it  was  transferred 
from  the  30th  Pennsylvania  national  guards  to  the 
artillery  corps,  and  Captain  Espy  having  been  appointed 
on  the  staff  of  General  Osborne,  E.  W.  Finch  was  elected 
in  his  place. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  officers  .it  the  time  of  thi^ 
writing,  March,   1880  : 

Thomas  C.  Parker,  captain  ;  Charles  1  >.  Hoover,  lirsi 
lieutenant  ;  James  A.  Roat,  second  lieutenant  ;  R'-'es 
Leyshon,  orderly  sergeant;  Butler  Dilley,  quartermaster's 
sergeant;  John  Sl\ker,  V.  S.;  John  E.  Ment/..  first  ser- 
geant; John  Dickerson,  second  sergeant;  Thomas  C 
Edwards,  third  sergeant;   Richard  Moore,  fourth  sergeant. 

Only  approved  men  are  admitted  to  membership,  and 
the  present  strength  of  the  rank  and  lile,  thus  constituted, 
is  sixty-three.  It  is  supplied  with  four  new  six  ])o«ndcrs 
of  the  Phoenix  pattern,  and  the  uniforms  and  equipments 
are  of  the  kind  adopted  by  the  United  States  artillery- 
During  the  past  two  years,  while  instruction  in  infantry 
movements  has  been  continued  as  usual,  special  attention 
has  been  devoted  to  gun  and  sabre  drill;  and  under  the 
able  instructions  of  Captain  Parker  and  his  subordinates, 
a  high  degree  of  proficiency  attained.  Through  the  elforts 
of  the  company  and  the  public  interest  awakened  a  large 
and  commodious  armory  has  been  secured  and  fitted  u|), 
and  several  very  flourishing  infantry  organizations  have 
been  formed  in  the  city. 


The  militia  of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania,  which  was 
established  in  very  early  times,  was  reorganized  under  an 




act  of  Assembly  passed  in  1822.  Under  this  law  an  en- 
rollment was  made  of  all  citizens  between  the  ages  of 
twenty-one  and  forty-five  liable  to  military  duty,  who 
were  required  to  appear  for  drill  at  certain  times  under  a 
penalty  of  fifty  cents.  Of  course  except  to  keep  up  an 
enrollment  for  emergencies  that  might  arise  this  system 
was  of  no  account,  and  for  that  purpose  it  was  found 
during  the  late  civil  war  to  amount  to  very  little. 

In  1S64  an  act  was  passed  regulating  the  organization 
of  the  militia  and  dixiding  the  State  into  twenty  military 
divisions,  in  which  an  enioUment  as  before  was  required; 
but  in  addition  to  this  a  system  of  volunteer  companies, 
regiments,  etc.,  was  established.  These  volunteers  were 
required  to  appear  in  uniform  for  drill  and  exercise,  and 
were  supplied  with  arms  and  accoutrements  by  the  State, 
and  constituted  what  was  termed  the  volunteer  militia. 
Under  that  organization  Luzerne  and  Wyoming  were  a 
part  of  the  ninth  division.  The  expenses  of  this  organi- 
zation were  borne  largely  by  the  volunteers  themselves, 
and  this  was  found  to  be  so  burdensome  to  them  that  by 
subsequent  acts  of  Assembly  provision  was  made  for  the 
payment  to  the  companies  by  the  State  of  sufificient  sums 
to  meet  a  portion  of  these  expenses.  By  an  act  passed 
in  1870  the  name  of  "  National  Guard  of  Pennsylvania" 
was  given  to  this  volunteer  militia,  and  by  an  act  of  As- 
sembly in  1874  ten  divisions  of  the  national  guard  were 
constituted  and  Luzerne  and  Wyoming  counties  were  in- 
cluded in  the  third  di\ision.  Each  of  the  divisions  was 
under  the  command  of  a  major  general,  and  the  divisions 
were  divided  into  brigades  according  to  the  discretion  of 
their  commanding  generals. 

In  1878,  by  an  act  of  .Assembly,  these  divisions  were 
abolished  and  the  State  was  constituted  a  single  division' 
with  five  brigades. 

Under  this  law  Luzerne,  Lackawanna  and  Wyoming 
counties  became  a  part  of  the  territory  of  the  third  brig- 
ade. The  national  guard  in  Luzerne  county  consisted 
of  the  Wyoming  Artillerists — a  four  gun  battery.  Captain 
T.  C.  Parker — and  the  ninth  regiment  of  infantry. 
The  officers  in  this  regiinent  are:  Colonel,  (j.  Murray 
Reynolds;  lieutenant  colonel,  Morris  J.  Keck;  major,  D. 
S.  Bennet;  surgeon,  Olin  F.  Harvey;  assistant  surgeon, 
J.  Holley;  adjutant,  .Arthur  D.  Moore;  commissary,  Oscar 
F.  Harvey;  captains — James  Ginley,  J.  Andrew  Willet,  H. 
W.  Wenner,  Samuel  Simpson,  Charles  A.  Jones,  John 
Dunn,  Henry  Crandall,  A.  H.  Rush  and  B.  F.  Stark. 

In  187 1,  during  the  long  struggle  among  the  miners,  a 
riot  occurred  at  Scranton,  to  ([uell  which  the  Wyoming 
Artillerists,  the  McClellan  Rifles — an  infantry  company  at 
Pittston — the  fifth  regiment  of  infantry  of  Luzerne  county, 
the  Hazleton  battalion — consisting  of  four  companies  of 
infantry — and  the  Wyoming  County  Veterans — a  company 
of  infantry  from  Tunkhannock — which  constituted  the 
ninth  division,  under  the  command  of  Major  General 
Edwin  S.  Osborne,  were  called  into  service.  They  were 
called  out  on  the  7th  of  April  and  continued  in  service 
till  the  25th  of  May,  during  which  time  they  were  con- 
stantly on  duty,  preserving  the  peace  and  guarding  the 
property  at  the   collieries.       Up   to  the   17th  of  May  the 

rioters  avoided  any  collision  with  the  troops,  but  on  that 
day  it  became  necessary  for  the  latter  in  the  discharge  of 
their  duty  to  fire  on  the  rioters,  and  two  were  killed. 
This  had  the  effect  to  suppress  the  riot. 

In  1874  the  Wyoming  Artillerists,  the  15th  which 
had  then  come  to  be  the  gthj  regiment,  the  McClellan 
Rifles,  the  Telford  Zouaves,  of  Susquehanna  county,  and 
the  ist  regiment  of  infantry  of  Philadelphia,  all  under 
the  cominand  General  Osborne,  were  called  to  Susque- 
hanna Depot  to  suppress  a  riot  among  the  employes  of 
the  N.  Y.  &  E.  Railway.  They  arrived  on  the  29th  of 
March,  restored  order  and  left  on  the  ist  of  April. 

On  the  7th  of  April,  1875,  the  same  troops  were  ordered 
to  Hazleton  for  the  suppression  of  a  riot  among  the 
miners  there.  They  remained  on  duty  there  till  the  nth 
of  May,  during  which  time  they  were  engaged  in  guard 
and  patrol  duty  and  aiding  the  authorities  to  preserve 

In  the  great  strike  of  1877  all  the  troops  of  the  county 
were  brought  into  requisition,  under  General  Osborne. 
Tliey  were  called  into  service  on  the  21st  of  July  and 
were  relieved  on  the  4th  of  August.  They  were  by 
order  of  the  governor  concentrated  at  Wikes-Barre,  and 
there  held  in  readiness  to  assist  the  civil  authorities  in 
preserving  order.  No  collision  occurred  between  the 
troops  and  the  strikers. 

The  troops  called  out  for  the  suppression  of  these  riots 
were  commanded  by  the  following  officers:  ist  regi- 
ment. Colonel  R.  Dale;  15th,  Colonel  O.  K.  Moore;  gin. 
Colonel  T.  D.  Lewis;  Hazleton  battalion,  Major  D.  C. 
Swank;  Wyoming  Artillerists,  Captain  E.  W.  Finch  at 
Scranton,  Susquehanna  Depot  and  Hazleton,  and  by 
Captain  Thomas  C.  Parker  at  Wilkes-Barre;  McClellan 
Rifles,  Captain  James  Ginley;  Telford  Zouaves,  Captain 
James  Smith;  NV'yoming  County  Veterans,  Captain  R.  W. 

The  services  rendered  by  the  troops  in  the  suppression 
of  these  riots  and  the  preservation  of  order  in  the  midst 
of  such  surroundings  not  only  reflect  credit  on  the  officers 
and  men  composing  the  military  organizations  that  per- 
formed this  service,  but  demonstrate  the  utility  and  effi- 
ciency of  citizen  soldiers  when  properly  or.- anized  and 
disciplined.  The  value  of  the  property  saved  from  de- 
struction in  these  cases  was  probably  many  times  greater 
than  the  expense  of  maintaining  these  organizations. 


K.ARl.V    W.\(;()N    RO.\l)S    AND    M.\II,    ROUTES. 

HE  first  roads  in  the  country  were  Indian 
trails,  that  perhaps  had  been  used  during 
centuries.  These  were  simply  paths  in  the 
woods,  of  a  width  sufficient  to  allow  the  pas- 
sage of  one  person  at  a  time,  for  in  that  order 

constant   and 
lecome  well  worn. 

(j^S-      the    Indians  always    traveled.      By 
"^        long  continued  use  they  had  becon 




and  they  sometimes  had  a  deplli  of  twelve  inches  or  more 
where  the  soil  was  soft.  Over  these  trails  the  first  settlers 
in  1762  and  1763  came,  and  when  they  brought  wiili  them 
teams  of  oxen  and  carts  it  was  necessary  to  widen  these 
paths  by  cutting  away  the  timber  in  places. 

Thus  originated  tiie  first  wagon  road  from  the  Del.i- 
ware  to  the  Lackawanna  and  Susquehanna  rivers,  and  to 
the  Wyoming  valley,  where  the  first  settlement  was  made. 
Mr.  Allen  Secord  of  Dunmore — the  oldest  resident  of  the 
Lackawanna  valley — says  that  this  road  left  the  Lacka- 
waxen  near  the  forks  at  Dyberry,  came  through  the  great 
swamp,  crossed  Cobb's  Mountain,  followed  Roaring 
brook  to  where  are  now  the  Pennsylvania  Coal  Com- 
pany's works  at  the  foot  of  Plane  No.  6;  thence  went 
directly  to  the  Lackawanna  river,  which  it  crossed  and 
followed  on  the  west  side  to  the  Sus(iiielianna.  Near 
No.  6  stands  one  of  the  original  marked  trees  of  this  road, 
which  Mr.  Secord  has  known  more  than  sixty  years. 
Hollister  says  of  this  road:  "The  old  Connecticut  or 
Cobb's  road,  shaded  by  giant  pines,  e.xtending  from  the 
summit  of  the  mountain  to  Capoose,  had  no  diverging 
pathway  to  Slocum  Hollow,  No.  6,  or  Blakely,  because 
neither  of  these  places  had  yet  acipiired  a  settler  or  a 

The  following  extracts  from  the  records  of  Westmore- 
land for  1772  show  what  action  was  afterward  taken 
concerning  the  construction  of  this  road.  At  a  meeting 
held  in  Wilkes-Barre  October  2nd,  1772,  it  was  voted 
"that  Mr.  Durkins  of  Kingstown,  Mr.  Carey  of  Locka- 
worna,  Mr.  Goss  for  Plymouth,  Mr.  Daniel  Core  for 
Wilkesbarre,  Mr.  William  Stewart  for  Hannover,  are  ap- 
pointed a  comtee  to  Draw  subscriptions  &  se  what  they 
Can  Git  sighned  by  ye  adjourned  meeting  for  ye  making 
a  Rode  from  Dilleware  River  to  Pitts-town."  This  meet- 
ing was  adjourned  to  the  5th  of  the  same  month,  when  it 
was  "voted  that  Esq.  Tryp,  Mr.  John  Jenkins,  Mr.  Phil- 
lip Goss,  Mr.  John  Durkins,  Captain  Bates,  Mr.  Daniel 
Gore,  Mr.  \\'illiam  Stewart  are  appointed  Comtee-men  to 
mark  out  ye  Rode  from  Dilleware  River  to  Pitts-town," 
etc.  October  19th,  1772,  it  was  "voted  that  Esq.  Tryp 
is  appointed  to  oversee  those  persons  that  shall  from 
time  to  time  be  sent  out  from  ye  severall  towns  to  work  on 
ye  Road  from  Dilleware  River  to  this  &  so  that  ye  work 
be  Done  according  to  ye  Directions  of  ye  Comtee,  that 
was  sent  out  to  mark  ye  Road."  The  wages  paid  to 
laborers  on  this  road  would  hardly  be  considered  remun- 
erative now.  "  Escp  Tryp,"  the  overseer,  was  allowed 
"Five  Shillings  Lawful!  money  pr.  Day-"  For  the  others 
it  was  "voted,  that  those  Persons  that  shall  Go  out  to 
work  on  ye  Rode  from  Dilleware  River  to  ye  westermost 
I)art  of  ye  Great  Swamp  Shall  Have  three  sillings  ye  day 
Lawfull  money  for  ye  time  they  work  to  ye  F^xceptance 
of  ye  over  seors;  and  from  ye  Great  Swamp  this  way, 
Shall  Have  one  shilling  and  sixpence  pr.  day  and  no 

The  fine  road,  six  rods  in  width,  which  runs  parallel 
with  the  river  through  Kingston  was  laid  out  in  1770; 
and  about  that  time,  or  soon  afterward,  a  road  was  estab- 
lished   between   Wilkes-Barre  and    Pittston,   at   both    of 

whi(  h  places  ferries  were  established.  Another  was  also 
constructed  through  Kingston,  connecting  with  this  across 
the  Sus(|uehanna  just  below  Wilkes-Barre. 

In  1779  a  road  from  the  Delaware  at  Raston  to  the 
."^usciuehanna  at  Wyoming  was  ojiencd  for  the  passage 
of  General  .Sullivan's  army.  Improvements  were  after- 
ward made  on  this,  which  was  long  known  as  Sullivan's 
road,  and  it  bc(  ame  the  main  thoroughfare  between  this 
entire  region  and  Philadelphia. 

.\nother  connection  between  the  Siisqueharma  an<l 
Delaware  was  established  by  the  construction,  from  1787 
to  1789,  of  the  State  road  from  Nescopetk  Falls  to  the 
Lehigh  river.  These  roads  were  constructed  according 
to  the  circumstances  and  fashions  of  those  limes,  and 
bore  very  little  re.semblance  to  the  macadamized  car- 
riage drives  of  the  present  day.  One  feature  of  them, 
which  is  rarely  seen  now  and  which  will  soon  cease  to  be 
known,  was  the  corduroy  that  was  used  for  making  cros- 
sings over  marshy  spots  or  swamps.  This  was  made  of 
small  logs  laid  across  the  track,  close  together.  Although 
the  passage  way  thus  made  over  the  swamps  was  dry  it 
was  anything  but  smooth. 

The  first  roads  through  Wyoming  county,  although 
they  followed  the  general  course  of  the  Sus(|uehanna 
river,  along  which  settlements  were  first  made,  ran  over 
the  hills  a  short  distance  from  the  river,  es|)ccially  where 
"  narrows  "  occur.  The  construction  of  roads  along  the 
river  through  these  passages  where  room  could  not  be 
found  for  a  path  without  excavating  was  then  considered 
too  expensive,  and  the  hills  were  surmounted  to  avoid 
those  places. 

These  primitive  roads  were  little  more  than  paths, 
which  wound  through  the  forest  to  avoid  trees  and  other 
obstructions,  with  marked  trees  to  indicate  their  course 
and  here  and  there  a  tree  cut  away  to  clear  the  path  of 
an  unavoidable  obstacle.  While  the  settlements  were 
limited  to  the  shores  of  the  river  and  its  larger  tributaries 
the  necessity  for  improved  highways  was  less  urgent  than 
afterward;  for  the  early  settlers  soon  became  very  expert 
in  the  management  of  canoes,  and  much  of  their  busi- 
ness, such  as  marketing,  milling,  etc.,  was  done  over  the 
river.  At  that  period  the  river  was  also  utilized  as  a 
highway  in  the  winter,  and  temporary  roads  were  often 
made  through  long  distances  on  the  ice. 

At  the  commencement  of  the  present  century,  by  rea- 
son of  the  large  increase  of  population  and  productions, 
an  urgent  necessity  for  better  facilities  for  communica- 
tion and  transportation  between  this  region  and  commer- 
cial centers  was  apparent.  To  su|)ply  this  demand  the 
F^aston  and  Wilkes-Barre  turnpike  compiny  was  char- 
tered in  1802:  and  the  road,  a  large  portion  of  which 
occui)ied  the  old  Sullivan  road,  was  completed  about 
four  years  afterward,  at  an  expense  of  about  $75,000. 
Not  only  was  a  great  desideratum  supplied  by  the  con- 
struction of  this  road,  but  liberal  dividends  were  paid  on 
.the  stock.  The  success  of  the  enterprise  gave  an  addi- 
tional impulse  to  the  turnpike  mania  wliii  Ii  .iroM-  .ilmut 
that  time. 

On  the  30th  of  March,  181 1,  the  Legislature  pa-sscd  "  an 






act  to  enable  the  governor  to  incorporate  a  comjiany 
for  making  an  artificial  road  from  the  northern  boundary 
of  this  State,  at  the  most  suitable  place  near  the  twenty- 
eighth  mile  stone,  to  the  place  where  the  seat  of  justice 
is  located  for  the  county  of  Susquehanna;  and  thence  by 
the  best  and  nearest  route  to  the  borough  of  Wilkes- 
Barre,  in  the  county  of  Luzerne." 

Hon.  P.  M.  Osterhout,  of  Tunkhannock,  said  of  this 
turnpike  in  an  article  published  by  him  in  1S79: 

"The  road  was  to  tie  coin  ineiiced  within  three  years,  and  tini.shed  with- 
in ten.  The  tii'St  [)a>"tncnt  on  account  of  stock  was  made  by  Mattliias 
Hollcnliack,  the  father  of  (jeorg-e  M.  Hollenback,  of  Wilkes- Barrc,  whidi 
was  June  Silth,  1HI2.  Jesse  Fell  was  then  treasurer  of  the  coinjiany.  The 
road  was  located  on  the  west  side  of  the  river  until  it  i-eached  Tunkhan- 
nock -from  Wilkcs-llarre— where  it  crossed  the  ri\er.  When  the  sur- 
\'cyors  came  to  tlie  mountain  at  Swartzwood's  quite  a  contro\'ersy  arose 
whether  they  should  cross  the  river  by  ferry  at  that  point,  or  g-o  over 
the  mountain  to  Asa  Keeler's  and  from  thence  to  Tunkhanno(;k,  and 
cross  the  river  there.  The  Harding.s,  the  Millers,  the  Lees  and  the  Jen- 
kinses wanted  the  road  located  on  the  west  side  of  the  ri\'er  until  it 
reached  Tunkhannock  :  <in  the  other  hand  the  Osterhouts,  the  Marcys, 
the  Averys,  the  .Sherwoocls,  Uobertses  and  others  desired  the  crossing 
should  lie  at  Keeler's  ferry.  Finally  a  bet  was  made  as  to  the  distance 
between  the  two  routes,  ami  as  there  was  n(^t  much  money  in  the  coun- 
try at  that  time  the  wager  was  made  in  cattle — young-  stock--and  the 
different  routes  chained.  The  west  side  of  the  river  won  and  the  turn- 
pike was  located  there.  While  the  turnpike  was  beinjj:  made  the  jieople 
on  the  east  side  of  the  river,  to  counteract  the  effect  of  the  turnpike, 
determined  to  have  a  continuous  road  on  their  side  of  the  river  from 
Pitfston  to  Tunkhannock.  There  was  then  no  road  along  the  river 
through  the  Falling  Spring  narrows,  the  narrows  above  Gardner's  ferry, 
and  the  narrows  below  Buttermilk  Falls— the  moim tains  coming  close  to 
the  river's  edge  in  these  localities.  It  was  a  hard  place  to  build  a  road 
and  reiiuired  a  great  deal  of  labor.  The  people  said  it  would  save  the 
e.vpense  of  crossing  the  river  at  Wilkes-Harre  and  Tunkhannock,  and 
also  the  tolls  on  the  ttirnpike,  and  the.v  were  determined  to  have  a  road. 
The  principal  men  interested  had  a  consultation  and  it  was  finally 
agreed  upon  that  the  Pittston  people  should  build  the  road  through  the 
Falling  Spring  narrows;  that  Captain  .John  Gardner,  an  old  settler  and 
prominent  citizen  living  on  the  flats  above  Falling  Spring,  shoiild  see  to 
and  superintend  the  building  of  the  road  through  the  narrows  above 
Gardner's  ferry  ;  and  that  David  Osterhout  should  see  to  the  building 
of  the  rood  through  the  narrows  below  Buttermilk  Falls. 

•' These  roads  were  built  by  the  gratuitous  labor  of  the  men  in  the 
neighborhood,  without  tax  or  expense  to  the  townships.  The  people 
turned  out  voluntarily  as  they  would  to  a  stone  or  logging  bee,  and 
worked  without  fee  or  reward." 

The  road  which  had  been  constructed  between  Nesco- 
peck  and  the  Lehigh  was  converted  into  the  Susquehanna 
and  Lehigh  turnpike.  The  Susquehanna  and  Tioga  turn- 
pike, from  Berwick  to  Towanda,  passed  through  Fair- 
mount  and  Huntington.  A  turnpike  was  also  established 
be'ween  Blakely  and  Dundaff. 

The  Philadelphia  and  Great  Bend  turniiike  (^commonly 
known  as  the  Drinker  turnpike),  which  connected  with 
the  Easton  and  Wilkes-Barre  road  at  Taylorsvillc,  was 
chartered  in  1819  and  completed  in  1826.  It  was  an  im- 
portant thoroughfare.  Hollister  says:  "It  promised  as 
it  passed  through  Providence,  x'.ith  its  tri-weekly  stage 
coach  and  mail,  to  land  passengers  from  the  valley  in 
Philadelphia  after  two  days  of  unvarying  jolting.  This 
road  was  the  first  highway  through  Cobb's  Gap."  The 
three  villages  through  which  this  road  |)assed  were  Brick- 
town  'now  Dunmorel,  Razorville  (now  Providence;,  and 
Clark's  (ireen.  It  was  an  important  avenue  of  transport- 
ation for  produce  and  droves  of  animals  to  Philadelphia 
7ia  Easton,  and  for  merchandise  back. 

Some  of  these  roads  were  constructed  at  great  expense, 
but  after  a  time  they  were  abandoned.  The  Easton  and 
\Vilkes-Barre  road  continued  in  operation  longer  than 
any  of  the  others. 

Plank  roads  were  first  introduced  into  the  United  States 
in  1846,  and  at  once  the  plank-road  mania  became  even 
more  prevalent  than  the  rage  for  turnpikes  had  been  be- 
fore. In  185 1  the  Wilkes-Barre  and  Providence  Plank 
Road  Company  was  chartered,  and  the  road  constructed 
as  far  as  Pittston,  eight  miles. 

The  Scranton  and  Carbondale  Plank  Road  was  con- 
structed in  1853  and  1854,  and  since  that  time  the  Provi- 
dence and  Waverly,  the  Bear  Creek  and  Lehigh,  and  the 
Gouldsborough  Plank  Roads  have  been  built,  but  they 
have  met  the  fate  of  these  roads  generally  throughout  the 
country.  Like  many  enterprises  which  are  entered  on  in 
the  midst  of  excitement,  without  careful  consideration 
and  prudent  foresight,  these  have  proved  to  be  bad  in- 
vestments for  the  stockholders,  though  they  were  bene- 
ficial to  the  country. 

According  to  Pearce  the  first  post  route  in  this  region 
was  established  in  1777,  between  Wyoming  and  Hartford, 
Conn.,  and  the  mail  was  carried  once  in  two  weeks  by 
Prince  Bryant,  who  was  paid  by  private  subscription.  The 
conveyance  of  mails  in  the  colonies  had  been  provided  for 
by  the  British  government  in  1692,  and  at  the  commence- 
ment of  the  Revolutionary  war  the  control  of  the  post- 
office  system  was,  of  course,  taken  in  charge  by  the  fed- 
eral government. 

It  appears  that  after  the  organization  of  Luzerne  county 
a  weekly  mail  between  Wilkes-Barre  and  Easton  was  es- 
tablished, and  in  1797  Clark  Behe  was  the  carrier,  and 
advertised  to  carry  passengers  during  good  sleighing.  A 
weekly  mail  was  sent  by  the  postmaster  at  Wilkes-Barre 
during  this  year  to  Nanticoke,  Newport  and  Nescopeck, 
to  Berwick,  and  back  by  way  of  Huntington  and 
Plymouth.  The  mail  matter  was  left  at  such  private 
houses  as  the  postmaster  designated,  for  Wilkes-Barre 
was  the  only  post  town  in  the  county. 

A  fortnightly  mail  was  established  between  Wilkes- 
Barre  and  Great  Bend  in  1798,  and  another,  once  a  week, 
between  Wilkes-Barre  and  Owego,  N.  Y.,  in  1799.  The 
names  of  Jonathan  Hancock,  Charles  Mowry  and  a  Mr. 
Peck  are  recorded  as  mail  carriers  in  1800  and  1803. 

The  Providence  post-office  was  the  first  in  the  Lacka- 
wanna valley.  It  was  established  at  Slocum  Hollow  in 
181 1,  and  Benjamin  Slocum  was  appointed  postmaster. 
The  mail  was  carried  by  Zephaniah  Knapp,  on  horse- 
back, once  a  week,  or  in  bad  travelling  once  in  two 
weeks.  The  route  was  from  Wilkes-Barre,  7'ia  Slocum 
Hollow,  to  Wilsonville  then  the  county  seat  of  Wayne 
county;  returning  rM  Bethany,  Belmont,  Montrose  and 
Tunkhannock.  In  1824  the  office  was  removed  from 
Slocum  Hollow  to  Providence,  and  another  established 
at  Hyde  Park,  with  William  Merrifield  postmaster.  Hol- 
lister says  that  an  old  gentleman  who  discharged  the 
duties  of  mail  boy  from  181 1  to  1824  relates  many  anec- 
dotes of  his  adventures,  and  his  encounters  of  humanity 
in  its  "  most  amusing  aspects"  at  the  stopping  places  on 
his  route. 

"At  one  point,"  writes  our  informant,  "  the  offlce  was  kept  in  a  low 
log  bar-room,  where,  after  the  contents  of  the  mail  pouch  were  emptied 
on  the  unswept  floor,  all  the  inmates Ka\o  slow  and  repeated  motion  to 
each  respective  paper  and  letter. 



"Somctiiiu's  tlir  niiill  hoy,  llmllnic  no  one  at  home  liiit  the  children, 
who  were  Keiienilly  entriiKi'il  (Inininiintr  on  the  (linnn-  pot, or  the  house- 
wife, uniliioiis  with  liinl  iiiiil  <lniiirh.  lolli-hye-liiiliyiiii,'  a  liolsterotiM 
ehild  to  sleep,  was  coinitelleil  to  net  as  earrler  ami  postmaster  himself. 

"At  another  point  upon  the  route  the  eiinimisslon  of  postmaster  fell 
upon  the  thiek  slioiililers  of  a  Dutehinan,  remarliable  for  nothiiiK  hut 
his  full  round  stoniaeh.  This  was  his  pride,  and  he  would  pat  it  In- 
eessantly  while  lu'  dilated  upon  the  virtues  of  his  '  krout '  and  his  'frow." 
It  would  have  lieen  anui/.inffly  stupid  for  the  department  to  have  ijiies- 
tionod /(i.s  order  or  inteyrity.  foi-  as  the  lean  nuiil  bajf  i-ame  tunihliiiff 
into  his  do<ir  from  the  sjiddli',  the  old  eomieal  hutehmau  and  his  de- 
V(ded  wife  earrie<i  it  to  a  rear  be<i  riioni  in  his  house,  poureil  the  eun- 
tents  upon  the  llonr,  where  at  one  time  it  aetuall.\'  took  tlu-m  liotli  f  i-oni 
three  o'eloek  one  afternoon  inilii  nine  the  next  mornintr  to  ehan);e  the 
mail.  Ileii(n'in^,  with  Lord  Hacoii.  that  '  knowledge  is  power,"  he  de- 
tained, about  eleetion  time,  all  politieal  doeuments  direeted  to  his  op- 
ponents. These  he  carefully  deposited  in  a  safe  place  in  his  (tarret  until 
after  election  da.\",  when  the.s'  were  handed  over  with  Kreal  liberality  to 
those  to  whom  Ilicy  belonK-ed,  prn\'i<lfd  lie  was  paid  the  postajfc. 

"At  anollu'i-  remote  place  whci-e  the  (jdice  was  kept,  the  mail  baK  be- 
inif  returm-d  to  the  post-bo.v  almost  empty  led  him  to  investi^fate  the 
cause  of  tliis  sudden  collapse  in  a  ncijrhborhoftd  inhabited  by  tew.  The 
prolific  numberof  ten  children,  graduating  frotn  one  t4i  tw<'nty  in  years, 
all  called  the  i>ostnuister '  dad,'  and  as  none  could  read,  letters  and  papers 
c-ame  to  a  dead  stop  on  arri\'injr  thus  far.  As  these  were  poin-ed  out  on 
the  floor  among  pans  and  kettles  each  child  would  seize  a  package,  ex- 
claiming, "Phis  is  formel'  and  '  This  for  you  !'  and  that  for  somebody  else, 
until  the  greater  bulk  of  mail  matter  intended  for  other  oltiecs  was  par- 
celed out  and  appropriated,  and  never  heard  of  again." 

The  first  regular  stage,  a  two-horse  vehicle,  was  es- 
tablished between  Easton  and  Philadelphia  in  1806  by 
Messrs.  Robinson  and  -Arndt.  The  trip  was  made  weekly 
and  required  a  day  and  a  half  for  each  way.  Conrad 
Teter  is  still  remembered  by  some  of  the  oldest  citizens 
as  one  of  the  earliest  stage  proprietors.  He  carried  the 
mail  in  his  stages  weekly  between  Sunbury  and  Painted 
Post,  by  way  of  VVilkes-Barre,  Tunkhannock,  etc.,  from 
1810  to  1816.  Pearce  says  of  him:  "  He  was  a  large  fat 
man,  of  a  jovial  disposition  and  desirous  of  making  a 
favorable  impression  on  strangers.  He  drove  stage,  his 
own  stage,  up  the  river.  He  took  pleasure  in  pointing 
out  /lis  farms  to  the  passengers.  He  frequently  informed 
them  as  he  passed  the  large  residence  and  farm  of 
Colonel  Benjamin  Dorrance,  in  Kingston,  that  he  was  the 
owner,  and  if  asked  why  he  drove  stage  would  reply  that 
he  loved  to  rein  four  horses  but  had  no  taste  for  farming." 

In  1 816  three  brothers  named  Horton  established  a 
line  of  four-horse  coaches  over  this  route,  and  during 
eight  years  carried  the  mails  between  Baltimore  and 
Owego,  VVilkes-Barre  and  Montrose. 

About  the  year  1822  the  first  stage  ran  between  Wilkes- 
Barre  and  Dundaff.  It  was  at  first  a  two-horse  vehicle, 
and  was  run  by  the  brothers  Daniel  and  John  Searles 
Two  years  later  a  four-horse  vehicle  re[)laccd  the  first, 
and  the  route  intersected  the  Milford  and  Owego  Turn- 
pike at  Carbondale.  The  Searles  brothers  were  then  the 
proprietors  of  the  line. 

Pearce  records  George  Root  as  the  veteran  stage  driver 
of  this  region,  a  title  to  which  a  service  of  forty  years 
entitled  him. 


THL    HISTORY    OK    THK     COAI,     TRADE     IN     LUZERNE     AND 

("KX  rURV  has  i)assed   since  anthracite  coal 
was  first  taken   from  the  Wyoming  valley  to 
/®^'     vjl,     be  used  in   the   forges  of  the   United  States 
armory   at    Carlisle.      It    was    tjuarried  from 
outcropping    veins  on  the  banks  of  the  .Siis(iue- 
hanna  river,  near  Wilkes-Barre;  floated  in  Dur- 
ham   boats    to    Harris's    laniiing    and    thence 

drawn  in  wagons  to  its  destination,  A  trade  floating  to 
market  with  the  current,  in  boats  which  on  the  return 
trip  must  be  towed  or  pulled  up  stream  by  the  arms  nf 
sturdy  boatmen,  must  have  been  small;  but  it  was  the  be- 
ginning, and,  continuing  through  the  Revolutionary  war, 
and  through  various  stages  of  progress,  it  has  reached 
giant  proportions  while  yet.  in  1880,  scarce  beyond  its 

Volney  1,.  .\la.xwell,  Est].,  in  his  interesting  "  Lectures 
on  Mineral  Coal,"  read  before  the  Wyoming  Hislorical 
and  Geological  Sot  iety  in  1858,  says  that  the  old  (|iiarry 
above  Mill  creek,  from  which  the  first  coal  was  taken,  was 
explored  by  direction  of  its  proprietor.  Colonel  George 
M.  Hollenbai  k,  some  years  before,  when  traces  of  the 
ancient  mining  were  found,  overgrown  with  large  trees. 
At  that  early  day  the  presence  of  coal  was  only  known  by 
its  appearance  or  outcropping  at  the  earth's  surface,  few 
believing  thai  it  could  follow,  like  the  under  crust  of  a  jjie, 
from  one  rim  of  the  basin  to  the  other.  Long  after,  in  1837. 
a  newspaper  ]Hiblislied  by  .Messrs.  Webb  iV  Blackman,  in 
ICingston,  replied  to  the  question,  "  Does  coal  run  under 
all  land  in  the  valley  ?"  "  Yes — certainly.  At  Carbon- 
dale  they  have  followed  the  coal  under  ground  about  a 
mile."  Even  at  this  date  there  are  peojile  in  the  coal 
field  who  doubt  its  existence  beyond  the  reach  of  vision. 
As  a  rule,  the  deeper  it  lies  the  belter  it  is  supposed  to 
be.  Near  the  old  mine  the  Lehigh  Yalley  Coal  Comjiany 
has  now  two  shafts  in  full  operation,  the  coal  more 
than  six  hundred  feet  below  the  surface,  from  which  sev- 
eral hundred  thousand  tons  of  anthracite  may  be  raised 
annually;  the  mines  extending  not  only  under  the  lands 
of  Mr.  HoUenback,  but  under  and  beyond  the  river  Sus- 
.  (juehanna,  taking  coal  from  the  farms  of  Colonel  Charles 
Dorrance  and  others  on  the  Kingston  side. 

The  trade  down  the  Susquehanna  continued  and  in- 
creased after  the  war  closed.  The  coal,  quarried  from 
the  hill  sides,  hauled  to  the  river  in  wagons  and  loaded 
into  arks  built  for  the  purpose,  of  rough  planks,  floated 
off  on  the  spring  and  summer  freshets  in  search  of  a 
market.  'I'eams  of  mine-owners  antl  of  neighboring  far- 
mers found  winter  employment;  labor  otherwise  unem- 
ployed had  occupation  in  mining,  cutting  timber  for  the 
rude  arks,  and  in  manning  them  for  the  voyage.  Whal 
jolly  fellows  were  those  arkmen  and  raftmen  returning 
with  pockets  full  of  money  from  the  annual  frolic  down 
the  river.  Few  of  thcui  are  left,  but  they  insist  upon 
their  right  of  recognition  as  pioneers  in  the  opening  coal 
trade,  earlier  than  1820. 

Mr.  John  B.  Smith,  senator  from  Luzerne  in  the  Legis- 
lature of  Pennsylvania  and  a  son  of  Abijah  Smith,  one  of 
the  earliest  operators  of  Plymouth  and  pro|)rietor  of  one 
of  the  largest  mines  then  known  in  the  valley,  wrote  to 
the  Wilkes-Barre  R(cori1  of  tlu  7////«Ocfober  27th.  1874: 
"  I  see  you  make  a  statement  in  your  daily  that  the  coal 
business  opened  in  1820,  with  365  tons.  .Abijah  Smith 
purchased  an  ark  in  Wilkes-Barre,  of  John  P,  .'\rndt, 
November  9th,  1807,  and  ran  it  to  Columbia,  loaded  with 
fifty-five  tons  of  coal.  From  that  date  .Abijah  Smith  and 
John  Smith  ran  several  arks  yearly  to  1826,  loaded  « ith 



coal  for  market.  In  iSii  and  1812  they  ran  220  tons  of 
coal  to  Havre-de-Orace,  had  it  re- loaded  on  a  schooner 
named  "  Washington,"  consigned  to  Price  &  Waterhury, 
New  York,  who  sold  it  on  commission  and  rendered  a 
statement  February  ist,  1813.  I  think  you  should  date 
the  opening  of  the  coal  trade  in  1807  instead  of  1820." 

Mr.  Stewart  Pearce  in  his  full  and  usually  faithful 
"Annals  of  Luzerne  County  "  says  that  Colonel  Ceorge 
M.  HoUenback  sent  two  four-horse  loads  of  coal  to  Phil- 
adelphia in  1813,  and  that  Mr.  James  Lee  during  the 
same  year  sent  a  four-horse  load  from  Hanover  to  a 
blacksmith  at  Germantown. 

The  blacksmiths  of  this  region  early  learned  the  use  of 
anthracite  coal.  '  Obadiah  and  Daniel  Gore  were  smiths, 
who  came  from  Connecticut  as  early  as  1768  and  became 
owners  of  coal  lands  near  Wilkes-Barre.  Their  experience 
in  the  use  of  the  coal  in  their  shops  is  said  to  have  led 
Jesse  Fell  to  his  experiment  with  coal  in  the  open  grate, 
to  which  we  are  indebted  for  our  pleasant  grate  fires. 
Judge  Fell  was  a  mason,  and  left  on  a  fly  leaf  of  his  copy 
of  "The  Free  Mason's  Monitor"  this  record: 

"February  11,  of  masonry  5808. — Made  the  experiment 
of  burning  the  common  stone  coal  of  the  valley  in  a  grate 
in  a  common  fireplace  in  my  house,  and  f:nd  it  will  answer 
the  purpose  of  fuel,  making  a  clearer  and  better  fire,  at 
less  expense,  than  burning  wood  in  the  common  way. 

'"  Jksse  Fell." 

"  Borough  of  Wilkes-Barre, 

"February   11,  1808." 

These  experiments  are  sufficiently  authenticated  to  pass 
into  history,  and  it  would  be  "  biting  a  file  "  to  attempt  to 
deprive  the  memories  of  Daniel  Gore  and  Jesse  Fell  of 
the  credit  and  honor  so  long  and  so  freely  accorded  by 
those  who  knew  them  best,  and  who  often  made  their 
glasses  of  "flip"  foam  with  the  poker  heated  red  hot 
between  the  bars  of  the  original  grate,  before  which  they 
toasted  feet  and  fingers  during  the  cold  winters. 

Among  the  papers  of  Jacob  Cist,  preserved  by  a  grand- 
son, Harrison  Wright,  Esq.,  of  Wilkes-Barre,  Pa.,  are 
certificates  from  several  gentlemen  who  have  made  e.xper- 
iments  at  an  early  day  in  burning  anthracite  coal.  One 
is  from  Mr.  Frederick  Graff,  dated  Philadelphia,  May 
13th,  1805,  in  which  he  says  that  in  1802  he  had  made 
trial  of  burning  anthracite  in  a  stove,  and  found  it  to 
answer  exceedingly  well.  Mr.  Graff  signs  as  clerk  of  the 
water  works  of  Philadelphia.  This  may  have  been  some 
of  the  coal  first  taken  out  by  the  Lehigh  Mine  Company, 
with  which  many  experiments  were  no  doubt  attempted 
besides  the  fruitless  one  described  at  the  water  works. 

Another  certificate  is  from  Mr.  Oliver  Evans,  February 
iSth,  1803,  who  says  he  had  used  anthracite  coal  in  a 
stove,  and  in  a  small  contracted  grate  in  an  open  fireplace, 
Ijroducing  a  degree  of  lieat  greater  than  from  any  other 
coal  he  had  known. 

True  the  original  draft  of  survey  of  the  manor  of  Sun- 
bury,  made  by  Charles  Stewart  for  the  j^roprietaries,  on 
the  west  side  of  the  Susquehanna  had  "stone  coal"  marked 
upon  it  ;  but  the  date,  1768,  is  the  same  as  given  by  Mr. 
Gore  to  Judge  Fell  as  that  of  their  success  in  using  coal 

in  their  shop  fires,  so  stated  in  a  letter  printed  in  Haz- 
zard's  Register  ;  and  the  surveyor,  knowing  of  the  use  of 
coal  for  centuries  in  England,  upon  hearing  of  the  use  of 
it  on  the  east  side  of  the  river  would  naturally  suppose 
it  to  exist  on  the  west  side  if  he  had  seen  it  on  the  hill 

Judge  Fell  first  made  a  grate  of  green  hickory  wood,  in 
which  he  tried  his  experiments;  then  had  one  made  of 
iron  which  he  placed  in  the  bar-room  of  his  house. 

There  are  many  living  yet  who  can  remember  when 
coal  was  ship])ed  in  arks  from  Plymouth,  Wilkes-Barre 
and  Pittston.  Crandall  Wilcox  as  early  as  1814  sold 
coal  from  his  mine  (now  operated  by  the  Delaware  & 
Hudson  Canal  Company,  on  Mill  creek,  Plains  township"! 
at  $8.50  per  ton  in  Marietta,  Lancaster  county.  Pa.  His 
sons  at  a  much  later  date  sent  coal  in  arks  to  market  by 
the  river  even  after  the  canal  was  completed  to  Nanti- 
coke,  1830. 

Colonel  Lord  Butler  owned  that  wonderful  develop- 
ment of  anthracite,  on  Coal  brook,  a  mile  east  of  the 
borough,  afterwards  known  as  the  Baltimore  mine,  which 
supplied  Wilkes-Barre  in  early  times.  The  coal  was 
quarried  and  delivered  at  $3  per  ton. 

Colonel  Washington  Lee  sent  several  hundred  tons 
from  his  mines  in  Hanover  in  1820,  which  sold  in  Balti- 
more at  $8  per  ton.  This  brings  us  abreast  of  opening 
trade  on  tlie  Lehigh  in  1820.  Seeing  its  365  tons  and 
going  it  much  better,  Mr.  Pearce  states  the  total  to  this 
dale  from  Wyoming  at  8,500  tons. 

In  1823  Colonel  Lee  and  George  Chahoon  leased  a  mine 
in  New])ort  and  contracted  for  the  mining  and  delivery  of 
one  thousand  tons  of  coal  in  arks  at  Lee's  Ferry  at  $1.10 
per  ton — the  coal  selling  at  Columbia  at  a  loss  of  $1,500. 

In  1829  the  Butler  mine  on  Coal  brook,  near  Wilkes- 
Barre,  was  purchased  for  Baltimore  capitalists,  and  the 
"  Baltimore  Coal  Company"  was  formed  under  a  charter 
from  the  State  of  Maryland  of  February  17th,  1829,  being 
originally  incorporated  as  the  "  Baltimore  and  Pittsburg 
Coal  Company."  From  this  company  the  coal  takes  its 
name  which  has  given  a  wide  reputation  as  one  of  the  finest 
veins  of  anthracite  in  the  region.  It  first  shipped  coal 
in  arks. 

The  Stockbridge  mine  in  Pittston  sent  coal  down  the 
river  in  arks  in  1828,  furnishing  about  two  thousand  tons 
in  three  years.  Joseph  Wright  had  shipped  coal  from 
Pittston  in  1813.  This  was  probably  the  son  of  Thomas 
Wright,  who  had  a  forge  on  the  Lackawanna  near  the 
crossing  of  the  main  road  to  Providence  and  well  under- 
stood the  value  of  coal  and  coal  lands.  The  place  is  still 
known  as  "  Old  Forge."  It  was  among  tjie  earliest  tracts 
to  change  hands  from  original  owners,  having  been  sold 
by  the  heirs  of  Thomas  Wright  to  a  Mr.  Armstrong,  of 
Newburg,  and  Hon.  Charles  Augustus  Murray,  a  gentle- 
man from  England.  It  was  said  that  the  location  of 
Scranton  hung  in  the  balance  at  one  time  between  "Old 
Forge"  and  "  Slocum  Hollow,"  the  latter  with  its  blast 
Jurnace  aiid  iron  ore  beds  securing  the  prize. 

In  its  issue  of  April  26th,  1837,  the  Kingston  paper 
says  of    the  trade:     "Up    to    kyxW    17th    fifty    arks    had 





been  dispatched  from  the  Plymouth  banks,  averaging 
60  tons  each.  This  sold  along  the  river  at  an  average  of 
$4  j)cr  ton.  To  this  date  but  a  tritle  over  3.000  tons  had 
been  shipped  from  Mauch  Chunk,  and  only  about  twice 
that  amount  from  the  whole  Schuylkill  region.  With 
the  canal  from  Columbia  to  tide  completed,  and  the  north 
branch  by  a  proper  route  extended  into  the  lake  country, 
'  Old  Shawnee  '  alone  can  send  150,000  tons  to  market 
per  annum." 

The  commonwealth  of  I'ennsylvania  as  early  as  1824 
provided  for  the  appointment  of  a  board  of  canal  com- 
missioners, with  instructions  to  explore  canal  routes  from 
Harrisburg  to  Pittsburg  by  the  waters  of  the  Juniata  and 
Conemaugh  rivers;  and  also  a  route  by  the  west  branch 
of  the  Susquehanna,  tlie  Sinnamahoning  and  Allegheny 
rivers;  and  the  country  between  the  Schuylkill  and  Sus- 
(juehanna  rivers  through  the  great  valley  of  Chester  and 
Lancaster  counties.  The  trade  between  Philadelphia 
and  the  great  and  growing  west  attracted  attention  and 
interest,  but  the  wilds  of  the  north  branch,  in  which  the 
noblest  of  refugees  from  the  wilder  fury  of  the  French 
Revolution  had  sought  shelter,  and  the  still  unappreciated 
anthracite  coal  of  Wyoming  were  little  known  and  un- 

As  early  as  1796  a  small  book  was  published  in  Phila- 
delphia which  by  way  of  preface  opened  with  a  short 
explanation  of  its  object  as  follows:  "The  design  of 
these  pages  is  to  show  the  importance  of  the  great  na- 
tional canal — the  river  Susquehanna;  the  eligible  situa- 
tion for  the  purposes  of  trade  and  manufactures  of  some 
places  on  its  banks  and  at  its  mouth;  its  great  connection 
with  other  main  waters  of  the  United  States,  and  the  ex- 
tensive and  fertile  surface  of  country  from  which  it  must 
drain  the  rich  productions  of  agriculture  and  manufac- 
tures."    No  mention  of  coal  I 

[n  1791  the  Legislature  approjiriated  several  thousand 
pounds  to  improving  the  Sus(|uclianna.  In  1792  among 
the  appropriations  was  one  for  a  road  "  from  Lehigh  Gap 
in  the  Blue  mountain  across  the  Metchunk  mountain  to 
intersect  the  Nescopeck  road  made  by  Evan  Owen, 
_;^200."  Another  "  from  Wilkes-Barre  to  Wyalusing,  on 
the  Meshoppen  creek,  and  to  the  State  line,  ^^loo."  No 
word  of  coal  ! 

Havre-de-Grace  was  to  be  a  port  for  foreign  and  inland 
commerce.  The  author  of  the  work  referred  to  says: 
"The  whole  trade  of  this  river  must  center  at  this  spot 
as  an  entrepot,  or  place  of  exportation.  Whatever  may 
be  the  exertions  of  Pennsylvania,  or  the  monied  capital 
of  Philadeljjhia,  //re  /mi/f  of  this  river  must  ever  [nirsin-  its 
natural  channel."  "  Seldom  ever  "  would  seem  the  more 
appropriate  expression  suggested  by  experience.  When 
that  book  was  written  the  migratory  shad  had  a  natural 
channel  and  right  of  way  up  to  its  spawning  grounds  at  the 
head  waters;  and,  fat  with  abundance  of  food,  furnished 
a  luxury  for  the  tables  of  people  living  along  the  river, 
for  the  loss  of  which  even  anthracite  is  hardly  compensa- 
tion— at  least  in  shad  season.  The  writer  of  1796  evi- 
dently had  no  premonition  of  coming  anthracite,  or  of 
steam  wagons  annihilating  time  and  space,  on  iron  roads; 

not  only  along  the  streams,  but  carrying  the  united  loads  ot 
five  hundred  wagons  with  eascovcr  some  of  the  highest  hilK 
which  border  them.  The  age  had  not  yet  fully  developed 
the  energies  of  a  White,  a  Hazard,  or  of  Wurts.  Pardee, 
Packer,  Scranton  and  Parrish  were  yet  in  the  future. 

The  great  object  of  improving  the  navigation  of  ihr 
Suscpiehanna,  and  o])ening  a  way  to  market  for  the  pro- 
duce of  the  settlers  upon  the  upper  waters,  has  been 
accomplished,  however,  and  by  the  use  of  its  currents 
Liberal  appropriations  followed  the  appointment  of  a 
canal  board,  and  the  corner  stone  of  the  first  lock  was 
laid  at  Harrisburg  in  1827,  with  great  rejoicings.  Toward 
the  growing  west,  by  the  valleys  of  the  Juniata  and  the 
west  branch  of  the  Susquehanna,  the  public  funds  and 
energies  were  first  directed.  The  north  branch  must 
take  care  of  its  own  interests.  Luzerne  was  aroused  and 
her  strongest  men  were  selected  to  represent  her  in  the 
State  Legislature  at  its  next  session,  for  the  purpose 
of  securing  early  appropriations.  Garrick  NLillery  and 
George  Denison  were  chosen. 

The  canal  commissioners  began  to  place  the  North 
Branch  division  under  contract,  extending  from  North- 
umberland to  the  New  York  State  line.  Mr.  Pearce,  in 
his  Annals  of  Luzerne,  thus  refers  to  it  : 

"  The  4th  day  of  July,  1828,  was  fixed  upon  as  the  day 
to  break  ground  at  Berwick;  and  the  writer,  then  a  boy. 
numbered  one  among  the  great  multitude  assembled  to 
witness  the  interesting  scene.  The  military  were  there 
with  their  colors  and  drums  and  gay  attire.  Crowds 
came  from  Wilkes- Uarre,  Plymouth,  Kingston,  North- 
umberland, Danville,  Bloomsburg.  and  from  all  the 
regions  round  about  for  thirty  miles  or  more.  (JId  men 
and  women  were  there,  and  the  boys  and  girls  from  town 
and  country  came.  And  there  was  good  cider,  and  a 
vast  supply  of  cakes,  and  beer  that  made  the  eyes  of  the 
drinker  snap. 

"  At  the  appointed  hour  the  ceremonies  began  by 
plowing  near  the  present  lock  at  Berwick.  The  plow 
was  held  by  Nathan  Beach,  Esq  ,  and  was  drawn  by  a 
yoke  of  splendid  red  oxen,  owned  and  driven  by  Alex 
ander  Jameson,  Esq.  The  loose  earth  was  removed  in 
wheelbarrows,  a  rock  was  blasted,  cannon  were  fired,  and 
all  returned  to  their  homes  happy  and  buoyant  with  the 
hope  of  a  glorious  future. 

"  In  1830  the  canal  was  completed  to  Nanticoke  dam. 
and  the  first  boat,  named  the  'Wyoming,' built  by  the 
Hon.  John  Koons  at  Shickshinny,  was  launched  and 
towed  to  Nanticoke,  where  she  was  loaded  with  ten  tons 
of  anthracite  coal,  a  quantity  of  flour  and  other  articles 
Her  destination  was  Philadelphia.  The  North  Branch 
Canal  being  new  and  filling  slowly  with  water,  the  '  Wyo- 
ming '  passed  through  the  Nanticoke  shute  and  thence 
down  the  river  to  Northumberland,  where  she  entered 
the  Susquehanna  division  of  the  canal,  and  jiroceeded  with 
considerable  difficulty  by  way  of  the  Union  and  Schuyl 
kill  canals  to  Philadeljihia." 

The  first  venture  by  river  and  canal  was  frozen  up  on 
the  return  trip,  and  its  cargo  of  fifteen  tons  of  dry  good- 
was  carred  to  Wilkes-Barre  on  sleds. 




In  I  S3 1  the  "  Luzerne,"  built  on  the  river  bank  oppo- 
site Wilkes-Barre  by  Captain  Derrick  Bird,  took  a  cargo 
of  coal  to  Philadelphia,  floating  down  the  river  to  the 
inlet  lock  at  Nantitoke,  and  returned  with  merchandise 
to  Nanticoke  dam  in  July.  In  1834.  commanded  by 
Captain  Bnskirk,  the  "  Luzerne  "  n.ade  the  first  complete 
round  trip  by  canal  between  Wilkes-Barre  and  Philadel- 
phia, the  canal  having  been  opened  to  Pittston. 

From  Pittston  to  the  State  line,  a  distance  of  ninety- 
four  miles,  the  progress  of  the  North  Branch  was  slow, and 
in  1836  work  upon  it  was  indefinitely  suspended.  The 
North  Branch  Canal  Company  was  incorporated  in  1842 
to  afford  an  opportunity  for  jsrivate  capital  in  the  coal 
regions  to  invest  and  carry  forward  the  much  needed  and 
long  desired  improvement.  "Show  your  faith  by  your 
works,  gentlemen;  you  who  knock  so  clamorously  at  the 
portals  of  the  State  treasury  with  the  plea  of  public 
benefit  and  necessity — you  are  the  ones  to  be  directly 
benefited  by  this  opening  of  the  northern  coal  field  to 
market.     Dig  your  own  ditch." 

But  the  capital  was  not  here  in  proijer  shape  for  such 
investment.  It  was  asking  an  impossibility.  The  farmer 
with  his  two  or  three  hundred  acres  of  rough  land  could 
not  do  more  than  support  his  family.  The  opening  of  a 
canal  or  a  railroad  was  to  him  at  best  but  creating  a  mar- 
ket for  his  homestead  for  thirty  or  forty  dollars  an  acre — 
say  eight  thousand  or  ten  thousand  dollars — an  event  not 
desired;  and  the  subscription  of  one  third  or  even  one 
tenth  of  that  sum  meant  distress  and  ruin  when  pay  day 
came.  The  other  side  of  the  picture — is  it  not  seen  in  the 
bright  hues  reflected  from  a  hundred  thousand  fires 
sparkling  in  hall  and  cottage  over  our  broad  common- 
wealth, at  a  cost  so  light  as  to  be  almost  unfelt?  Not  a 
town  or  city  but  is  benefited  a  thousand  times  more  in 
proportion  to  population  than  were  the  scattered  peojile 
of  this  then  wild  region.  The  fact  was  not  so  apparent 
at  that  day,  although  the  trade  had  added  one  tenth  to 
its  first  annual  production  of  a  million  of  tons.  Now  this 
district  alone  in  1879  claimed  credit  for  two-thirds  of  the 
enormous  out-put  of  twenty-si.x  millions  of  tons  sent  to 
market.  The  north  and  west,  for  whose  benefit  the  North 
Branch  Canal  was  most  needed,  received  ojie-third  of  the 
product  of  this  coal  field. 

It  was  with  great  apparent  reluctance  that  appropria- 
tions were  renewed  and  work  resumed  on  the  northern 
extension.  The  State  had  transferred  all  its  rights  in  the 
unfinished  work  to  the  company,  upon  condition  that  the 
line  from  the  Lackawanna  river  to  the  New  York  State 
boundary  should  be  completed  in  three  yeais.  The  fin- 
ished portion  from  the  lock  at  Solomon's  creek,  on  Nan- 
ticoke pool,  to  the  Lackawanna  river  was  afterwards 
added  as  a  Iwnus.  The  opinion  freely  expressed  abroad 
that  this  was  a  useless  ditch,  only  calcidated,  if  not  in- 
tended, to  transfer  public  funds  from  the  State  treasury 
to  the  pockets  of  needy  followers  of  designing  politicians, 
was  not  encouraging  to  the  capitalists  of  the  vicinage,  if 
such  there  were.  But  the  people  once  more  were  aroused, 
and  without  regard  to  party  united  in  urging  its  early 
completion,  that  our  anthracite  might   have  an  outlet   to 

the  cold  north  country  which  was  being  rapidly  denuded 
of  its  forests  and  would  need  the  coal  for  fuel,  while  the 
southern  and  eastern  markets  were  amply  supplied  by 
the  Lackawanna  and  by  the  middle  and  southern  coal 

Preparations  had  been  made  in  Pittston  for  trade  by 
canal,  although  it  will  be  noted  that  trade  by  the  cheap 
transportation  in  arks  continued  long  after  the  canal  was 
finished.  Judge  Mallory.  John  L.  Butler  and  Lord  But- 
ler had  opened  a  mine  and  made  a  railroad  of  a  mile  to 
the  canal  in  Pittston,  shipping  coal  as  early  as  1840.  If 
any  deserved  success  those  gentlemen  might  claim  it  for 
liberal  enterprise,  energy  and  industry.  They  established 
agencies,  jiroduced  excellent  coal  and  bore  all  necessary 
expenses  of  tolls  and  transportation.  The  close  competi- 
tion of  the  region  nearer  the  eastern  markets  made  returns 
uncertain,  and  unreliable  agents  caused  pecuniary  embar- 
rassments. In  this  way  very  noble  men  were  worn  out  in 
waiting  for  the  completion  of  the  northern  outlet. 

The  absence  of  northern  connections  was  for  a  long 
time  an  obstacle  to  the  progress  of  work,  and  it  was 
finally  intimated  that  it  would  be  resumed  upon  condi- 
tion that  the  Junction  canal,  a  link  required  in  the  chain 
connecting  the  systems  of  Pennsylvania  and  New  York 
by  the  Chemung  canal  and  Seneca  lake,  should  be 
pledged  to  completion  at  the  same  time.  A  meeting  was 
called  and  books  opened  for  subscriptions  to  the  capital 
stock  of  the  Junction  canal.  Mr.  John  Arnot,  of  Elmira, 
N.  Y.,  and  Mr.  George  M.  Hollenback  of  Wilkes-Barre, 
Pa.,  were  present,  both  deeply  interested.  There  were 
few  men  along  the  line  at  that  day  who  had  ready  money 
or  securities  to  pledge  for  it,  and  subscriptions  lagged. 
After  some  good  natured  badinage  between  the  two  old 
friends  and  capitalists,  Colonel  Hollenback  said:  "You 
subscribe  first,  Mr.  Arnot,  and  I  will  put  down  as  much 
as  you  do."  Mr.  Arnot  immediately  added  to  his  signa- 
ture "$100,000."  Colonel  Hollenback,  true  to  his  word^ 
promptly  pledged  his  own  name  for  "$roo,ooo"  and  in- 
sured the  completion  of  both  canals.  Actions  like  these 
must  not  be  estimated  by  results.  The  gentlemen  had 
little  to'gain  for  themselves,  but  were  actuated  by  a  large- 
hearted  public  spirit.  It  was  nobly  done,  but  it  was  too 

The  North  Branch  extension  was  placed  under  the  su- 
pervision of  Mr.  William  Ross  Maffet,  an  able  engineer 
and  an  honest,  efficient  officer,  for  completion.  Trade 
was  opened  in  the  fall  of  1856,  when  eleven  hundred  and 
fifty  tons  of  coal  passed  through  it  to  western  New  York. 
In  1859  the  trade  had  only  increased  to  fifty-two  thousand 
tons.  Long  delays  had  been  fatal.  Railroad  construction 
and  operation  had  been  so  perfected  during  the  suspension 
of  work  on  the  canal  that  the  railroads  were  enabkd  to 
compete  successfully  with  internal  water  communication, 
closed  by  northern  frosts  and  useless  for  half  the  year. 
The  North  Branch  Canal  was  abandoned.    "  Sic  Transit." 

The  Pennsylvania  and  New  York  Canal  and  Railroad 
Company  was  incorporated  in  1865,  absorbing  the  charter 
of  the  North  Branch  Canal  Company,  and  by  various 
supplements  secured  the  right  to  occupy  the  bed  of  the 




canal,  which  its  railway  now  follows  north  from  Pittston 
through  the  Narrows,  where  there  had  been  scarce  room 
for  two  farm  wagons  to  pass  on  the  way  to  and  from 
market.  The  railway  was  opened  to  Wavcrly  in  1869. 
For  those  who  make  the  delightful  excursion  from  New 
\'ork  and  Philadeljjhia  by  the  romantic  I.ehigh  Vallev 
route  and  the  Susquehanna,  tlirough  the  Wyoming  val- 
ley, to  Niagara  and  the  west,  the  change  is  a  great  im- 
provement in  comfort  and  safety,  however  it  may  have 
siiattered  the  idols  of  a  generation  reared  in  the  faith  nf 
Joshua  White — that  canals  were  superior  to  any  other 
mode  of  inland  transportation,  and  that  the  oil  which  lu- 
bricated the  wheels  of  a  locomotive  and  its  train  would 
cost  more  than  all  the  expense  of  carrying  the  same  ton- 
nage on  a  ( anal.  There  was  a  great  difference  between 
the  Lehigh  and  North  Branch  canals.  Joshua  While 
carried  his  heavy  tonnage  with  the  stream,  the  current 
aiding.  The  light  freight  and  empty  l)oats  went  up 
stream.  On  the  Susquehanna  the  downward  trade  still 
continues;  but  the  coal  taken  north  had  to  encounter  the 
resistance  of  the  current,  and  it  was  a  serious  disadvantage. 

What  might  have  been  the  results  of  an  early  comple- 
tion of  our  canal,  and  the  establishment  of  large  markets 
at  various  points  throughout  tlie  north  and  west,  it  is 
bootless  now  to  inquire.  I'robably  a  long  rivalry,  and 
time  wasted. 

The  State  sold  its  interest  in  the  canals  in  1858  to  the 
Sunbury  and  Erie  Railroad  Company,  the  North  Branch 
Canal  Company  being  party  to  the  arrangement,  taking 
the  division  from  Northumberland  north  at  $1,500,000. 
The  canal  from  Northampton  street  in  the  city  of 
Wilkes-Barre  to  Northumberland  was  sold  in  the  Wyo- 
ming Canal  Company,  chartered  in  April,  1859.  This 
company  was  merged  in  the  Pennsylvania  Canal  Company 
in  1869,  the  name  having  in  1863  been  changed  by 
merger  in  the  Wyoming  Valley  Canal  Company.  In 
1878  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Com|)any,  which 
controls  this  canal,  reported  the  amount  of  freight  in 
net  tons  in  1866  as  668,706,  of  which  438,821  tons  was 
anthracite  coal.  The  company  has  a  tine  bridge  over  the 
Nanticoke  pool,  connecting  its  mines  on  the  east  side  with 
the  Lackawanna  and  Bloomsburg  railroad  on  the  west 
side  of  the  river,  over  which  its  trade  is  continued  through 
the  year;  having  collieries  upon  both  sides  openmg  some 
of  the  largest  and  best  veins  of  coal  in  this  region,  froni 
lands  formerly  of  Colonel  Washington  Lee,  Jameson 
Harvey  and  others. 

TRADE    liV     rill-;    l.F.HIGH. 

Citizens  of  Wyoming  were  early  prospectors  and  oper- 
ators in  the  middle  coal  field,  engaged  in  efforts  to  intro- 
duce anthracite  coal  to  tide  water  markets  while  the  war 
of  181 2  obstructed  foreign  trade  and  the  price  of  coal 
was  high.  That  the  opening  of  those  markets  was  of 
importance  to  Luzerne  is  attested  now  by  the  fact  that 
nearly  if  not  quite  three  million  tons  of  coal  was  fur- 
nished to  the  trade  of  1879  by  this  county  from  mines  in 
the  southern  townships  of  Hazle,  Foster,  Butler  and 
Black  Creek,  having  outlet  by  the  Lehigh  route;   besides 

a  fair  proportion  of  the  eight  and  a  «|uarter  million  tons 
credited  to  the  trade  of  the  Lehigh  Valley  and  I.ehigli 
and  Siisqueli:inn:i  folds.  «lii(h  111  I  si  li.ui-  liciii  W\  omiii^; 

The  editors  ol  ",  Iron  and  Oil,"  a  work  ol  v.iliic 
published  in  1866.  s.iy  of  the  early  history  and  develop- 
meni  of  the  anthracite  regions:  "The  early  history  of 
coal  in  America  is  much  less  obscure  and  uncertain  than 
its  history  in  England,  for  obvious  rj.iso;n.  In  fact  the 
printers  themselves  were  among  the  pioneers  of  our  coal 
mines:  first  to  advocate  the  value  of  coal,  first  to  embark 
in  its  development  and  first  to  chronicle  its  success,  thougli 
we  cannot  say  they  were  first  to  profit.  We  may  notici- 
the  examples  of  Cist,  Miner  and  Hannan,  whose  names 
appear  prominently  in  the  early  history  of  anthracite 

In  1840  the  board  of  managers  of  the  Lehigh  Coal  and 
Navigation  Company  ordered  the  pid)lication  of  its  earlx 
history  in  a  ])am|)hlet  of  some  seventy  pages,  of  whi<li 
free  use  will  be  made  in  this  chapter.  This  will  insure 
both  conciseness  and  accuracy.  Mr.  l)addow  says  in 
"  Coal,  Iron  and  Oil"  that  Nicho  Allen,  a  noted  hunter. 
is  reported  to  have  discovered  coal  on  Broad  mountain, 
in  Schuylkill  county,  in  1 790.  There  is  no  written  account 
of  it,  and  tradition  may  have  blended  two  characters  in 
one  incident;  as  only  a  year  after,  in  1791,  another  hunter, 
the  famous  Philip  Ointer,  made  a  like  discovery  on  the 
"  Matchunk,"  or  Bear  mountain,  about  nine  miles  west 
of  the  site  of  Mauch  Chunk.  Philip  winter's  discovery 
developed  into  the  ni.'.nimoth  mine  of  the  Lehigh  Com- 
pany at  Summit  Hill.  Philip  tells  his  own  story  as  fol- 

"  When  I  first  came  to  these  mountains,  some  years 
ago,  I  built  a  cabin  on  the  east  side  of  the  mountain,  and 
managed  by  hunting  and  trapping  to  support  my  family  in 
a  rough  way.  Deer  and  bears  were  pretty  thick,  and 
during  the  hunting  season  meal  was  plentiful;  but  some- 
times we  ran  short  of  that,  and  frequently  were  hard  up 
for  such  necessaries  as  could  only  be  purchased  with  the 
produce  of  the  hunter. 

"  One  day,  after  a  poor  season,  when  we  were  on  short 
allowance,  I  had  unusually  bad  luck,  and  was  on  my  way 
home,  empty  handed  and  disheartened,  tired  and  wet  with 
the  rain,  which  commenced  falling,  when  I  struck  mv 
foot  against  a  stone  and  drove  it  on  before  me.  It  was 
nearly  dusk,  but  light  enough  remained  to  show  me  that 
it  was  black  and  shiny.  I  had  heard  of  'stone  coal '  over 
in  Wyoming,  and  had  frequently  pried  into  rocks  in  hopes 
of  finding  it.  When  I  saw  the  black  rock  I  knew  it  must 
be  stone  coal,  and  on  looking  round  I  discovered  blac  k 
dirt  and  a  great  many  pieces  of  stone  coal  under  the  roots 
of  a  tree  that  had  been  blown  down.  I  took  pieces  of 
this  coal  home  with  me,  and  the  next  day  carried  them  to 
Colonel  Jacob  Weiss,  at  Fort  Allen. 

"A  few  weeks  after  this  Colonel  Weiss  sent  for  me,  and 
offered  to  pay  me  for  my  discovery  if  I  would  tell  him 
where  the  coal  was  found.  I  accordingly  offered  to  show 
him  the  place  if  he  would  get  mc  a  small  tract  of  land 
and  water  power  for  a  saw-mill  I  had  in  view.       This  h' 

readily  promised  and  afterward  performed.  Tlie  jjlace 
was  found  and  a  quarry  opened  in  tlie  coal  mountain.  In 
a  few  years  the  discovery  made  hundreds  of  fortunes,  but 
I  may  say  it  ruined  me,  for  my  land  was  taken  from  me 
by  a  man  who  said  he  owned  it  before  I  did,  and  now  I 
am  still  a  ])oor  man." 

The  history  authorized  by  the  company  opens  with  the 
formation  of  the  "  I.ehigh  Coiil  Mine  Company  "  : 

"In  V.i'-i  n  coiniiuiiy  was  foriiR'rt  iiiulcr  the  title  ot  tlif  Li-liif;li  CntUMinc 
Company,  «lii)  imrchasod  fmin  .Tacolj  Weiss  tlie  tract  of  land  on  which 
the  laiffe  openinj,'  at  Summit  Hill  is  maile,  and  at'tcrwanls  'lookup,' 
under  warrants  from  the  eomninnwealth,  about  ten  thousand  acres  of 
land,  embracinjraliout  H\  o-si.\ths  of  the  coal  lands  now  owned  by  the 
Lehigh  Coal  and  Navigation  ( 'ompany.  The  Coal  Mine  Comjiany  proceed- 
ed to  open  the  mines,  and  made  an  appropriation  of  ten  pounds  {$3fi.67) 
to  eonstruet  a  road  from  the  mines  to  the  landin'.? s  (nine  miles).  After 
many  fruitless  attempts  to  get  coal  to  market  over  this  nominal  road, 
and  by  the  Lehigh  river,  which  in  seasons  ot  low  water  in  its  unim- 
proved state  defied  the  floating  of  a  eanoc  over  its  rocky  bed,  and  after 
calling  for  eontritiutions  from  the  stockholders  until  calling  was  useless, 
the  Lehigh  Mine  Company  became  tired  ot  the  experiment  and  suffered 
their  property  to  lie  idle  fur  some  years. 

"  To  encourage  and  bring  into  notice  the  use  of  their  coal,  the  comp- 
any in  December,  ISOT,  gn\e  a  lease  upon  one  of  the  coal  veins  to  Row- 
land and  liiitland  for  twenty-one  years,  with  the  privilege  of  digging 
iron  ore  and  coal,  gratis,  for  the  manufacture  ot  iron.  This  business 
was  abandoned,  together  with  the  lease,  as  from  some  cause  thej' did 
not  succeed  in  their  work. 

"  In  December,  1813,  the  company  made  a  lease  for  ten  years  ot  their 
lands  to  Messrs.  Miner,  Cist  &  Kobin.son,  with  the  right  of  cutting 
lumber  on  the  lands  for  building  boats;  the  whole  consideration  for  this 
lease  was  to  l:)ethe  annual  introduction  into  market  of  ten  thousand 
bushels  of  coal,  for  tJte  hoirlit  of  the  /c.'wcf.s. 

"  Five  ark  loads  of  coal  were  despatched  by  these  gentlemen  from  the 
landing  at  Mauch  Chunk,  two  of  which  reached  Philadelphia,  the  others 
having  been  wrecked  in  their  passage." 

When  Colonel  Weiss  received  the  pieces  of  coal  from 
the  hunter  he  took  them  to  Philadelphia  and  submitted 
them  to  the  inspection  of  John  Nicholson,  Michael  Hill- 
egas  and  Charles  Cist,  who  authorized  Colonel  Weiss  to 
satisfy  Ginter  upon  his  pointing  out  the  precise  location 
of  the  coal.  These  gentlemen  united  with  others  in 
forming  the  coal  mine  company,  but  without  i  charter. 
Mr.  Maxwell  includes  the  eminent  financier  of  the  Rev- 
olutionary war,  Mr.  Robert  Morris,  among  the  active  pa- 
trons of  the  early  improvement  of  the  Lehigh,  but  men- 
tion of  his  name  does  not  occur  in  the  early  histories 
within  reach. 

Jacob  Cist,  a  gentleman  of  unusually  solid  and  brilliant 
scientific  attainments,  who  had  in  early  life  removed  to 
Wyoming,  was  a  son  of  Charles  Cist.  In  1813  lie  united 
with  Charles  .Miner,  editor  of  the  GlraiuT,  and  John  W. 
Robinson,  all  of  Wilkes-Barre,  in  the  lease  on  the  Lehigh. 
Stephen  Tuttle  was  a  fourth.  Isaac  A.  Chapman,  after- 
ward editor  of  the  Glcaiwr,  and  author  of  an  early  his- 
tory of  Wyoming,  was  at  one  time  associated  in  the  en- 
terprise. He  was  an  engineer  with  Milnor  Roberts  and 
Solomon  W.  Roberts  on  the  upper  division  of  the  navi- 
gation under  Canvass  White,  and  died  at  Mauch  Chunk 
while  in  the  company's  service. 

Acurious  old  contract  of  January  27th,  1S15,  "  between 
Chas.  Miner  of  the  one  part  and  Benjamin  Smith  and 
James  Miars  of  the  other  part,  witnesseth  that  the  said 
Smith  and  Miars  have  agreed  to  haul  from  the  great  coal 
bed  near  the  Lehigh,  commonly  called  the  Weiss  bed,  to 
the  landing  near  the  Lints  place  sixty  tons  of  stone  coal 
by  the  first  day  of  April,  1815,  for  which   the  said  Miner 

is  to  jiay  them  four  dollars  and  fifty  cents  per  ton."  If 
the  full  amount  was  not  hauled  the  price  was  to  be  only 
four  dollars. 

There  is  also  a  memorandum,  signed  and  sealed  by 
Philip  Heermans,  agreeing  to  build  arks  in  a  workmanlike 
manner,  ready  to  run  by  the  first  spring  freshets  in  the 
Lehigh,  ten  arks  for  four  hundred  dollars.  "  Said  Charles 
to  find  all  the  materials  on  the  spot;  to  haul  the  timber, 
board  the  hands,  and  to  furnish  them  a  reasonable  quan- 
tity of  whiskey.  Wilkes-Barre,  November  23,  1814."  A 
note  added — "Mr.  "Heermans  was  a  very  clever  fellow 
and  had  built  the  arks  previously  used.  I  wish  he  had 
lived  to  see  the  present  development  of  the  coal  business 
on  his  native  Lackawanna." 

The  company's  history  says:  "Only  four  dollars  was 
paid  for  hauling  the  coal  over  the  road  before  referred  to, 
and  the  contractor  lost  money.  The  principal  part  of 
the  coal  which  arrived  at  Philadelphia  was  purchased  at 
twenty-one  dollars  per  ton  by  White  &  Hazard,  who  were 
then  manufacturing  wire  at  the  falls  of  the  Schuylkill. 
But  even  this  price  did  not  remunerate  the  owners  for  the 
losses  and  expenses  of  getting  the  coal  to  market,  and 
they  were  consequently  compelled  to  abandon  the  prose- 
cution of  the  business,  and  of  course  did  not  coinply  with 
the  terms  of  the  lease." 

The  venerable  James  A.  Gordon,  still  hale  and  active, 
in  memory  and  body,  wrote  from  his  home  in  Plymouth 
to  the  Wilkes-Barre  Record  of  the  Ti?ncs,  February,  1874, 
his  recollections  of  this  early  Luzerne  enteriirise  on  the 
Lehigh  : 

"  On  the  ITth  .July,  1H1+,  with  Abial  Abbott,  Sterne  Palmer,  Strange  H. 
Palmer  (another  printeri,  Thomas  P.  Beach,  Joseph  Thomas,  Chester 
Dana  and  Josiah  Horton,  shouldered  knapsacks  and  tools  for  a  march 
to  the  Lehigh  to  build  arks  for  Messrs.  Cist,  Miner  and  Miilhouse.  (Hil- 
legas  ■/ ) 

"  Four  arks  were  ready  for  loading  by  the  first  freshet.  The  estimated 
cost  ot  fifty  tons,  one  ark  load  of  coal,  was:  Mining,  $50  ;  hauling  from 
summit,  S4..W  per  ton,  SS-^o  ;  cost  ot  ark,  $125 ;  loading  ark,  $15.  Total, 

"  Lehigh  pilots  were  on  hand.  The  fleet  moved  oft  with  the  rapid  cur- 
rent, and  in  fifteen  minutes  brought  up  on  a  reef  called  '  Red  Rocks,' 
half  a  mile  below.  t)ne  ark  got  through.  In  the  ensuing  December 
peace  was  declared,  and  coal  went  down  to  si.v  dollars.  The  enterprise 
was  a  financial  failure." 

Mr.  Gordon  was  one  of  the  lads  on  board  the  stranded 
ark  who  stripped  nearly  naked  to  stop  the  rush  of  water 
through  the  hole  stove  in  the  bow,  and  got  a  good  wetting, 
of  which  he  seems  none  the  worse. 

In  1879  Lehigh  coal  sold  at  Port  Johnson  for  |!2.5o 
per  ton.  Lackawanna  coal  sold  as  low  as  $2  per  ton  on 
the  Hudson  river.  The  vast  expenditure  of  money  re- 
quired to  purchase  lands,  to  develop  mines,  and  to  con- 
struct lines  for  transportation  of  coal  to  market,  which 
makes  possible  this  comparison  of  prices  between  coal 
delivered  on  the  Lehigh  in  1815  and  at  tidal  points  in 
1879,  constitutes  a  portion  of  the  indebtedness  of  coin- 
panies,  the  interest  on  which  must  be  added  to  the  cost 
of  production  in  estimating  the  economic  or  the  com- 
mercial value  of  anthracite  as  a  fuel. 

Let  those  who  complain  of  the  grasping  avarice  of  coal 
dealers,  or  of  "soulless  corporations,"  carefully  compute 
the  saving  effected  in  cost  by  the  sacrifices  of  time  and 
money  on  the  part  of  the  pioneers,  and  rest  satisfied  with 

ORIGIN  oi-   riiK  i.i;iii(;ii  com.  tradk. 


yet  higher  prices  than  were  charged  in  1879.  Kor  the 
increased  comfort  to  the  domestic  circles  in  thousands  of 
homes,  and  tlie  prosperity  so  widely  spread  through  the 
land  by  rendering  cheap  and  abundant  an  article  of  such 
prime  necessity,  bless  those  whose  labors  and  enterprise 
have  produced  the  change,  rather  than  revile  them  for 
imputed  faults. 

The  early  efforts  of  tlic  l.chigh  C'oal  Mine  Conipany 
were  said  to  have  resulted  in  the  transportation  of  .1 
small  quantity  of  coal  to  Philadelphia.  wh.ich  the  manager 
of  the  walcr  works  ])urchased  for  use  under  the  boiler  of 
a  steam  engine  in  Centre  Scpiare.  Erskine  Hazard,  in  a 
communication  to  the  Historical  Society,  says  the  pur- 
chaser thought  it  "only  served  to  put  the  fire  out,  and  the 
remainder  was  broken  up  and  spread  on  the  walks,  in- 
stead of  gravel." 

Messrs.  Daddow  and  li.uinaii,  in  their  book  on  "'  Coal, 
Iron  and  Oil,"  say  that  a  Mr.  William  Morris  took  a 
wagon  load  of  coal  from  near  I'ort  Carbon,  in  Schuylkill, 
about  the  year  1800,  without  finding  a  market;  and  Mr. 
William  Trumbull  was  unsuccessful  with  an  ark  load 
taken  to  Philadelphia  in  1806  from  Lehigh. 

.\  few  paragrai)hs  epioted  from  the  book  will  interest 
the  reader.  All  the  history  of  the  Lehigh  Coal  and  Nav- 
igation Company  belongs  to  the  trade  of  the  Wyoming 
coal  field,  and  every  effort  to  introduce  anthracite  to  the 
Quaker  City  and  other  markets  as  an  article  of  commerce 
was  directly  in  our  interest. 

'■  In  1813  Colonel  Georife  Slioeinuker,  of  Pottsville,  loaded  nine  wag-ons 
with  coal  for  Philadelphia.  Two  loads  he  disposed  of  at  eost  of  trans- 
ixirtatioo.  oin'  t()  .Ntcssrs.  Wliite  &  liaz  u-d,  at  their  nail  and  wire  works 
at  the  falls  of  the  Seiuiylkill;  and  the  other  to  Messrs.  Mellon  i  Itishop, 
of  the  Delaware  eoiinty  rollinj;  mill.  The  other  seven  loads  he  either 
Bn\  e  awa.v,  or  disposed  of  for  a  trifle,  to  l)lacksniith.s,  or  others  who 
promised  to  try  it.  lint  the  eolonel  was  not  to  (ret  olf  so  easily.  Though 
he  lost  time  and  money,  and  had  the  trouble  of  his  attempts  to  introduce 
a  fuel  whieh  has  sinee  made  Philadelphia  one  of  the  most  wealthy  and 
prosperous  cities  in  the  world,  the  \  ery  men  to  whom  he  had  given  his 
coal  obtained  a  writ  from  the  authorities  of  that  city  for  his  arrest  us  an 
iuip()stor  anil  swindler. 

••  In  the  meantimo  Mr.  White,  who  was  an.xlons  to  succeed  in  burning 
this  coal,  with  some  of  his  men  spent  a  whole  morning  in  trying  to  ignite 
it  and  raise  a  heat  in  one  of  their  furnaces.  They  tried  every  possible 
expedient  whieh  skill  and  experience  in  other  fuelseould  sugjrest.  They 
rafccd  it,  and  [>i>kti{  it,  and  slirnil  it  up,  and  blew  upon  the  surface  through 
open  furnace  doors  with  perseverance  and  persistent  determination; 
but  all  to  no  ))urpose.  Colonel  Shoenmker's  roiks  would  not  burn,  and 
the  attempt  was  abandoned.  Dinner  time  arrived,  and  the  men  shut 
'he  furnace  doors  in  disgust,  heartily  tired  of  the  stones,  or  stone  coal, 
if  such  it  was. 

•■  lieturning  from  ilinnerat  the  usual  time,  all  hands  were  astonished 
at  the  phenomena  which  they  l>eheld.  The  furnace  doors  were  red  hot, 
and  the  whole  furnace  in  dangerof  being  melted  down  with  a  heat  never 
before  experienceil.  On  opening  the  doors  a  glowing  nuiss  at  while 
heat  was  discovered.  ,So  hot  a  tire  had  never  before  been  seen  in  the  fur- 
nace. From  this  time  anthracite  stone  coal  found  friends  and  advo- 
cates in  Philadelphia,  anil  the  motto  '  let  it  alone  '  became  a  recipe  for 
its  use." 

Mr.  Hazard  in  a  communication  published  in  the 
proceedings  of  the  Pennsylvania  Historical  Society  says 
that  Mr.  Joshua  Malin  told  them  that  he  had  succeeded 
in  using  Lehigh  coat  in  his  rolling  mill,  and  that  White 
it  Hazard  ])rocured  a  load  of  it  which  cost  one  dollar 
jier  bushel.  It  was  entirely  wasted  without  getting  up 
heat.  Another  cart  load  was  obtained  and  a  whole  night 
spent  in  endeavoring  to  make  a  fire  in  the  furnace,  when 
the  hands  shut  the  furnace  door  and  left  the  mill  in 
despair.     Fortunately,  one  of  them  left  his  jacket  in  the 


mill,  and  returning  for  it  in  about  half  an  hour  noticed 
(hit  the  furnace  door  was  red  hot,  etc.,  etc. 

This  makes  the  fact  of  the  experiment  and  its  success 
clear.  The  parties  narrating  were  interested  in  different 
mines  of  the  same  long,  narrow  basin  of  coal  now  known 
as  the  southern  anihracite,  which  extends  from  near  the 
Lehigh  almost  to  the  Susijuehanna. 

.\  very  interesting  "Memoir  of  Josiah  White"  by  his 
son-in-law  Richard  Richardson,  now  living  in  Arch  sireit, 
Philadelphia,  pidjlished  by  J.  H.  Lippincott  iV  Co.,  1873. 
furnished  many  fads  in  connection  with  Mr.  While's 
efforts  to  improve  the  navigation  of  the  Lehigh  river  and 
introduce  coal  lo  market.  It  says  that  coal  was  known 
to  exist  in  large  tpiantilies  near  the  head  waters  of  the 
Schuylkill  river,  and  they  procured  some  from  there;  but 
the  price  was  enormously  high,  forty  dollars  a  ton,  brought 
to  their  works  in  wagons.  They  concluded  to  apply  10 
the  Legislature  for  the  privilege  of  making  the  SchuylUill 
navigable  and  supply  their  own  coal  at  a  cheaper  rate. 
It  certainly  would  .seem  more  reasonable  than  the  Lehigh 
scheme,  but  the  application  in  1812-13  *^^*  ""^'  ^*''''' 
ridicule  of  the  idea  of  using  coal  as  a  fuel.  The  member 
from  Schuylkill  ctninty  affirmed  to  the  Legislature  that 
although  they  had  a  black  stone  in  their  county  it  would 
not  burn.     They  were  unsuccessful. 

Erskine  Hazard  in  an  article  in  HazanVs  Register  says 
that,  their  application  as  individuals  having  failed,  they 
called  a  public  meeting  and  made  a  more  formal  applica- 
tion for  a  charter,  which  was  the  commencement  of  the  pre- 
sent Schuylkill  Navigation  Company,  incorporated  in  1815. 

Josiah  While,  George  F.  A.  Hauto,  and  William  Uriggs, 
a  stone  mason,  visited  the  Lehigh  on  horseback  in  1817, 
reaching  Helhlehem  on  Christmas  eve.  Mr.  White  says: 
"  L'pon  reluming  home  with  favorable  impressions  of 
the  practicability  of  the  project  [of  improving  the  river 
and  mining  coal],  it  was  concluded  that  Erskine  Hazard, 
George  1".  \.  Hauto  and  myself  should  join  in  the  enter- 
prise. I  was  to  mature  the  plan;  Haulo  was  to  procure 
the  money  from  his  rich  friends;  Hazard  was  to  be  the 
scribe,  he  also  being  a  good  machinist  and  an  excellent 
counselor."     The  p.imphlet  history  of  the  company  says: 

•■  Upon  Ihelr  return  and  nmklng  a  favonilile  report  II  wax  B.<«.-<Tl«lne<l 
that  the  lease  on  the  mining  |>ro|>erty  ilhe  l«i.«e  to  Miner,  cist  i  llol>- 
insonl  was  forfeitedliy  in'ii  i/«  r.  and  that  the  law.  the  la.>t  of  si*  which 
had  been  pa-ssed  for  the  im|>rovenienI  of  the  navlKUllon  of  the  rIviT.  had 
Just  e.vplr«l  l>y  Its  own  liinllullon.  f  nder  tlie-M-  clrcumstani'cs  the 
I.ehigh  Coal  Mine  Company  lieeanie  i-ompli-Iely  displrltiil.  and  i'X«i-ui<-.l 
a  lease  to  .Messrs.  While.  Ilautii  and  llarjinl.  for  Iweiily  yiiir-.  of  their 
whole  property,  on  cotidlllon  Unit,  afier  u  given  lime  for  pn'panillon. 
they  should  deliver  for  Ihelr  own  benelll  at  least  forty  thousand  bushels 
of  coal  annually  In  Philaih  Iphia  and  the-  dUlrlcls.  and  should  pay,  u|Mm 
demand,  <nie  oar  of  i-orn  as  an  annual  rent  upon  the  property." 

So  Miner,  Cist  i\:  Robinson,  like  the  poor  hunter  Gin- 
ter,  gained  but  a  loss  by  their  enterjirise  and  labors,  their 
lease  having  been  forfeited  by  noii  user .'  It  is  the  fate 
of  nearly  all  who  wander  ahead  of  their  kind  in  search 
of  wealth  or  knowledge  to  lose  or  lo  be  lost.  Genera- 
tions which  follow  profit  by  such  losses.  In  this  con- 
nection pardon  will  be  granted  by  the  kind  reader  for 
the  use  of  space  in  quoting  from  the  interesting  lectures 
referred  to  in  earlier  ])ages.  Mr.  Maxwell,  after  noticing 
the  many  abortive  attempts  to  introduce  coal  into  Phila- 
delphia, says  : 






"The  fact  was,  the  Philadelphinns  and  the  people  of 
the  Lehigh  were  behind  the  times  ;  they  did  not  take  the 
Wyoming  newspaper,  and  suffered  the  natural  conse- 
quences of  such  a  blunder  1  I  have  been  greatly  inter- 
ested in  turning  over  their  old  files.  Politics  and  the 
stirring  events  of  the  European  and  American  wars  fur- 
nished ample  materials  for  their  columns  ;  but  home 
subjects  were  not  forgotten. 

"In  1813  Mr.Miner  was  publishing  77;(^(J/M//cr  in  Wilkes- 
Barre;  and  in  a  long  editorial  article  from  his  pen,  under 
date  of  November  19th  and  the  head  of  '  State  Policy,'  he 
urged  with  great  zeal  the  improvement  of  the  descending 
navigation  of  the  Susquehanna  and  Lehigh  rivers.  He 
then  said:  'The  coal  of  Wyoming  has  already  become  an 
article  of  considerable  traffic  with  the  lower  counties  of 
Pennsylvania.  Numerous  beds  have  been  opened,  and 
it  is  ascertained  beyond  all  doubt  that  the  valley  of  Wy- 
oming contains  enough  coal  for  ages  to  co...e.'  He  then 
goes  on  to  speak  highly  of  its  quality,  aud  says  further: 
'Seven  years  ago  our  coal  was  thought  of  little  value.  It 
was  then  supposed  that  it  could  not  be  burned  in  a  com- 
mon grate.  Our  smiths  used  it,  and  for  their  use  alone 
did  we  suppose  it  serviceable.  About  si.x  years  ago  one 
of  our  most  public  spirited  citizens  made  the  e.xperiment 
of  using  it  in  a  grate,  and  succeeded  to  his  most  san- 
guine expectations.' 

'■  Again,  in  the  same  paper,  issued  on  the  31st  of  De- 
cember, 1813,  in  an  article  headed  'The  Prosperity  of 
Philadelphia,'  Mr.  Miner  wrote  of  the  objects  to  be  accom- 
plished for  her  advantage:  I,  The  connection  of  the  waters 
of  the  Chesapeake  and  the  Delaware — since  accomplished; 
2,  The  connection  of  the  Schuylkill  with  the  Swatara — 
since  much  more  than  accomplished  by  the  Union  Canal; 
and  3,  The  opening  of  a  communication  from  the  Susque- 
hanna to  Philadelphia  by  a  road  or  railway  from  Wilkes- 
Barre  to  the  Lehigh,  and  thence  by  that  river  to  the 
Delaware,  and  thence  to  Philadelphia.  'I  have  visited,' 
he  said,  '  Lausanne  and  a  number  of  other  places  on  the 
Lehigh,  having  particularly  in  view  to  ascertain  the  real 
situation  of  its  navigation.'  Then,  in  the  next  issue  of 
the  same  paper,  there  is  another  editorial  by  Mr.  Miner, 
headed  '  Navigation  of  the  Lehigh,'  and  occupying  two  and 
a  half  colums  of  the  paper.  In  it  he  wrote  earnestly  and 
at  length  as  to  the  merits  of  our  coal,  as  well  as  to  the 
improvement  of  the  Lehigh.  Upon  this  point  he  printed 
in  italics  the  following  sentence:  "I  say  with  great  confi- 
dence, this  is  the  course  pointed  out  by  Nature  for  the 
connection  between  the  Susquehanna  and  the  Delaware;' 
and  e.xjjerience  has  since  verified  its  truth.  He  then  urged 
upon  the  public  the  improvement  in  question,  on  the 
ground  of  the  comparatively  small  expense  it  would  re- 
([uire.  He  was  not  too  sanguine,  as  the  event  has  proved. 
On  the  contrary,  he  then  said:  'Our  public  im- 
provements must  grow  with  our  growth  and 
strengthen  with  our  strength.  We  cannot  expect 
in  this  young  country,  having  so  many  points  to  im- 
prove, to  equal  the  old  and  more  populous  countries  of 
Europe.  I  appeal  to  the  judicious  men  who  have  wit- 
nessed the  failure  of  our  grandest  plans,  if  they  have  not 

miscarried  because  they  were  disproportionate  to  tlie 
necessity  and  the  ability  of  the  country;'  and  he  closed 
this  part  of  the  subject  by  saying.  '  I  hope  our  grand- 
children may  live  to  see  a  complete  railway  from  this  place 
to  the  Lehigh,  and  a  canal  from  thence  to  Philadelphia.' 
"This  is  an  interesting  passage.  It  would  be  interest- 
ing to  know  just  how  many  of  Mr.  Miner's  readers  under- 
stood at  that  day  what  a  railway  was.  There  was  not 
then  a  railway  in  existence, — save  the  'tram  roads'  in 
and  about  the  mines  of  Newcastle, — and  to  those  who 
understood  this  how  much  like  the  merest  vagaries  of  the 
imagination  must  Mr.  Miner's  confident  hope  have 
seemed.  And  yet  it  has  been  more  than  realized.  His 
grand-children  have  indeed  not  only  lived  to  see  that 
very  railroad  and  canal  completed,  but  he  has  lived  to 
see  it  himself,  finished  and  in  use;  and  more  than  this, — 
he  has  lived  to  see  rot  only  that  particular  railway  and 
canal,  but  also  five  other  railroads  and  two  other  canals 
diverging  from  this  valley  to  the  great  coal  marts  of  the 
country!  [.-^nd  since  the  above  was  written  a  railroad 
has  been  made  north  by  the  side  of  the  canal;  two 
others  south  to  the  seaboard  cities  and  beside  the 
Lehigh  canal;  and  the  construction  of  two  others  has 
also  been  commenced,  leading  into  the  valley  from 
different  directions  and  by  new  routes.] 

"But  the  result  of  Mr.  Miner's  investigations,  and  of 
his  explorations  of  the  Lehigh  at  that  early  day,  was  the 
hope    that    even      then    coal    could    be   got   down    the 
Lehigh  river  to  Philadelphia  in  arks  from  Mauch  Chunk; 
and  in   December  of  1813    he,  in   company  with  Messrs. 
Cist  and  Robinson,  of  Wilkes-Barre,  leased  the  mines  at 
Mauch  Chunk  and  made  arrangements  to  try  the  experi- 
ment.    Mr.  Robinson  withdrew  early  from  their  company. 
"  Of  Mr.    Miner   I   need   hardly  speak  in   this  commu- 
nity.    For  a  number  of  years  he  represented  old  Luzerne 
(then  embracing  all  of   northeastern  Pennsylvania)  in  the 
Legislature  of  the  State.     Subsequently  he  represented 
Lancaster,  Chester   and    Delaware  counties  in  Congress; 
having  for  his  colleague  James  Buchanan,  now  President 
of  the  United  States.     In    1S32  he  returned  to  his   early 
home,  and  is  still   with   us,  enjoying  happily,  at   his   Re- 
treat, the  evening  of  a  long  and  well  spent  life;  the  valued 
friend  of  all  about  him;  and  all  are  friends  of  his  in  return. 
"Jacob    Cist,   Esq.,  who  was  associated    with  him   in 
their    Mauch  Chunk  enterprise,  was  the  son  of  Charles 
Cist,  who  with  Robert  Morris  and  others  had  formed  the 
Lehigh      Coal      Mine    Company.        He     came    to    this 
valley      in       his     youth,     and      commenced     the     mer- 
cantile     business       in       this      town;       but       he      was 
devoted  to  scientific  studies  and  held  a  wide  correspond- 
ence with    scientific   men.      He  understood  better  than 
any  other  gentleman  of  his  day  the  geology  of  this  region. 
Highlv  ajjpreciating  its  coal,  and  clearly  forseeing  its  im- 
portance, he  was  ever  ready  to  jiromote  its  appreciation 
abroad;  and  great  reason  have  his  respected  descendants 
in  this  valley  to   bless   his  honored   memory,  his  sound 
judgment   and   far-seeing  forecast,  verified   in    his   short 
life  by  his  wise  and  ample  provision  for  them  in  the  pur- 
chase of  coal  land. 






"We  speak  of  these  gentlemen  thus  particularly  be- 
cause their  undertaking  was  depreciated  at  the  time,  and 
the  gentlemen  themselves  subject  to  ridicule  by  those 
whom  their  foresight,  courage  and  enterprise  greatly 

Mr.  Miner  lived  to  see,  years  after  the  lectures  were 
read  before  the  Historical  and  Oeological  Sociey,  the 
whole  of  this  splendid  im[)rovenient  upon  the  upper 
Lehigh  swept  away  by  a  flood,  with  all  his  cherished  the- 
ories of  interior  water  transportation  for  articles  of  bulk 
and  of  small  value;  and  railroads,  ciieapened  by  improved 
machinery,  taking  its  place  on  both  banks  of  the  Lehigh, 
doing  a  business  in  amount  far  beyond  the  wildest  of  his 
early  dreams.  Mr.  Charles  Cist,  the  father  of  Jacob  Cist, 
Mr.  Richardson  speaks  of  in  his  memoir  of  Joseph  White 
as  "an  intelligent  painter."  It  is  not  unlikely  that  he  was 
both  editor  and  painter,  and  from  him  his  son  inherited 
his  genius  and  his  taste  for  the  fine  arts.  In  early  life 
Jacob  Cist,  while  generously  assisting  a  refugee  from  over 
the  Atlantic,  who  was  in  ill  health,  came  in  possession  of 
an  old  painting  brought  from  abroad.  After  his  decease 
his  family  discovered  that  it  was  of  great  value,  jjrobably 
the  original  of  Rubens's  "Susanna  and  the  Elders." 
E.xact  copies  of  it  are  found  among  the  engravings  in 
foreign  art  galleries,  but  the  original  is  nowhere  else  to  be 
discovered.  As  an  original  Rubens  it  is  almost  priceless — 
the  next  in  value   to  anthracite  coal,  to  wiiich  we  return. 

In  1818  an  act  was  passed  by  the  Legislature  to  improve 
the  navigation  of  the  river  Lehigh,  granting  to  White, 
Hauto  &:  Hazard  some  members  said,  the  o])portimity  of 
ruining  themselves)  privileges  "  now  considered  of  such 
immense  magnitude  that  they  ought  ne\er  to  have  been 
granted,  and  which  those  gentlemen  were,  at  that  time, 
pointed  at  as  extremely  visionary,  and  even  crazy,  for 
accepting."     The  history  says  : 

**  The  stock  of  this  comi>an.v  was  sub.scribod  for  on  comlition  ttiat  a 
committee  slioulil  imicecil  to  the  Lchiirh  ami  satisfy  themselves  that 
the  actual  state  of  affairs  correipondeil  with  the  representation  of  theni. 
The  committee  consisted  of  two  of  our  most  re*pectal)le  citizens,  both 
men  of  nuicli  mechanical  skill  and  ingenuity.  They  repaired  to  Maiich 
Chunk,  visited  the  coal  mines,  and  then  built  a  batleau  at  I^ausiinne.  in 
which  they  desi'cnded  the  I.ehi$ch  ami  maile  their  observations.  They 
both  cami'  to  the  conclusion,  and  so  reported,  that  the  improvement  of 
the  navigation  was  perfectly  practicable;  and  that  it  would  not  c.vceed 
the  cost  of  J.')l),()0(l,  as  estimated,  but  that  the  maklntr  of  a  (food  road  to 
the  mines  was  utterly  impossil»le;  for,  added  one  of  them,  to  »rive  you 
an  iilca  of  the  country  oxer  which  the  road  is  to  pass,  I  need  only  tell 
you  that  I  cimsidered  it  ipiitoan  casement  when  the  wheel  of  my  car- 
r'lBiie  struck  a  stump  instead  of  a  stone." 

This  report,  of  course,  voided  the  subscription  to  the 
joint  stock. 

The  Lehigh  Navigation  Company  was  organized  on 
the  loth  of  August,  1818,  with  a  capital  of  two  hundred 
thousand  dollars,  in  two  hundred  shares  of  stock. 

The  Lehigh  Coal  Company  was  organized  on  the  21st 
of  October  following,  for  the  purpose  of  mining  coal, 
making  a  road  to  the  river  and  taking  the  coal  to  market. 
This  arose  from  a  diversity  of  opinion  as  to  the  relative 
profits  of  the  two  interests. 

It  was  thought  and  suggested  that  the  trade  of  the 
Susquehanna  could  be  diverted  by  land  carriage  over  the 
turnpike  already  made  from  Berwick,  only  thirty  miles 
distant,  and    turned    to   Philadelphia.     These   far-seeing 

men  already  imagined  the  Oanvillc,  Hazlelon  and  Wilkes- 
Barre  Railroad,  as  well  as  the  Lehigh  and  Susi|uehanna 
road.  They  said:  "By  the  Sustpiehanna  and  Lehigh 
the  western  counties  of  New  York  will  be  nearer,  in 
point  of  expense,  to  Philadelphia  than  to  Albany,  and 
consei|uently  a  large  portion  of  the  produce  which  now 
goes  down  the  North  river  to  New  York  may  be  calcu 
lated  on  for  the  supply  of  Philadelphia." 

Reaching  the  North  river  by  the  Oanville,  Hazleton 
i\:  Wilkes-Barre  Railroad,  and  the  Eastern  States  by  a 
bridge  over  that  stream  at  Poughkeepsie,  must  certainly 
have  been  beyond  their  most  acute  mental  visions.  Yet 
the  corner  stone  of  that  bridge  was  laid  in  1873. 

In  soliciting  subscriptions  to  stock,  Stephen  (iirard 
said  "he  formed  no  partnerships,"  and  declined.  Joseph 
Bonaparte  respectfully  declined,  by  letter  through  his 
secretary.  One  wrote  "that  his  Wilkes-Barre  friends  be- 
lieved we  could  not  be  in  earnest  in  our  navigation." 

In  the  spring  of  1820  the  ice  severely  injured  several 
of  the  dams  and  more  money  was  needed.  This  resulted 
in  the  purchase  of  Hauto's  interest  by  White  iV  Hazard. 
In  April  the  two  companies  amalgamated  their  interests 
and  united  under  the  title  of  The  Lehigh  Navigation  and 
Coal  Company;  the  navigation  was  repaired  and  three 
hundred  and  si.xty-five  tons  of  coal  sent  to  Philadelphia, 
as  the  first  fruits  of  the  concern.  This  overstocked  the 
market  and  was  with  difficulty  disposed  of. 

By  a  new  arrangement  made  the  first  of  May,  1821,  the 
title  of  the  company  was  again  changed,  to  the  Lehigh 
Coal  and  Navigation  ('ompany;  the  capital  stock  was  in- 
creased and  White  i\:  Hazard  released  to  the  company 
all  th(Mr  reserved  rights  in  consideration  of  certain  shares 
of  stock  given  to  them;  the  company  assuming  the  set- 
tlement of  Hauto's  claim  upon  White  iV  Hazard  arising 
from  the  purchase  of  his  interest  the  preceding  year. 

George  F.  A.  Hauto,  whose  wealthy  friends  had  been 
relied  on  to  furnish  capital,  may  not  have  been  a  capital- 
ist, but  he  was  evidently  a  very  shrewd  man.  Mr.  Rich- 
ardson, in  a  note  to  his  memoirs  of  Josiah  White,  says 
that  "  Hauto  was  a  German,  and  had  insinuated  himself 
into  their  confidence  by  his  pretensions  to  wealth  and  in- 
flueiice.  He  had  to  be  bought  off  at  a  considerable 
pecuniary  sacrifice."  The  exact  terms  of  his  agreement 
at  settling  are  not  at  hand.  He  was  to  receive  a  certain 
royalty  per  ton,  or  bushel.  A  letter  from  Mr.  Richard- 
son conveys  the  following  information  upon  this  point: 

"  I  have  a.scertalncd  from  some  of  Jojdnh  While's  old  dixunienl-  that 
hi  the  spriiiir  of  IIO).  to  (fi't  out  of  the  coni-ern.  White  and  lla/jird  a»fn-.'<l 
to  srive  him  a  royally  of  half  a  cent  a  bushel  <m  nil  itwl  mini-.!  and  «eiil 
to  market,  for  his  Interest  In  their  partnership.  Iliiulo  afterwanl  nl- 
lemplcl  to  form  what  was  ewlli-d  'The  Half  I'enI  Ciiinpany.'  and  liwiicl 
shares  of  stock,  of  which  he  sohl  in  his  lirelliiH-  lr1M  shiin.ii.  which,  ax 
the  par  prliw  of  hfs  sti«'k  was  $!*>.  would  have  »mounle<l  to  {49,71111.  Thb" 
stock  was  irlven.  It  wassnUI,  in  payment  of  his  delns,  and  at  a  heavy 
discount  on  the  par  value,  pndiably  at  any  rate  the  partlra  would  take 
them  at,  aiKl  It  was  Ihouirhl  hedlil  not  niallK' inn   ■  i     Thii-<im- 

pany  afKTward.  In  IKKI.  hoUKhl  the  niyully  foi  I   upon  In.- 

Iwcen  them,  but  I  do  not  know   the  IlKun-s.     I    ; -    :....i!o  was  then 


.Assuming  anthracite  coal  to  average  twenty-five  bu^''  !  = 
to  the  ton,  the  royalty  would  amount  to  one  York  sh. 
or   I2j4  cents,  which   would   give   Mr.  Hauto,  upon  the 
tonnage  of  the  company  reported  for  1879.  an  income  oi 




$87,250.  It  paid  upon  the  total  tonnage  of  the  Lehigh 
and  Susquehanna  Railroad  and  Lehigh  Canal  in  1S79,  it 
would  be  1^20,000,  nearly. 

The  rocky  and  stumpy  road  to  the  summit  mines  is 
now  the  bed  of  the  Switchback  railroad,  growing  so 
famous  among  tourists  and  e.xcursionists  to  the  "Switz- 
erland of  America."  In  1826  it  was  decided  to  make  a 
railroad  along  the  turnpike  as  a  measure  of  economy. 
The  only  railroad  in  the  United  States  was  one  of  three 
miles  to  the  Quincy  granite  quarries.  This  road  from 
Mauch  Chunk  was  nine  miles  in  length,  completed  in 
May,  1826,  with  a  descent  all  the  way  from  beyond  the 
summit  mines  to  the  river.  The  empty  wagons  were 
taken  back  to  the  mines  by  mules,  which  rode  down  in 
special  cars  attached  to  the  coal  trains,  running  by  gravity. 
He  was  a  sturdy  man  who  could  prevent  a  mule  from  en- 
tering his  pleasure  car,  which  was  also  his  dining  car, 
when  detached  from  the  traces. 

This  improvement,  increasing  the  facilities  for  produc- 
tion of  coal,  rendered  further  improvement  of  the  naviga- 
tion desirable,  and,  the  Delaware  division  of  the  Pennsyl- 
vania Canal  having  been  decided  upon,  it  was  determined 
to  construct  a  canal  and  slack  water  navigation  from 
Mauch  Chunk  to  Easton.  Mr.  Canvass  White,  whose 
reputation  as  an  engineer  stood  high,  recommended  a 
canal  of  the  ordinary  size  to  accommodate  boats  of  twenty- 
five  tons.  The  acting  managers  wisely  overruled  this, 
arguing  that  the  same  number  of  hands  could  manage  a 
boat  carrying  a  hundred  and  fifty  tons,  requiring  but  one 
additional  horse  to  tow  it;  the  whole  cargo  being  coal, 
which  could  always  be  furnished,  and  the  expense  per  ton 
be  very  much  reduced.  The  Delaware  division  unl'ortun- 
ately  was  but  half  the  size,  and  when  both  were  com- 
pleted two  boats  of  the  Delaware  could  pass  the  Lehigh 
locks.  The  compa-.iy  suffered  by  this  short-sighted  policy, 
which  the  managers,  ascribing  it  to  the  "  experience  of 
Europe,"  said,  "had  thwarted  a  noble  work  by  which 
sloops  and  schooners  would,  at  this  day,  have  taken  in 
their  cargoes  at  White  Haven,  seventy-one  miles  up  the 
Lehigh,  and  have  delivered  them,  without  transhipment, 
at  any  of  our  Atlantic  ports. 

This  "experience  of  Europe,"  acquired  among  the 
narrow  and  slow  canals  which  had  proved  so  profitable  in 
England,  operated  against  the  early  trade  of  the  Dela- 
ware and  Hudson  Canal  Company  almost  as  disastrously, 
as  will  be  seen  in  the  history  of  our  eastern  trade.  En- 
gineers and  capitalists  are,  perhaps,  still  too  prone  to  look 
back,  if  not  now  upon  the  "experience  of  Europe"  yet 
upon  the  disastrous  past,  and  only  perceive  when  elevated 
upon  the  advancing  tide  of  commerce  of  the  present 
how  limited  were  their  vision  and  knowledge  during  the 
past  years.  There  are,  however,  brilliant  exceptions  to  all 

By  act  of  the  Legislature  March  13,  1837.  the  com- 
pany was  authorized  to  construct  a  railroad  to  connect 
their  Lehigh  navigation  with  the  north  branch  of  the 
Susq'uehanna  at  or  near  Wilkes  Barre,  and  the  capital 
stock  was  increased  to  $1,600,000,  at  the  same  time  re- 
pealing so  much  of  the  former  act  as  required   the  com- 

pletion of  a  slack  water  navigation  between  White  Haven 
and  Stoddardsville,  which  had  been  placed  under  charge 
of  Edwin  .A.  Douglass,  Est].,  engineer,  in  1835. 

Commissioners  ap[)ointed  by  the  governor  in  1S38  to 
inspect  the  work — Samuel  Breck,  Nathan  Beach  and 
Owen  Rice — reported  on  the  12th  day  of  June,  after 
thorough  examination,  that  "  the  company  having  now 
fully  complied  with  the  law,  and  in  a  manner  honorable 
to  themselves,  and  (as  Pennsylvanians  the  undersigned 
say,  with  pride)  most  honorable  to  the  State,  we  deem 
them  entitled  to  a  license  for  charging  and  collecting  the 
legal  toll." 

It  may  not  be  out  of  place  in  this  history  of  the  coal 
trade  to  give  the  dimensions  of  one  of  the  locks — No.  27, 
called  Pennsylvania  lock — on  this  once  magnificent  im- 
provement, the  pride  of  the  Lehigh,  on  which  so  many 
hopes  of  this  Luzerne  region  had  been  based,  as  reported 
by  the  commissioners  :  "  Twenty-seven  feet  thickness  of 
solid  wall  at  the  bottom  and  ten  feet  on  the  top  ;  thirty 
feet  lift,  three  feet  working  guard  ;  chamber  twenty  feet 
in  width  ind  one  hundred  feet  in  length,  eighty-six  feet 
clear  of  the  swing  of  the  gates,  and  containing  nine  thou- 
sand nine  hundred  and  seventy-two  cubic  yards  of  ma- 
sonry, and  two  hundred  and  forty  two  thousand  four 
hundred  and  nineteen  feet,  board  measure,  of  timber 
work  ;  and  the  largest  dams  being  of  the  height  of  fifty- 
eight  feet  and  of  the  width  of  one  hundred  and  ninety 
feet  at  the  combing."  This  lock  and  dam  sustained  no 
serious  injury  by  the  great  flood  of  June,  1862,  which 
destroyed  the  navigation  from  White  Haven  to  Mauch 

The  Lehigh  and  Susquehanna  Railroad  was  completed 
in  time  for  shipment  of  five  thousand  eight  hundred  and 
eighty-six  tons  from  Wyoming  in  1846. 

How  many  active  men  of  this  region  labored  in  early 
years  for  the  Lehigh  Coal  and  Navigation  Company, 
earning  bread  and  comfortable  homes  and  money  to  pay 
taxes,  and  held  its  name  and  those  of  Josiah  White  and 
Erskine  Hazard  in  pleasant  remembrance  as  household 
words  long  after  the  tardy  action  of  the  commonwealth 
had  given  promise  and  hopes  for  the  future  progress  of 
its  improvements  on  the  Susquehanna  ! 

The  Beaver  Meadow  railroad,  chartered  in  1830,  was 
finished  in  1S36,  extending  from  the  Beaver  Meadow 
coal  basin  which  is  partly  in  Luzerne  county,  to  its 
shipping  point  on  the  canal  six  miles  below  Mauch 
Chunk,  a  distance  of  twenty-five  miles  to  Parryville. 

The  Hazleton  railroad,  commenced  in  1836,  connected 
with  the  Beaver  Meadow  road  at  Weatherly,  half  way  to 
the  Lehigh,  and  the  Hazleton  coal  was  shipped  on  the 
canal  at  Penn  Haven.  The  old  jilanes  are  seen  as  you 
pass  the  mouth  of  the  Quakake  creek  at  Penn  Haven,  de- 
caying relics  of  the  past,  in  the  midst  of  the  progress, 
bustle  and  active  business  rivalry  of  competing  railroads 
of  the  present.  Instead  of  the  lonely  wilderness  described 
by  Josiah  White  in  1818,  when  with  Erskine  Hazard 
they  "leveled  the  river  fiom  Stoddardsville  to  Easton, 
the  ice  not  having  all  disapjjeared,  there  being  no  house 
between  the  former  place  and   Lausanne,  obliging  us  to 

-  /3 

f-^^      /  , )  ^^yp-i^  vl^Cy 




lie  out  in  the  woods  all  night,"  now  the  whistles  of  a 
hundred  locomotives  startle  the  echoes  of  the  hills  by 
day  and  by  night. 

Mr.  White  says  :  "  .Above  the  gap  in  the  Hlue  moun- 
tain, there  were  but  thirteen  houses,  including  the 
towns  of  Lausanne  and  l.chighton,  within  sight  from  the 
river,  and  for  thirty-five  miles  above  Lausanne  there  was 
no  sign  of  a  human  habitation;  everything  was  in  a  state 
of  nature." 

The  coal  trade  of  I.u/erne  receives  full  benefit  of  the 
labors  of  the  pioneers  on  the  Lehigh,  and  its  history  would 
be  but  partially  written  and  incomplete  without  this 
record  of  their  enterprise.  The  various  basins  of 
anthracite  coal  found  in  the  townships  of  Ha/.le,  Foster, 
Butler,  Black  Creek,  and  jjossibly  across  the  boundary 
lines  of  adjoining  townships  in  the  southern  portion  of 
the  county,  furnish  annually  between  three  and  four  mil- 
lions of  tons  to  the  trade,  of  wliic  h  the  Lehigh  Valley 
Railroad,  opened  in  1855,  perhaps  carries  two-thirds. 

A  contract  was  entered  into  between  the  Lehigh  ("oal 
and  Navigation  Company  and  the  Central  Railroad  Com- 
pany of  New  Jersey  on  the  31st  day  of  March,  187 1,  by 
which  the  latter  company  became  lessee  of  the  railroads  of 
the  former  company,  agreeing  to  pay  one-third  of  the 
gross  receipts  as  rental.  The  cost  of  transportation  of 
coal,  the  chief  item  of  tonnage,  was  to  be  regulated  by  the 
price  at  which  it  was  sold. 

At  the  close  of  the  year  1873  tlie  coal  lands  of  the 
company  were  leased  to  the  Lehigh  and  Wilkes-Barre 
Coal  Company,  which  was  formed  by  the  consolidation 
of  the  Honeybrook  Coal  Company  and  the  Wilkes-Barre 
Coal  and  Iron  Company,  at  a  minimum  rental  of  five 
hundred  thousand  dollars  $500,000),  on  a  royalty  of 
twenty-one  per  cent,  of  the  price  ruling  at  Mauch  Chunk. 
This  included  lands  in  Luzerne  as  well  as  those  upon  the 
Lehigh.  At  the  same  time  it  was  agreed  that  the  Central 
Railroad  of  New  Jersey  should  ojierate  the  canals  of  the 
Lehigh  Company  from  Mauch  Chunk  to  Easton  and  the 
Delaware  division  purchased  at  the  sale  of  the  State 
works,  paying  a  fixed  rental  of  §200,000  for  their  use. 

The  stroke  of  apoplexy  which  prostrated  the  whole 
civilized  business  world,  the  first  attack  occurring  in  the 
failure  of  J.  Cooke  iV  Co.,  in  1873,  drove  the  Central 
Railroad  of  New  Jersey  into  the  hands  of  a  receiver.  The 
leased  canals  were  abandoned  and  with  the  Lehigh  coal 
lands  passed  again  into  the  hands  of  the  original  owners, 
who  became  once  more  a  mining  and  transporting  com- 

The  railroad  now  recognized  as  the  Lehigh  and  Sus- 
(juehanna  division  of  the  Central  Railroad  of  New  Jersey 
includes  the  Nanticoke  Railroad  and  the  Baltimore  Coal 
and  Iron  Railroad,  extending  from  Nanticoke,  on  the 
pool  at  the  head  of  the  Suscjuehanna  Canal,  by  the  foot 
of  the  planes  and  the  light  track,  to  its  junction  with  the 
Delaware  and  Hudson  Canal  Company's  Railroad  at 
Green  Ridge  in  the  City  of  Scranton,  now  the  seat  of  jus- 
tice of  the  new  county  of  Lackawanna.  Passing  through 
the  townships  of  Newport,  Hanover,  Wilkes-Barre,  Plains, 
Jenkins,  Pittston  and  Lackawanna;  connecting  at  Wilkes- 

Barre  with  the  tracks  of  the  Plymouth  and  Wilkes- Barn- 
Railroad  and  Bridge  Company,  and  opening  as  it  does 
the  heart  of  this  northern  coal  field,  the  New  Jersc\ 
road  becomes  an  important  factor  in  the  problem  of  our 
future  coal  trade. 

Near  White  Haven  the  Nescopeck  branch  brings  ton- 
nage to  the  Central  from  the  I'ppcr  Lehigh  mines  in  the 
C.reen  Mountain  basin,  and  from  the  Sandy  Run  mine^ 
in  the  Little  Black  Creek  basin.  A  few  miles  below  the 
Sandy  Run  branch  affords  outlet  to  other  mines  of  the 
Little  Black  Creek  at  Ecklcy,  Jeddo,  Milnesville,  Eber- 
vale,  Cross  Creek,  Highland,  etc.,  all  producing  largely. 

The  Hazlelon  and  Beaver  Meadow  road,  merged  in  the 
Lehigh  Valky  Railroad,  affords  outlet  from  thcHa/letcn, 
a  portion  of  the  Beaver  Meadow,  and  the  Black  Creek 
basins  in  southern  Luzerne. 

.\sa  Packer,  native  of  Connecticut,  a  carpenter  by 
trade,  acciuired  in  Susquehanna  county,  whither  he  had 
traveled  on  foot  from  his  eastern  home,  when  a  young 
man,  found  work  upon  the  Lehigh,  where  his  keen  fore- 
sight had  play  and  his  great  energy  of  character  and  in- 
domitable will  material  to  work  upon.  He  acquired  coal 
property  and  projected  a  railroad  to  carry  his  coal  to 
market  from  ihe  Hazleton  region.  Following  the  river, 
his  line  absorbed  the  Beaver  Meadow  road,  already  in 
operation  from  Parryville  to  Penn  Haven,  where  it  re- 
ceived coal  from  the  now  abandoned  planes.  Crossing 
the  Lehigh  at  that  point,  the  towing  path  of  the  ui>pcr 
navigation  occupying  the  west  bank,  his  road  followed  on 
the  east  side  to  a  point  opposite  White  Haven,  where  by 
a  substantial  liridge  it  joined  the  Lehigh  and  Susipiehanna 
railroad  at  its  southern  terminus,  and  thus  had  uninter- 
rupted communication  by  rail  with  the  great  Wyoming 
coal  field,  and  transjiorlation  without  transhipment  to 
tide  water. 

All  this  was  not  accomplished  without  opposition,  and 
when,  after  the  disastrous  flood  of  1862,  which  swept 
away  the  upper  division  of  its  navigation,  the  Lehigh  Coal 
and  Navigation  (Company  decided  to  abandon  the  water 
and  extend  its  Lehigh  and  Susquehanna  Railroad  from 
White  Haven  along  its  towing  |)ath  to  Mauch  Chunk,  the 
head  of  its  canal,  competition  between  the  companies 
developed  into  keen  rivalry  for  room  and  right  of  way 
along  the  narrow  passes  where  there  had  been  scant  room 
for  a  towing  path.  The  Lehigh  Valley  Company,  crossing 
from  the  east  to  the  west  side  above  Mauch  Chunk,  occu 
pied  available  s|)ace  by  numerous  sidings  to  accommodate 
its  growing  trade  from  the  (Juakake  branch  at  Penn 
Haven,  and  the  Lehigh  and  Susquehanna  road  had  to 
draw  upon  the  east  bank  of  the  stream  at  low  water  for 
material  to  make  room  for  its  tracks  in  the  channel,  along 
side  its  rival. 

The  Lehigh  Valley  Company  met  tins  new  pri)jii  i  l>y 
pushing  the  road  northward  from  White  Haven  to  Wilkes- 
Barre  in  1866,  competing  with  the  Lehigh  and  Sn 
hanna  road  for  through  freight.  A  little  incident,  <. «.  .; 
ing  at  the  time  and  now  amusing,  will  show  to  what  heat 
the  friction  of  jarring  interests  had  carried  the  immedi- 
ate contestants.     The  Lehigh  Valley  road  united  «ltli  th.- 




Lehigh  and  Susquehanna  road  at  grade,  the  bridge  hav- 
ing been  built,  of  course,  with  a  view  to  amicable  trade. 
A  long  construction  train  of  gravel  cars  crossed  the 
bridge  one  evening,  and  was  shunted  upon  the  rival 
road  with  tools  of  all  kinds,  ready  to  begin  operations  on 
the  new  road,  the  high  bluff  on  the  \\'hite  Haven  side  at 
the  crossing  precluding  any  other  arrangement  In  the 
early  morning  an  energetic  employe  of  the  Navigation 
Company  observed  this  intrusion,  and  taking  an  old  loco- 
motive up  the  track  with  a  full  head  of  steam,  he  let  it 
loose  upon  the  innocently  offending  train,  and  butted  it 
into  the  Lehigh,  a  heap  of  ruins.  The  immediate  result 
is  not  remembered,  but  it  is  a  curious  fact,  illustrating, 
perhaps,  the  admiration  of  Judge  Packer  for  pluck  and 
energy,  that  the  chief  responsible  actor  in  that  day's 
drama  has  almost  from  that  time  been  in  the  service  of 
the  Lehigh  Valley  Railroad  Company. 

'I"h2  navigation  company  improved  the  planes  at  Solo- 
mon's Gap,  and  for  convenience  of  returning  trains  of 
empty  cars,  light  freight  and  passenger  traffic,  made  a 
light  track  for  locomotive  power  from  the  head  of  the 
planes  north  by  the  Laurel  Run  Gap  and  back  to  the  foot 
of  the  planes,  a  distance  of  thirteen  miles,  to  overcome 
the  steep  mountain  grade  by  the  planes  some  three  miles. 
The  steepest  grade  of  the  back  track  is  ninety-si.x  feet 
to  the  mile.  It  was  considered  by  many  to  be  an  almost 
impossible  feat  in  engineering,  but  it  was  successfully  ac- 
complished under  the  supervision  of  Dr.  Charles  F. 
Ingham,  of  Wilkes-Barre,  an  able  and  experienced  en- 
gineer, at  what  cost  cannot  be  now  stated.  It  w^ould  be 
curious  to  coinpare  old  and  modern  estimates  of  cost 
and  trade  through  Solomon's  Gap  and  the  Lehigh. 

In  1833  the  Legislature  appointed  Messrs.  George  M. 
Hollenback,  Andrew  Beaumont,  Henry  F.  Lamb,  \V.  S. 
Ross,  Charles  Miner,  Samuel  Thomas,  Joseph  P.  Le 
Clerc,  Elias  Hoyt,  Benjamin  A.  Bidlack,  E.  Carey,  Bate- 
man  Downing,  Ziba  Bennett,  Jedediah  Irish,  Thomas 
Craig,  D.  D.  Wagner,  Azariah  Prior,  Daniel  Parry,  Lewis 
S.  Coryell,  Joseph  D.  Murray,  John  C.  Parry,  William  C. 
Livingston,  Benjamin  W.  Richards,  Robert  G.  Martin, 
Joshua  Lippincott  and  Lewis  Ryan  commissioners  of 
ihe  Wyoming  and  Lehigh  Railroad  Company,  who  em- 
ployed Henry  Colt  and  Dr.  C.  F.  Ingham,  civil  engineers, 
to  examine  the  route  through  Solomon's  Gap  and  report. 
The  elevation  of  the  summit  above  the  borough  of  Wilkes- 
Barre  was  found  to  be  twelve  hundred  and  fifty-one  (1,25  i) 
feet,  and  above  the  Lehip;h  si.x  hundred  and  four  (604)  feet, 
and  the  distance  between  the  two  points  about  fourteen 
("14)  miles.  Grading  for  a  double  track  was  recommended, 
with  a  single  track  at  first.  The  estimated  cost  of  grad- 
ing double  track  on  the  western  division,  eight  miles,  was 
$20,250;  from  the  summit  to  the  Lehigh,  six  miles  and  a 
quarter,  $12,850 — total,  $33,100;  and  for  engineering  and 
unforeseen  contigencies  twelve  per  cent.  $3,962;  and  we 
have  the  cost  of  graduation,  $37,062.  Average  cost 
per  mile,  $2,647.28.  Cost  of  one  mile  of  superstruc- 
ture, timber,  iron  rail  plates,  connecting  plates  and  labor, 
with  one  turnout,  $3,805.50.  Average  cost  of  railroad 
per    mile,    $6,452.78.      Cost  of    14^^    miles,  $91,952.11. 

Cost  of  four  inclined  planes,  $4,000  each,  $16,000.  To- 
tal, $107,952.1 1.  Estimate  made  in  view  of  the  use  of 
steam  for  locomotives  and  stationary  power.  The  com- 
missioners, in  an  address  to  the  public,  say:  "  Persons  of 
intelligence  and  capacity  to  judge  estimate  that  two 
hundred  thousand  tons  of  coal  and  three  million  feet  of 
lumber,  at  least,  will  pass  along  this  road  to  New  York 
and  Philadelphia  from  the  vicinity  of  Wilkes-Barre,  which 
now  remain  undisturbed  where  nature  placed  them  ;  and 
the  great  and  increasing  trade  of  the  Susquehanna, which 
now  goes  to  Baltimore,  will  be  diverted  to  New  York  and 
Philadelphia."  The  estimated  tolls  upon  coal  and  lum- 
ber would  exceed  $47,000.  Coal  could  be  delivered  at 
Easton  at  $2.82  per  ton. 

At  that  day,  with  rails  of  wood  covered  with  a  flat  strap- 
iron  rail,  operated  by  horse  power,  solid  road  beds  were 
not  so  necessary  as  they  are  now.  The  Little  Schuylkill 
railroad  ran  a  light  locomotive  on  such  a  track,  but  not 
with  success.  So,  too,  the  Delaware  and  Hudson  Canal 
Company  with  its  first  imported  locomotive,  a  mere  teapot 
in  comparicon  with  those  of  modern  |)attern,  failed  be- 
cause too  heavy  for  the  road.  These  estimates,  ridiculous 
as  they  seem  in  the  light  of  modern  experience,  were  in 
accordance  with  the  necessities  of  the  times  and  the  pros- 
pects they  had  of  accomplishing  a  deliverance  in  that 
direction.  The  coal  trade  of  the  year  ];receding  did  not 
reach  three  hundred  thousand  tons  from  all  the  regions. 
The  year  before  the  company  put  their  road  under  con- 
tract the  trade  was  nearly  seven  hundred  thousand  tons. 

From  the  beginning  the  course  of  the  anthracite  coal 
trade  has  seemed  to  baffle  all  calculations,  even  to  the 
year  1880;  and  those  who  look  back  see  many  wrecks, 
while  in  danger  themselves  of  meeting  the  same  fate  trom 
want  of  faith  in  the  future. 

The  failure  of  a  loan  in  England,  to  meet  the  cost  of 
improvements  to  make  good  its  loss  of  the  upper  naviga- 
tion, and  the  sums  thrown  away  in  useless  opposition  to 
its  rival  roads,  overwhelmed  the  Lehigh  Coal  and  Navi- 
gation Company,  and  its  works  passed  into  other  hands, 
to  be  resumed  as  already  stated.  A  modicum  of  the  good 
sense  of  the  early  projectors  might  have  shown  them  that 
there  is  room  enough  and  market  enough  for  all,  and  that 
competition  for  the  coal  trade  must  be  open  for  the  ben- 
efit of  those  most  interested,  the  consuming  millions  scat- 
tered over  the  broad  Union  of  States,  from  the  great 
lakes  to  the  gulf,  and  from  the  Atlantic  far  beyond  the 
Mississippi,  even  to  the  Pacific  Ocean. 

The  comjjany  has  brighter  prospects  now,  and  may 
hope  to  realize  its  full  share  of  the  profits  of  the  future. 

The  growth  of  eastern  trade  from  the  Lackawanna, 
which  has  followed  and  rivals  that  of  the  Lehigh,  now 
demands  attention,  and  will  be  found  equally  curious  and 
interesting  in  its  development. 


The  Wyoming  coal  field  is  the  largest  and  most  north- 
ern anthracite  basin  of  Pennsylvania.  In  area  it  is  some- 
thing under  two  hundred  s(iuare  miles,  or  about  one  hun- 
dred and  twenty-seven  thousand  acres. 




Fifty  miles  in  length,  and  in  breadth  averaging  four 
miles,  it  extends  from  a  point  above  Heach  Orove,  on  the 
west  side  of  the  river  Susquehanna,  liaving  a  course 
about  northeast,  to  its  terminus  a  few  miles  above  Car- 

Resting  on  the  conglomerate  rock  of  bright  i)ebl)le 
stones  cemented  together,  which  lies  in  a  cradle  of  red 
shale,  its  boundaries  are  easily  traced  along  the  out- 
croppings  on  the  Kingston  mountain  on  the  west  and 
the  Wilkes-Barre  mountain  on  tlic  east,  while  the  sincli- 
nal  axis  or  trougli,  dijjping  under  the  river,  is  carried 
deep  below  the  rough  hills  of  the  lower  townships,  ris- 
ing gradually  with  an  irregular  formation  like  solidified 
waves,  until  its  measures  thin  out  and  disap|)ear  along 
the  head  waters  of  the  Lackawanna  river,  having  tlie 
shape  of  a  vast  canoe. 

The  Sus(|uehanna  forces  its  way  through  the  western 
boundary  at  the  middle  of  the  basin,  where  it  receives 
the  waters  of  the  Lackawanna,  which  have  traversed  the 
upper  regions  of  the  basin's  trough,  and  together  they 
leave  it  at  Nanticoke,  taking  a  western  gorge  to  Shick- 
shinny,  where  the  stream  curves  and  crosses  the  lower 
Ijoint  of  the  coal  formation  on  its  course  to  the  ocean. 

The  cluster  of  small  basins  in  the   southern   townships 
of  Luzerne  county,  which  are  opened  by  the  Lehigh  im 
provements,  belong  to  the  second  or  middle  coal  field. 

While  Josiah  White,  Erskine  Hazard  and  other  enter- 
prising citizens  of  Philadelphia  were  seeking  the  black 
diamond  among  the  rugged  hills  of  the  Lehigh  to  its  upper 
waters  in  Luzerne  county,  and  were  solving  the  jjroblem 
of  its  value  as  a  fuel,  other  Philadeljihians  were  exploring 
the  northeastern  borders  of  the  county  for  mineral  coal, 
and  the  passes  of  the  Moosic  mountain  to  find  an  outlet 
by  the  waters  of  the  Lackavvaxen  and  Delaware  rivers  to 
eastern  markets. 

Mr,  William  Wurts  was  the  pioneer  "  who  first  con- 
ceived the  idea  of  transporting  coal  of  the  Lackawanna 
valley  to  market  by  an  eastern  route."  A  note  to  an  ar- 
ticle on  the  Delaware  and  Hudson  Canal  (-ompany  in 
"The  National  Magazine,"  .August,  1845,  for  which  ac- 
knowledgments are  due  to  .Mr.  Charles  F.  Wurts,  of  New 
Haven,  Conn.,  says:  "  With  such  views,  as  early  as  1844. 
and  while  that  valley  was  yet  an  unbroken  wilderness, 
without  road  or  bridle  path  above  Providence,  he  explored 
it  and  the  passes  of  the  Moosic  mountain  to  find  an  outlet 
to  the  Lackavvaxen  and  the  Delaware  rivers,  selecting  and 
purchasing  such  coal  lands  as  were  most  eligibly  situated 
in  reference  to  that  object." 

On  the  13th  of  March,  1823.  .\Laurice  Wurts  and  John 
Wurts,  who  had  conceived  the  bold  enterprise  of  con- 
structing a  railroad  and  canal  to  their  coal  lands  on  the 
Lackawanna  river  in  Luzerne  county,  procured  from  the 
Legislature  of  Pennsylvania  an  act  authorizing  ^L^urice 
Wurts  of  Philadelphia,  his  heirs  and  assigns,  etc.,  to  enter 
upon  the  river  Lackavvaxen,  or  any  streams  emptying 
into  the  same,  "to  make  a  good  and  safe  descending 
navigation  a/  least  once  in  every  six  days,  except  when  the 
same  may  be  obstructed  by  ice  or  flood,"  from  near  Wag- 
ner's Gap  in  Luzerne,  or  Rix's  Gap  in  Wayne  county,  to 

the  mouth  of  the  said  Lackawaxen.  "with  a  channel  not 
less  than  twenty  feet  wide  and  eighteen  inchesdcep  for  arks 
and  rafts,  and  of  sufllicient  depth  of  water  to  float    boats 
of  the  burthen  of  ten  tons."     Certainly  a    n)odesl    begin 

Forty  two  davs  after  this  act  of  Assem'oly  was  approved 
at  Harrisburg  the  Legislature  of  New  N'ork  passed  "an 
act  to  incorjiorate  the  president,  managers  and  con>pany 
of  the  Delaware  and  Hudson  Canal  Company,"  for  ihc 
expressed  purpose  of  forming  a  water  communication 
between  the  rivers  Delaware  and  Hudson,  so  that  a  sup- 
ply of  coal  might  be  obtained  from  large  bodies  of  tliK 
valuable  article  belonging  to  Maurice  Wurts,  of  the  Stati- 
of  Pennsylvania. 

liy  an  act  of  the  Pennsylvania  Legislature  approved 
.April  1st,  1825,  and  an  act  of  the  New  York  Legislature 
of  .April  2cth,  1825,  the  two  companies  were  consolidated 
and  reorganized  in  this  Stale  as  the  "  I'resident,  Manager- 
and  Company  of  the  Delaware  and  Hudson  Canal  Com- 
pany;" with  power  to  construct  and  maintain  such  rail- 
ways or  other  devices  as  may  be  fotmd  necessary  ii. 
provide  for  and  facilitate  the  transportation  of  coal  in 
the  canal. 

Tolls  upon  the  canal  were  not  to  exceed  eight  cents 
per  mile  "  for  every  ton  weight,"  and  on  the  railroad  a 
sum  not  exceeding  twelve  per  centum  per  annum  upon 
the  amount  of  money  which  shall  have  been  expended  in 
the  construction  of  said  railroad." 

Soon  after  the  consolidation  of  the  comjianies  work 
was  begun,  and  grounii  broken  on  the  13th  of  July.  1R26. 
Parts  of  the  New  York  section,  upon  which  work  was 
first  commenced,  were  being  finished  when  the  contractor 
began  worK  on  the  Pennsylvania  section,  which  runs  from 
Honesdale  to  the  mouth  of  the  Lackawaxen,  a  distance 
of  twenty-five  miles,  at  which  point  it  is  joined  to  tin- 
New  York  section  by, an  aqueduct  over  the  Delaware. 
The  length  of  the  canal  from  the  Delaware  to  the  Hud 
son  is  eighty-three  miles,  making  the  total  length  of  canal 
from  Honesdale  to  Rondout  one  hundred  and  eight  miles. 
The  act  of  Assembly  of  April  ist,  1825.  limited  the 
maximum  of  tolls  to  be  charged  on  stone  coal  to  one  cent 
and  a  half  per  ton  i)er  mile,  and  at  the  same  time  au- 
thorized the  company  to  assume  all  the  rights  originallv 
granted  to  Mr.  Wurts.  I'he  State  had  reserved  the  right 
to  resume  all  the  rights  and  privileges  granted  at  the  ex 
piration  of  thirty  years  from  the  date  of  the  law  of  March 
13th.  1823,  without  compensation  to  the  company  il  the 
tolls  received  had  already  repaid  the  original  cost  of  the 
canal,  with  six  per  cent,  upon  the  capital  invested. 

In  June,  1851,  a  committee  appointed  by  the  I-egisla- 
ture  to  investigate  the  affairs  of  the  Delaware  and  Hud 
son  Canal  Company  met  at  Honesdale  and  examined 
the  vice-president,  Mr.  Musgrave.  the  engineer,  Mr 
Russell  F.  Lord,  Mr.  Archliald.  Mr.  Thomas  H.  R.  Tra 
cy,  superintendent  of  the  Pennsylvania  division,  and 
others,  with  reference  to  time  of  completion,  cost,  tolls, 
income  and  capacity  of  the  canal. 

Mr.  Lord   testified  that  he    had  been  in  the  employ  of 
the  Delaware  and  Hudson  Canal  Company  about  twenty- 





five  years;  that  work  was  commenced  on  the  I'cnnsyh'a- 
nia  section  of  their  canal  in  1826  or  1827,  and  that  the 
contractors  were  at  work  in  its  construction  when  he 
came  as  resident  engineer  in  1827.  Boats  passed  from 
the  Hudson  to  the  Delaware  river  with  light  cargoes  in 
the  summer  of  1827,  and  over  the  whole  of  the  New 
York  section  in  1828,  when  bo.its  with  very  small  car- 
goes reached  Honesdale,  and  with  large  cargoes  in  1829. 
A  small  quantity  of  coal  left  Honesdale  in  1828.  The 
original  locks  on  the  Pennsylvania  section,  of  which  there 
were  thirty-seven  lift  locks  and  one  guard  lock  used, 
were  nine  feet  four  inches  in  width,  seventy-six  feet 
long,  and  from  nine  and  a  half  to  eleven  feet  lift.  Boats 
originally  crossed  the  Delaware  river  by  a  rope  ferry 
through  the  pool  of  the  dam.  'I'hc  aipieduct  was  first 
used  in  1849. 

Mr.  James  Archbald  testified  he  had  charge  of  the 
company's  mines  and  railroad.  He  had  been  in  employ- 
ment with  the  company  since  1825,  excepting  one  year. 
Boats  on  the  canal  originally  carried  from  twenty-five  to 
thirty  tons.  The  company  owned  lands  for  reservoirs  of 
water  to  supply  railroads  and  canals  in  a  dry  season,  in 
Lu/.erne  and  Wayne  counties.  There  were  four  reservoirs 
at  that  time.  They  had  nearly  two  thousand  men  em- 
ployed in  the  mines  and  on  the  railroad,  at  a  cost  of 
$1,800  to  $2,000  per  day.  There  were  already  over 
twenty-five  miles  of   underground   railroads  at  the  mines. 

Mr.  Tracy  said  there  were  eight  reservoirs  of  water  for 
the  use  of  the  canal,  independent  of  thosa  named  by  Mr. 
Archbald,  of    from  ten  to  three  hundred  acres. 

Mr.  Lord,  re-examined,  stated  the  number  of  locks  on 
the  New  York  section  of  the  canal  as  seventy-two  lift 
and  one  guard  lock,  fifteen  feet  wide,  one  hundred  feet 
long,  and  from  seven  to  twelve  feet  lift.  The  maximum 
of  tolls  in  New  York  was  eight  cents  per  ton  per  mile; 
on  the  Pennsylvania  section,  one  cent  and  a  half  per  ton 
per  mile.  The  company  charged  one  cent  and  a  half  per 
ton  on  the  New  York  side,  and  only  o/ie  half  cent  per  ton 
on  the  Pennsylvania  section,  making  no  allowance  to  the 
State  for  the  company's  own  coal  or  other  freight.  The 
amount  ex|)cnded  on  the  Pennsylvania  section,  including 
original  construction,  repairs  and  superintendence,  im- 
provement and  .general  enlargement  of  the  canal  from 
1828  to  Jul)'  17th,  1851,  was  $[,413,496.98.  There  was 
another  aqueduct  across  the  Lackawaxen  above  the  Del- 
aware aqueduct,  belonging  to  the  Pennsylvania  section. 
The  reason  given  for  the  discriminatioi  in  tolls  on  the 
two  sections  was  "  to  encourage  transportation  of  coal  by 
the  New  York  and  Erie  railrod,  which  does  not  come  so 
directly  in  competition  with  Hudson  river  markets."  The 
Erie  road  jjasses  along  the  Delaware,  crossing  the  Lacka- 
waxen on  the  Pennsylvania  side,  and  now  has  a  branch 
to  Honesdale,  passing  through  Hawley,  to  accommodate 
the  cDal  trade  by  the  Delaware  and  Hudson  and  Penn- 
sylvania Coal  Com|)anies'  roads. 

This  investigation  was  undertaken  ostensibly  with  the 
view  of  resumption  by  the  State,  which  had  passed  sev- 
eral acts  for  the  improvement  of  the  Delaware  river,  and 
had  completed  the   Delaware    division  of  its  canals   from 

Bristol,  in  Bucks  county,  to  tLaston,  in  Northampton 
county,  sixty  miles  in  length,  to  accommodate  the  Lehigh 
coal  trade;  and  apparently  on  its  way,  as  surveyed,  to 
Carpenter's  Point,  now  Port  Jervis,  a  few  miles  below  the 
mouth  of  the  Lackawaxen.  The  company  was  repre- 
sented by  Hon.  George  W.  Woodward  and  William  H. 
Dimmick  Escjs.,  as  counsel.  It  is  clear  that  whatever  the 
object,  the  investigation  did  not  lead  to  resumption,  and 
the  facts  as  elicited  are  given  to  show  the  progress  and 
condition  of  the  trade  toward  New  York  in  its  early 
stages.  From  the  Carbondale  mines  the  coal  was  carried 
over  the  mountain  on  a  gravity  road  of  a  single  track  to 
the  canal  at  Honesdale.  It  will  be  observed  that  "foreign 
experience"  had  operated  injuriously  in  the  east  and  at 
the  south,  and  the  canal  was  not  complete  at  its  twenty- 
five-ton  boat  capacity  until  the  necessity  of  enlargement 
became  evident.  Unfortunitely  it  is  not  in  constructing 
canals  alone  that  such  experience  operates  disastrously  in 
this  country.  But  that  is  not  a  subject  for  c[jmment  in 
this  portion  of  our  coal  trade  history. 

The  sites  of  both  Honesdale  and  Carbondale  were  in 
the  natural  state  of  our  northern  wilderness  when  ground 
was  broken  for  these  improvements.  Carbondale  in  1828 
contained  one  log  cabin,  built  to  shelter  Mr.  Wurts  in  his 
early  explorations.  It  is  now  a  flourishing  town,  having  a 
city  charter,  and  has  been  an  excellent  market  for  prod- 
ucts of  agriculture  from  townships  surroanding  it  for  half 
a  century. 

Honesdale  has  long  been  the  county  seat  of  Wayne 
county,  a  populous  and  flourishing  borough.  It  was 
named  from  the  first  president  of  the  company,  Pliilip 
Hone,  Esq.  The  appliances  at  this  point  are  claimed 
to  be  "  of  a  capacity  to  handle  one  thousand  tons  of  coal 
an  hour." 

The  Delaware  and  Hudson  Canal  Company's  trade  at 
first  was  feeble,  and  anthracite  as  difficult  to  introduce  in 
New  York  as  it  had  been  in  Philadelphia.  Mr.  John 
Wurts,  many  years  afterward  president  of  the  com- 
pany, wrote  to  Mr.  Charles  Miner,  of  Wilkes-Barre, 
a  long  and  interesting  account  of  his  efforts  to  in- 
troduce coal  upon  boats  on  the  Hudson  to  gen- 
erate steam  as  motive  power  where  wood  had  been 
used  as  fuel.  It  seems  strange  at  this  time  that  a  city 
having  constant  communication  with  Liverpool  and  Glas- 
gow should  have  had  such  strong  predjudices  against  coal 
or  so  little  knowledge  of  its  True,  iuiproveinents  in 
making  coke  and  the  discovery  of  applying  the  hot  blast 
to  the  hard  coal  of  Wales  were  just  beginning  to  revolu 
tionize  the  iron  trade  in  England.  It  was  not  till  1833 
that  the  introduction  of  hot  blast  to  the  furnaces  on  the 
Clyde  reduced  the  cost  of  pig  iron  more  than  one  half. 
Then  wood  was  still  cheap  in  New  York.  Not  a  boat 
could  be  prevailed  upon  to  give  it  a  fair  trial,  or  volun- 
tarily to  lose  a  day  for  the  purpose  of  testing  this  stone 
coal.  The  greatest  concession  gained  was  permission  to 
work  at  night,  while  the  boat  was  lying  idle,  in  fitting  the 
furnace  at  the  company's  risk  and  in  furnishing  coal  for 
the  experiment  on  one  of  the  small  day  boats. 
This       was       at      last      accomplished,      and      the      fact 



demonstrated  that  steam  could  lie  generated  and  thelioat 
])ropelled  by  it.  In  the  same  way  the  owners  of  a  larger 
boat,  running  between  New  York  and  Albany,  were  in- 
duced to  try  the  coal,  and  not  only  the  |)ower  to  pro- 
duce sufficient  steam  shown,  but  the  more  important  fads 
that  the  tri])  could  be  made  with  greater  speed  and  at 
less  cost  for  fuel  than  by  the  use  of  wood.  This  then 
was  evidently  the  dawn  of  a  |)rosperous  trade.  \  large 
steamboat  was  then  constructed  under  the  Delaware  and 
Hudson  Canal  Company's  directions,  fitted  with  furnaces 
designed  especially  for  the  use  of  anthracite  coal,  with 
successful  results.  It  is  possible  th;it  this  may  have  been 
a  ferry  boat,  as  an  article  in  the  A'rn'  York  Journal 
of  Commerce  in  1835  under  the  caption,  "Steam  by 
Anthracite  Coal,"  stated:  "The  new  steam  ferry 
boat  '  Esse.x,'  to  ply  between  New  York  and  Jersey 
City,  has  been  fitted  up  with  Dr.  Nott's  patent 
tubular  anthracite  coal  boiler.  The  '  Essex  '  is  one  hun- 
dred and  twenty-six  feet  long  on  deck,  with  twenty-four 
feet  beam  and  nine  feet  hold,  using  Lackawanna  coal." 
The  Delaware  and  Hudson  Canal  Company  contracted 
to  deliver  to  Dr.  Nott's  boat  five  thousand  tons  of  coal 
per  annum,  at  $4  per  ton,  which  was  one  dollar  per 
ton  below  the  market  price,  for  six  years,  coal  not  to  be 
|)aid  for  unless  the  receipts  of  the  boat  exceeded  other 
expenses  ;  upon  condition  that  the  '-ompany  should 
have  the  use  of  this  patent  anthracite  boiler  for 
six  steam  boats  at  a  price  not  to  exceed  sixteen 
thousand  dollars. 

It  has  been  stated  that  coal  was  used  on  ferry 
boats  in  New  York  as  early  as  i^.^r.  The  exact  date  of 
Mr.  Wurts's  labors  is  not  recorded,  and  his  letter  has  been 
lost.  Lackawanna  coal  acquired  a  high  reputation  as  a 
fuel  for  generating  steam,  and  the  increasing  demand  for 
it  compelled  constant  im])r<)vement  in  the  capacity  of  the 
canal.  Originally  designed  for  boats  of  thirty  tons,  which 
it  reached  in  ICS43,  it  was  in  1846  forty  tons,  in  1S48  fifty 
tons,  in  1853  one  hundred  tons,  and  now  the  average  per 
boat  is  about  one  hundred  and  thirty  tons,  "  with  a  ca- 
pacity adecpiate  to  the  transportation  of  two  millions  of 
gross  tons  annually." 

The  active  competition  between  the  Schuylkill  Canal 
and  the  Reading  Railroad,  approaching  completion  in 
1841,  so  reduced  prices  that  ])ermanent  enlargement  of 
the  Delaware  and  Hudson  Canal  was  hastened  to  lessen 
cost  of  trans|)ortation  and  meet  this  competition.  But 
it  was  not  enough  Canals  have  had  their  day  and  are 
out  of  fashion,  if  not  out  of  date — "  vain  transitory 
splendors."  The  long,  cold  winters  of  northern  climes, 
where  the  bright  fires  of  anthracite  coal  are  most  needed 
to  cheer  the  lengthened  nights,  render  canals  useless 
more  than  half  the  year  by  their  frosts,  and  the  Delaware 
and  Hudson  Canal  Company,  with  .',n  annual  trade  ex- 
ceeding three  millions  of  tons,  having  reached  the  maxi- 
mum capacity  of  its  canal  more  than  ten  years  ago,  has 
now  control  of  the  trade  on  lines  of  railway  leading  from 
the  heart  of  the  Wyoming  coal  field  to  Canada,  opening 
directly  the  very  best  prospective  markets  in  the  world; 
with  numerous  connections  east  and  west  at  all  important 


points  along  its  route,  insuring  an   almost   unlimited  d<?- 
iivmil  fill  ihe  products  of  its  mines. 

llll.    I'KNNSVI  VANI.V    1  llAl,    I  l>MI-.\NV. 

Like  an  oasis  in  the  desert,  the  Pennsylvania  Coal 
Company  through  all  the  misfortunes  and  depressicins  of 
the  coal  trade  the  past  few  years  has  maintained  its  po- 
sition as  a  dividend  paying  corporation,  and  held  its  slock 
above  par  amidst  the  fierce  contests  of  the  animals  in 
Wall  street. 

The  reader  will  not  confound  this  company  with  the 
Pennsylvania  Railroad  Com()any,  which  is  now  enrolled 
among  the  roal  transporting  companies  in  this  region, 
ojierating  under  the  charier  of  the  Sustpiehanna  (" 
Company  on  both  sides  of  the  river  at  Nanticoke.  and 
which  owns  that  portion  of  the  old  North  Hranch  Canal 
from  Northampton  street,  Wilkes-Harre,  south. 

The  subject  of  this  sketch  was  originally  engrafted 
upon  the  Delaware  and  Hudson  Canal  Company,  the 
ambition  of  which  was  limited  in  extent  of  its  landed 
possessions  and  ])owers  of  expansion  by  restrictive 
clauses  in  its  charter.  Two  charters  were  procured  from 
the  Legislature  of  1838,  both  approved  April  16th.  "The 
Washington  Coal  Company  "  was  probably  organized 
first,  and  on  .April  ist,  1849,  was  authorized  to  sell  and 
relinquish  its  property  to  the  Pennsylvania  Coal  Com- 
pany, under  which  title  the  two  were  consolidated  and 
afterwards  absorbed  the  rights  of  the  Wyoming  Coal  As- 
sociation, chartered  February  i5lh,  1851. 

Large  tracts  of  land  were  pur<  based  in  certified  Pitts 
ton  township  on  the  Susquehanna,  and  in  Providence 
and  Dunmore  on  the  waters  of  the  Lackaw.inna.  A 
double  track  railroad  was  made,  the  cars  propelled  by 
stationary  power  and  gravity  by  a  series  of  inclined 
l)lanes.  The  distance  is  forty-seven  miles;  the  tracks  do 
not  run  side  by  side,  but  diverge  at  points  to  the  distance 
of  two  or  three  miles  from  each  other,  (iround  for  this 
road  was  broken  in  1847  and  it  was  finished  in  1S50 
The  loaded  tr.ack,  as  it  is  termed,  or  the  track  upon  which 
the  loaded  cars  are  run,  starts  two  miles  below  Pittston 
on  the  Sus(piehanna,  with  a  plane  upon  which  the  coal 
from  the  Port  C.riffith  mine  is  hauled;  and  a  train  of  cars 
made  up  at  the  summit  runs  by  its  own  gravity,  the 
speed  regulated  by  one  or  two  men  at  the  brakes,  accord- 
ins:  to  the  length  of  the  train,  to  the  town  of  Pittston. 
where  it  is  taken  in  sections  to  the  second  plane,  from 
which  it  takes  its  own  way  again  to  the  foot  of  No.  3  at 
Pleasant  Valley— and  so  on  to  Hawlev  on  the  Delaware 
&  Hudson  Canal,  tapping  in  its  course  its  mines  m 
Luzerne,  and  on  the  La.ka wanna  in  the  present  county 
of  that  name.  The  return  track  carries  the  empty  cars 
back  to  Port  C.riffith,  dropping  the  proper  proportion  at 
the  different  mines  in  its  westward  course. 

Many  gentlemen  held  stock  in  both  companies  and  were 
often  at  the  same  time  directors  in  both.  At  a  very  early 
day  this  company  secured  most  favorable  terms  for  rates 
of  tolls  both  upon  the  Delaware  &  Hudson  Canal  and 
upon  the  Erie  Upon  the  New  York  division 
of  the  canal  a  liberd  r  >!.•  wis  fixed,  ii  was  said,  to  induce 




persons  or  companies  to  provide  coal  to  be  transported 
on  the  canal.  Upon  the  Pennsylvania  section  the  reason 
given  for  charging  one-half  cent  a  ton  [lermile  toll,  while 
a  cent  and  a  half  per  ton  was  charger!  on  the  New  York 
section,  was  to  encourage  the  transportation  of  coal  over 
the  Erie  railroad  to  markets  which  did  not  come  in  com- 
petition with  their  markets  on  the  Hudson — both  logi- 
cal, good  and  sufficient,  although  seeming  to  clash,  .^s 
a  transporting  company,  through  trade  was  to  be  en- 
couraged on  the  canal,  as  experience  has  proven  it  to  be 
cheapest  on  all  lines  of  transportation.  As  a  coat  com- 
jiany,  looking  to  large  markets  and  to  profits  on  coal  far 
beyond  the  capacity  of  its  canal,  it  was  wise  to  be  seek- 
ing new  markets  and  encouraging  the  trade  by  every  op- 
portunity which  presented.  This  foresight  has  been  of 
great  service  to  the  Pennsylvania  Coal  Company.  When 
coal  sold  at  $2.50  at  Rondout  this  company  paid  no 
tolls,  but  when  the  price  was  above  that  sum  one-half 
the  increase  was  charged  as  tolls  on  the  Delaware  and 
Hudson  Canal.  This  arrangement,  with  the  favorable 
terms  for  transportation  on  the  Erie  road,  has  given  the 
company  important  advantages  over  rival  companies. 
Without  the  heavy  cost  of  locomotive  railroads,  owned  or 
leased,  or  large  indebtedness  to  draw  interest  from  its 
treasury,  it.  has  been  able  to  make  dividends  which  sent 
its  stock  up  to  280  per  cent,  while  other  stocks  were 
below  par  in  the  markets.  In  1850,  the  year  the  gravity 
railroad  was  opened,  it  was  credited  with  one  hundred 
and  eleven  thousand,  one  hundred  and  ninety-four  tons 
ujjon  the  Delaware  and  Hudson  Canal,  according  to  the 
testimony  of  Mr.  Musgrave  before  the  investigating 
committee  of  the  Pennsylvania  Legislature  in  1857.  In 
1879  it  sent  to  market  one  million  three  hundred  seventy- 
two  thousand,  seven  hundred  and  thirty-nine  tons.  Divi- 
dends have  been  as  high  as  thirty  per  cent.,  and  for  seve- 
ral years  twenty  per  cent.,  in  quarterly  payments.  Dur- 
ing the  panic  of  the  past  few  years  profits  have  of  course 
been  much  reduced,  but  its  excellent  coal,  with  skill  and 
economy  in  mining  added  to  the  foresight  of  its  ofificials, 
have  kept  its  record  good. 

Mr.  William  R.  Griffith,  a  gentleman  of  wealth  visiting 
Wyoming  valley,  became  interested  in  its  coal  deposits, 
and  was  chiefly  instrumental  in  promoting  the  organization 
of  the  Pennsylvania  Coal  Company,  and  in  selecting  its 
coal  lands.  A  jileasant  little  episode  in  this  narrative  may 
be  pardoned.  Mr.  Griffith  in  early  life  had  among  his 
favorite  companions  a  little  lady,  daughter  of  a  gentleman 
who  had  since  become  resident  in  Luzerne  county  and  a 
mine  engineer.  For  some  years  Mr.  Griffith  resided 
abroad,  a  childless  aunt,  whose  heir  he  was,  desiring  to 
finish  his  education  in  France,  where  she  resided.  On 
his  return  his  first  thoughts  turned  toward  the  playmate 
of  his  youth,  who  he  discovered  had  become  the  wife  of 
a  prominent  merchant  of  Carbondale,  a  mother  and  a 
widow.  True  to  his  early  attachment,  although  apparently 
forgotten,  after  waiting  a  decorous  time  he  sought  the 
valley  and  made  her  the  offer  of  his  lieart,  his  hand  and 
his  elegant  equipage.  They  were  married  and  lived  most 
happily,  with  the  respect   and   esteem  of  all    who   knew 

them.  They  have  passed  away.  Few  remember  their 
story.  A  brother  of  the  lady  still  lives,  an  honored 
citizen  of  Carbondale,  and  a  sister  resides  near  Trenton, 
N.  J.  Her  only  son  became  a  prosperous  and  re- 
spected physician  in  the  city  of  New  York.  The  Penn- 
sylvania Coal  Company  owes  its  existence  in  a  measure  to 
this  little  romance. 

THE      DEL.WV.ARE,     I,.\CK  .4  W  ANN' A     AND     WESTERN      RAIL- 

The  above  named  company  is  one  of  the  grandest 
results  of  the  many  great  conceptions  of  genius  and  en- 
terprise exhibited  in  the  course  of  development  of  this 
northern  field.  By  legislative  enactment  "  the  corporate 
rights,  powers  and  privileges  of  the  Delaware  and  the 
Cobb's  Gap  Railway  Company  "  were  merged  in  the 
Lackaw;  ina  and  Western  Railroad  Company,  and  the 
corporate  name  changed  to  the  "name,  style  and  title  of 
the  Delaware,  Lackawanna  and  Western  Railroad  Com- 
pany." The  Liggett's  Gap  Railroad  Company,  chartered 
in  1832,  was  merged  in  the  Lackawanna  and  Western  in 
i85i,and  with  other  small  charters  and  connections, 
uniting  like  mountain  rills  w-ith  larger  streams,  this  great 
work  was  enlarged  until  it  h.T-s  become  a  thoroughfare  for 
coal  tonnage  and  for  general  transportation  of  freight  and 
passengers  from  New  York  city  to  the  far  west  and 

It  is  not  many  years  since  the  valley  of  Wyoming  was 
likened  to  that  happy  vale  in  the  kingdom  of  Amhara, 
surrounded  on  every  side  by  mountains,  in  which  "  Ras- 
selas,  Prince  of  Abyssinia,  was  confined  in  a  private  pal- 
ace, with  the  other  sons  and  daughters  of  Abyssinian 
royalty,  till  the  order  of  succession  should  call  him  to  the 
throne."  Colonel  William  L.  Stone,  in  the  preface  to  his 
pleasant  book  "  The  Poetry  and  History  of  Wyoming," 
published  in  1841,  says:  "The  happy  valley  to  wtiich 
the  illustrious  author  of  Rasselas  introduced  his  reader  in 
the  opening  of  that  charming  fiction,  was  not  much  more 
secluded  from  the  world  than  is  the  valley  of  Wyoming. 
Situated  in  the  interior  of  the  country,  remote  from  the 
great  thoroughfares  of  travel,  either  for  business  or  in  the 
idle  chase  of  pleasure,  and  walled  on  every  hand  by 
mountains  lofty  and  wild,  and  over  which  long  and  rug- 
ged roads  must  be  traveled  to  reach  it,  Wyoming  is 
rarely  visited,  e.xcept  from  sterli  necessity.  And  yet  the 
imagination  of  Johnson  has  not  pictured  so  lovely  a  s]50t 
in  the  vale  of  Amhara  as  Wyoming."  Colonel  Stone  had 
'  a  rough  journey  over  the  mountains  in  the  stage-coaches, 
comfortable  as  they  were  to  the  mountaineers,  as  those 
who  read  the  notes  of  his  visit  in  1S39  will  remember. 
But  he  had  the  full  benefit  of  the  glorious  vision  which 
bursts  upon  the  traveler  who,  after  a  tedious  day's  ride 
from  the  Delaware,  o\er  Poconoand  through  the  "  Shades 
of  Death,"  reaches  the  summit  of  the  mountains  border- 
ing the  valley  on  the  east. 

Sweet  vale  of  Wyoming  !  whose  (iertrude  was  once 
embalmed  in  every  heart  of  cultivated  Europe  by  the 
pen  of  Campbell,  now  deemed  worthy  of  mention  in 
modern  guide  books.      Has  the  romance  departed  from 






it  with  the  retiring  red  man?  and  even  the  dertrude  of 
Halleck,  seen  on  the  next  field,  with 

"  Love  darting  eyes  and  tresses  like  the  morn. 
Without  a  shoe  or  stocking,  hoeing  corn," 

been  driven  out  by  flying  trains  of  cars  crossing  its 
center  on  tracks  leading  north  and  south,  east  and 
west,  from  Haltimore  to  Boston,  from  New  York  to 
Niagara,  and  from  Philadelpiiia  to  Saratoga  and  to 
Portland  ? 

A  mile  east  from  the  main  road  leading  from  Wilkes- 
Barre  to  Carbondale — not  far  from  Providence  Corners, 
then  often  called  Razorville  from  the  sharpness  of  its 
tavern  keeper  or  of  the  winds  which,  sweeping  the 
mountain  gorges,  occasionally  blew  his  house  and  his 
sign  post  over — in  a  i|uiet  nook  on  Roaring  brook  lay 
"Slocum  Hollow,"  named  from  its  proprietor,  one  of  a 
large,  respectable  and  influential  family  of  the  valley, 
who  had  there  his  farm  and  mill,  and  it  may  be  a  small 
furnace.  Mr.  William  Henry,  a  gentleman  of  e.xperience 
in  ores  and  metals,  came  through  Cobb's  Gap  .rom  the 
iron  lands  of  New  Jersey  on  a  prospecting  tour,  and 
finding  iron  ores  and  coal  convenient  began  the  manu- 
facture of  pig  iron,  the  power  of  the  stream  furnishing 
blast  for  his  furnace.  George  VV.  Scranton  with  his 
Yankee  brothers  had  migrated  from  Connecticut  and 
settled  at  Oxford,  New  Jersey,  when  young,  and  there 
engaged  in  the  iron  business.  He  visited  Slocum  Hol- 
low and,  like  Mr.  Henry,  whose  daughter  he  had  married, 
also  became  interested  in  these  ore  aiid  coal  beds;  and 
soon  perceived  with  prophetic  eye  what  capital,  energy 
and  enterprise  combined  might  produce  from  this  wilder- 
ness. Of  commanding  presence,  strong  will  and  per- 
suasive manner,  with  but  a  common  school  education, 
his  i>crceptions  of  business  and  of  character  were  quick 
and  clear.  He  went  to  New  York  and  laid  his  plans 
before  the  money  kings,  and  soon  had  capital  at  his  loco- 
motive wheels  captive  in  tlie  beech  woods.  The  dam  on 
Roaring  brook  was  first  too  small  and  then  too  large. 
Then  the  furnace  became  too  large,  and  the  steam  engine 
had  power  enough  to  jjrovide  blast  for  several  furnaces; 
but  as  it  is  the  coal  trade  and  not  (ron  that  is  the  subject 
of  this  sketch,  each  reader  will  visit  Scranton  and  note 
the  result  for  his  own  satisfaction. 

At  the  Delaware  Water  Gap  the  railroad  from  Scran- 
ton united  with  the  Warren  railroad,  by  which  it  reached 
the  Central  Railroad  of  New  Jersey  at  Junction,  in  1856, 
together  forming  the  highway  for  Scranton  coal  to  tide 
at  New  York.  The  Central  railroad,  feeling  too  independ- 
ent with  its  immense  tonnage,  by  insisting  on  terms  of 
renewal  of  contract  drove  both  the  Delaware,  Lackawanna 
and  Western  and  the  Lehigh  Valley  railroads  from  it;  the 
one  to  the  Morris  and  Essex  road,  which  was  continued 
to  Easton,  crossing  it  at  Washington,  New  Jersey,  and  the 
Lehiah  Valley  constructing  a  new  line  from  Phillipsburg 
to  Elizabeth  along  side  of  and  in  direct  competition  with 
the  Central,  which  was  compelled  to  join  fortunes  with 
the  Lehigh  and  Wilkes-Barre  Coal  Company  and  the 
Lehigh  and  Susquehanna  road  of  the  Navigation 
Company  to  gain  its  coal  tonnage.       It  was  short-sighted 

policy  all  round  and  led  to  disaster,  but  served  ultimately 
to  greatly  increase  the  coal  trade. 

In  early  days  Cobb's  (Jap  on  the  east  and  Liggctt's 
Gap  on  the  west  smiled  at  each  other  over  Providen*  e 
and  the  Capoose  meadows,  a  little  north  and  cast  of 
Hyde  Park  and  Slocum  Hollow,  both  the  prospective 
courses  of  possible  grade  for  su<  h  small  locomotives  as 
were  then  constructed.  Colonel  Scranton  loved  to  tell 
of  the  look  of  incredulity  which  met  his  assertion  that  the 
time  would  come  when  the  coal  trade  by  these  routes 
would  reach  hundreds  of  thousands  of  tons,  and  require 
so  many  locomotives — not  one-third  the  number  employed 
when  he  told  it.  Upon  the  completion  of  his  line  to 
New  York  Col.  Scranton  attended  a  meeting  in  I'hiladel- 
phia,  for  the  first  time  to  consult  upon  the  prospects  of 
the  trade  for  the  coming  season.  The  estimated  increase 
was  about  four  hundred  thousand  tons.  Mr.  Scranton 
suggested  in  behalf  of  his  coinpany,  just  entering  business, 
that  a  fair  share  of  the  prospective  increase,  at  least  at 
eastern  points,  should  be  conceded  to  it.  Without  vanity, 
he  was  a  proud  man,  and  met  the  uncalled-for  assump- 
tion that  with  the  heavy  grades  of  his  road  through 
Cobb's  Gap  he  would  not  be  likely  to  unsettle  the  trade 
with  surplus  of  coal  with  a  quiet  determination  to  let 
them  see  what  could  be  done;  and  their  estimated  in- 
crease was  far  exceeded,  with  a  derided  reduction  in 

The  northern  division  of  the  road,  through  Liggctt's 
Gap,  joined  the  Erie  railroad  at  Great  Bend  in  1851,  and 
its  tonnage  north,  west  and  northwest  in  1878  was  676,- 
207  tons;  in  1879  1,506,110  tons.  Total  coal  forwarded 
north  and  south  in  1878.  2,147,353  tons;  in  1879, 
3,792,368  tons. 

Colonel  Scranton  represented  this  district  in  the  thirty- 
sixth  Congress.  Re-elected  to  the  thirty-seventh  Con- 
gress, he  died  in  Scranton,  March  24th,  1861,  aged  fifty 
years,  mourned  by  hosts  of  friends  who  honored  and 
loved  him. 

Slocum  Hollow  became  Scrantonia,  then  Scranton,  a 
city  now  of  40,000  inhabitants,  active  and  enterprising, 
the  light  of  its  forges  and  furnaces  illuminating  the  night, 
and  the  sounds  of  its  hammers  and  rolling  mills  making 
vocal  the  air  with  their  music.  Now  the  scat  of  justice 
of  the  new  county  of  Lackawanna,  it  remains  a  fitting 
monument  to  the  memory  of  its  founder. 


.Among  the  oldest  of  the  operators  is  Mr.  Ario  Pardee, 
of  Hazleton,  who  has  been  in  the  business  more  than 
forty,  perhaps  fifty,  years  in  district;  successful  and 
generous,  as  was  shown  by  his  magnificent  contributions 
to  Lafayette  College,  at  Easton.  In  the  list  of  operators 
will  be  found  A.  Pardee  \-  Co..  Pardee  Sons  &  Co., 
C.  Pardee  &  Co.,  Pardee  Brothers  &  Co.,  running  the 
heaviest  colleries  in  that  part  of  the  county.  G.  B. 
Marklc  &  Co.,  Coxe  Brothers  \-  Co.,  J.  Leisenring  \- 
Co.,  Linderman,  Skecr  \-  Co.,  are  growing  old  in  the 

On  the   Susquehanna   Mr.  Jameson    Harvey  and    Mr. 




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they  are  quoted  at  $1.50  per  ton  at  Maiich  Cliunk,  and 
from  $2.50  to  $2.80  per  ton  at  Port  Johnson  and  at  Hud- 
son river  markets  for  pea  coal,  and  Mr.  Saward,  in  his 
journal  of  January  28th,  1880,  page  39,  says:  "The  de- 
mand for  chestnut,  pea  and  buckwheat  sizes,  now  ex- 
tensively used  for  steam  purposes,  is  good."  Even  culm 
finds  market  now  at  cost  of  transportation. 

A  committee  of  stockholders  of  the  Delaware  and 
Hudson  Canal  Company,  appointed  in  May,  1877,  to  visit 
and  inspect  the  property  of  the  company,  reported  on 
this  subject: 

"  Besides  this  use  of  culm  (made  into  bricks),  repcciteil  mid  loiidt  Cdii- 
tinucd  experiments  have  devel(»ped  methods  l»y  which  it  is  sueeossfiill.v 
used  at  the  mines  under  the  boilers  of  stationary  engines.  Only  the 
best  and  most  saleable  sizes  of  coal  were  formerly  used  for  stt'ain  pur- 
poses. The  jrreat  consumi>tion  of  these  coals  induced  the  ctTort  to  sub- 
stitute for  these  the  nearl.v  \'alueless  pea  coal.  This.  aft<'r  much  difVi- 
culty,  was  successful.  Uut  suci-ess  leci  to  an  increased  deman<l  for  pea 
C(»al,  and  the  ne.xt  attempt  was  to  substitute  culm  for  pea  eoal  at  the 
mines.  This  also  was  finally  successful,  and  the  company  now  uses  at 
the  mines  annually  sixty  thousand  tons  of  culm,  which  was  formerly 
worse  than  valueless.  If  the  company  were  doinjr  full  work  it  would 
consume  for  the  production  of  steam  about  two  hunched  thou.sand  tons 
of  culm  annually.  Thus  the  production  of  marketjible  eoal  is  increased, 
and  culm,  which  was  formerly  wasted  at  larjre  cost,  n<iw  possesses  great 

Although  the  report  gives  the  experience  of  one  com- 
pany, these  facts  apply  equally  to  the  business  of  all;  and 
from  them,  by  the  rule  of  proportion,  the  gain  in  capacity 
for  marketable  production  of  all  the  anthracite  regions 
from  this  saving  may  easily  be  computed.  Much  greater 
economy  in  mining  coal  has  been  introduced,  and  with 
the  not  im|)robable  introduction  of  stone  or  iron  columns 
to  support  the  roof  in  place  of  the  masses  of  coal  now- 
left  for  that  purpose,  rendered  possible  by  tlie  increased 
])rice  of  the  coal,  the  percentage  of  waste  in  the  mines 
may  be  reduced  one-half  and  trade  increased  in  propor- 
tion. The  terminal  stake  may  be  advanced  to  forty  mil- 
lions and  still  not  e.xhaust  the  anthracite  deposits  more 
rapidly  than  with  twenty  millions  of  tons  under  the  waste- 
ful method  of  mining  and  preparation  for  the  past. 

The  Delaware,  Lackawanna  and  Western  Railroad 
Companv  has  been  constructing  coal  docks  on  Lake  Erie 
at  Buffalo,  to  make  that  a  distributing  point  for  the  west- 
ern trade,  which  must  materially  increase  the  sales  in 
that  direction. 

The  Philadelphia  and  Reading  Railroad  Company  is 
said  to  be  negotiating  for  a  connection  with  the  Atlantic 
and  Cireat  Western  Railroad  at  or  near  Williamsport, 
which  will  greatly  facilitate  and  increase  the  western  trade 
from  the  Schuylkill  region  by  the  Catawissa  road,  already 
imder  its  control. 

The  Pennsylvania  Railroad,  from  the  fine  deposits  of 
.  coal  on  both  sides  of  the  Susquehanna  at  Nanticoke,  in 
this  region,  has  communication  with  western  markets 
both  by  its  canals  and  by  the  Lackawanna  and  Hloonis- 
burg  road,  its  Northern  Central  and  Philadelphia  and 
Erie  up  the  west  branch,  and  its  main  line  on  the  Juniata 
river.  All  are  reaching  for  the  limitless  west,  to  which 
the  small  sizes,  always  of  the  purest  coal,  can  now-  be 
safely  carried  to  a  growing  market. 

The  Delaware  and  Hudson  C'anal  Com|)any  report  that 
in  1869  eighty-one  and  a  half  per  cent,  of  their  coal  was 

delivered  at  tide,  and  only  eighteen  and  a  half  per  cent, 
at  inland  markets.    By  gradual  annual  increase  this  inland 
trade  in  1876  was  forty-two  per  cent,  of  their  production. 
Mr.  John  J.  Albright,  general  sales  agent  of  the  companv 
for   nearly  twenty  years,   reported  the   sales  in  the  west 
by  the  "  Western  Coal  Association  "  at  "  one  million  two 
hundred  thousand  tons  in  1875,  and  nearly  as  much  more 
probably  went  to  western  markets  through  other  shippers. 
The  figures  representing  this  growth  are  remarkable:     In 
1851,  6,000   tons  ;  in    1875,  more  than    2,200,000   tons. 
Toronto,  Canada,  in    1874    took    58,390  tons;    in   1876 
increased  to  97,694  tons.     Cleveland,  Ohio,  in  1852   took 
8,000  tons.    In  1876  it  increased  to  100,000  tons.    Buffalo 
in  1852   required   only  25,000  tons  ;  in  1875  increased  to 
750,206  tons,  and   in    1879  received    1,092,184    tons,  of 
which  550,606  tons  were  distributed   in    other  markets- 
Chicago  consumed  about  500,000  tons  annuallv,  i)Ut  the 
exact  figures  were  not  then  attainable." 
In  1879  the  Chicago  Tribune  said  : 
"  Coal  .sold  at  the  lowest  prices  ever  known,  anthracite  si-lllnir  $1  per 
ton  below  the  cheapest  rate  for  ia7H.    From  the  beirlnnUnf  of    the  yeiir 
down  to  May  prices  were  steady  at  J'i  and  $rt..")0  for  anthracite,  am!  at 
S'l.'ill  for  Kric.    Then  there  was  a  drop  to  $4.50   in   the  former,  ami  to 
$4.75  in  the  latter.     Those  were  the  market  quotations  until   August, 
when  there  was  an  advance  of  }1  per  ton.    Uiter  there  wcri'  further  ad- 
vances, and  the  year  closed  with  antliracite  scllinur  at   $il.5il  and  IT.  Krle 
at  S7and  WiliuiuKton  at   ?4.    For  the  llrst,  time  in   the  history  of  the 
trade  all  sizes  of  hard  eoal  have  sold  at  a  uniform   price.     Nut,  which 
was  formerly  rpioted  from  ^5  to  75  cents  per  Ion  cheaper  than  the  larifer 
sizes,  is  now  in  so  active  demand— owing  to  the  very  ifcneral  usi-  of  self- 
feediner  stoves— that  our  dealers  arc  barely  able  to  xet  adequate  sup- 
plies, and  that  particular  size  is  now  quoted  at  .">0  cents  per  ton  above 
other  sizes." 

The  coal  exchange  in  that  city  reported  about  three 
hundred  thousand  tons  of  anthr.acite  up  to  November  3d. 
The  trade  probably  reached  a  million  of  tons  for  the 

The  increase  in  western  trade  was  .no  doubt  in  fair 
proportion  to  the  total  tonnage,  perhaps  greater,  through 
the  increased  facilities  for  transportation  in  the  box 
freight  cars,  returning  for  the  magnificent  grain  crops  of 
the  year,  and  five  millions  of  tons  may  have  been 
distributed  there. 

Whatever  may  be  the  limit  of  demand  or  production, 
the  larger  portion  of  increase  must  be  supplied  from  the 
Wyoming  coal  field.  Up  to  1850  this  region  had  not 
reached  an  annual  production  of  a  million  of  tons, 
including  the  Luzerne  basins  on  the  Lehign,  in  a  total 
of  three  million,  three  hundred  and  fifty-eight  thousand, 
ei^ht  hundred  and  ninety-nine  tons.  In  1879  it  had 
increased  to  not  less  than  fifteen  millions  in  a  of 
twenty-six  million  tons. 

That  anthracite  will  be  largely  exported  cannot  be 
doubted.  In  1874  the  exports  were  four  hundred  and 
one  thousand,  nine  hundred  and  twelve  tons.  Since  the 
international  expositions  in  Philadelphia  and  in  Pans, 
American  anthracite  and  stoves  designed  especially  for 
burning  it  have  been  introduced  into  France,  Italy  and 
Switzerland  ;  and  as  the  Reading  Company  is  about 
sending  an  agent  abroad  to  extend  the  trade,  it  may  yet 
be  established  as  a  luxury  in  London,  Vienna,  St.  Peters- 
burg and  in  every  city  of  refinement  in  Europe 

With  an  annual  production  of  one  hundred  and    thirty 




millions  of  tons,  the  exports  from  the  mines  of  Great 
Britain  have  reached  eighteen  millions  of  tons  in  a  year. 
There  can  be  no  reason  why  Pennsylvania  anthracite 
should  not  soon  reach  the  same  proportion  and  afford  at 
least  four  millions  of  tons  for  export,  instead  of  the  mea- 
gre amount  reported  for  1879  of  421.594  tons.  Of  this 
the  British  possessions  took  367,544  tons  ;  Mexico,  South 
America  and  West  Indies  38,885  tons  ;  Cl'.ina  nearly 
2,000  tons  ;  while  France  had  940,  Austria  391,  Germany 
and  England  each  one  ton  ;  the  remainder  scattering. 
The  figures  will  change  slowly  perhaps  towards  European 
markets,  as  the  home  consumption  will  command  high 
prices  and  freights  will  be  costly  on  eastward  bound  ves- 
sels ;  unless  the  current  of  trade  shall  be  reversed  through 
false  economy  and  England  again  supply  us  with  manu- 
factured goods  to  an  extent  which  would  send  her  ships 
home  in  ballast.  The  four  hundred  and  seventy  square 
miles  of  Pennsylvania  anthracite,  with  its  certainly  limit- 
ed capacity  for  production  already  approximated,  must 
supply  a  territory  many  times  greater  than  that  of  Great 
Britain,  and  a  population  already  nearly  equal  in  num- 
bers and  greater  in  its  purchasing  power  and  ability  to 
enjoy.  Whatever  the  limit  of  production,  the  demand 
must  soon  be  limited  by  the  price  it  will  bear  as  one  of 
the  future  luxuries  of  life. 


The  value  of  rich  deposits  of  anthracite  coal  is  not  to 
be  calculated  alone  by  cash  estimates  in  dollars  and 
cents;  but  the  comfort  and  cleanliness  increased  a  hun- 
dred fold  in  the  home  circle,  the  absence  of  smoke,  the 
cheering  and  enduring  warmth  of  its  fires  through  long 
winter  nights,  and  the  indirect  influence  of  this  increased 
comfort  through  all  classes  of  modern  society,  must  be 
added  to  the  sum  total  of  gain. 

At  an  early  day,  while  the  Baltimore  mine  was  still 
rudely  worked  at  its  outcroppings  in  the  bluff  on  Coal 
brook,  near  Wilkes-Barre,  and  the  full  size  of  the  vein, 
of  nearly  thirty  feet,  was  exposed  to  the  light,  a  party  of 
ladies  of  the  Society  of  Friends  visited  the  place  accom- 
panied by  others  of  the  neighborhood.  The  vast  cavern 
even  at  that  day  excavated,  with  its  smooth  floor  of 
coal  and  slate,  inclining  downward  the  north  ;  with 
immense  pillars  of  coal,  sixteen  or  eighteen  feet  in 
height,  supporting  the  roof ;  the  light  from  without, 
through  various  apertures,  penetrating  a  distance 
along  the  gentle  dip  of  the  vein  reflecting  many  hues 
from  the  bright  faces  of  sparkling  anthracite,  furnished 
a  scene  well  calculated  to  impress  an  intelligent  mind 
with  feelings  of  mingled  awe  and  admiration.  After  a 
careful  examination  of  the  locality,  with  many  inquiries 
and  suggestions  concerning  the  probable  origin  and  dis- 
covery of  the  wonderful  deposit,  a  profound  silence  set- 
tled upon  them,  inspired  by  the  grandeur  of  the  scene; 
when  a  clear,  sweet  voice  floated  upon  the  air  in  utter- 
ances of  gratitude  and  of  adoration  of  the  Great  Supreme 
Power  which  had  placed  such  storehouses  of  fuel  amidst 
the  wildnerness  of  this  cold  northern  clime,  to  be  pre- 
served for   the   benefit  of   His   i)eople  when  the  forests 

should  be  swept  away  and  their  need  would  be  sorest. 
The  voice  of  Rachel  Price  has  long  been  silent,  as  she 
sleeps  among  her  kindred  and  friends  near  the  shadow  of 
some  modest  meeting-house  in  Chester  county,  where  the 
precepts  of  peace,  wisdom,  and  love  inculcated  in  her 
sermons  still  retain  their  influence  with  the  descendants 
of  those  who  sat  under  her  teachings.  What  a  blessing 
would  be  conferred  if  her  short  address  at  the  Baltimore 
mine  could  yet  be  heard  and  heeded  by  those  who,  in 
pursuit  of  wealth,  recklessly  squander  the  precious 
legacy.  Precept  has  been  lost  in  the  example  of  a  fierce 
struggle  for  power  and  position  until  all  interests  have 
been  prostrated;  and  now  perhaps  only  when  selfishness, 
from  sheer  necessity,  is  likely  to  be  merged  in  justice 
may  prudent  management  be  hoped  for. 

But  there  is  a  commercial  and  marketable  value  at- 
tached to  coal  and  to  coal  lands  worthy  to  be  viewed  in  a 
business  light  by  the  few  still  in  possession  of  original 
titles.  There  are  eight  large  transporting  companies  now 
in  Pennsylvania,  pretty  fairly  dividing  among  them  the 
Anthracite  coal  lands,  either  by  purchase  or  by  leasing 
'them  of  the  owners.  They  are  the  Philadelphia  and 
Reading  Railroad  Company,  the  Lehigh  Valley  Railroad 
Company,  the  Central  Railroad  Company  of  New  Jersey, 
the  Delaware,  Lackawanna  and  Western  Railroad  Com- 
pany, the  Delaware  and  Hudson  Canal  Company,  the 
Pennsylvania  Coal  Company,  and  the  New  York,  Lake 
Erie  and  Western  Railroad  Company;  the  railroad  com- 
panies operating  under  charters  incorporating  coal  com 
panics  controlled  by  them.  There  are  very  few  proper- 
ties of  any  profitable  size  yet  remaining  not  directly  or 
indirectly  at  the  mercy  of  these  large  corporations. 

The  prices  paid  for  coal  lands  in  the  northern  or  Wyo- 
ming coal  field  when  the  trade  was  small  were  very  low, 
often  less  than  one  hundred  dollars  an  acre  for  those  in 
choice  positions  but  yet  undeveloped.  The  farmer  who 
owned  a  large  tract,  from  a  few  acres  of  which  he  suc- 
ceeded in  gathering  a  frugal  subsistence  with  hard  labor, 
felt  rich  if  he  could  sell  four  hundred  acres  for  twenty  or 
thirty  dollars  an  acre  and  buy  a  nmch  better  farm  in  the 
growing  west  for  half  the  money.  Much  of  course  de- 
pended on  the  prospects  of  early  development  of  the 
coal  and  the  opening  of  ways  to  market.  Few  of  them 
had  much  faith  in  the  coal,  which  had  never  done  any 
good  to  the  neighborhood;  and  they  only  valued  the  sur- 
face as  yielding  fair  returns  for  labor  bestowed.  With 
few  wants,  the  farmer  out  of  debt  was  rich. 

The  Pennsylvania  Coal  Company  purchased  the  greater 
part  of  its  best  lands  thirty  years  ago,  at  prices  ranging 
from  $75  to  $200  per  acre,  farms  and  all.  When  the  last 
farms  were  secured,  probably  $300  per  acre  was  paid  to 
close  and  connect  the  surveys.  Some  years  after,  for 
small  tracts  from  which  they  could  take  the  coal  through 
improvements  already  made,  $r,ooo  per  acre  was  reported 
as  the  price  paid,  which  would  be  cheaper  to  the  com- 
pany taking  the  coal  out  at  once  than  $200  paid  thirty 
years  before,  when  the  coal  lay  untouched  by  the  miner's 
pick  or  drill. 

To  judge  by  the  financial  statements  of  the  best  com- 


THK  VAI  IF.  or  COM.  LANDS. 

pjnies  (except  llic  iinuk-iiily  managcci  Pennsylvania  Coal 
Company  ,  it  might  be  judged  that  coal  lands  had  cost 
them  many  thousands  of  dollars  an  acre.  But  the  blend- 
ing vast  lines  of  transportation  with  lands  to  be  developed 
makes  it  difficult  to  judge  accurately.  The  experience 
of  the  one  company  excepted  would  indicate  that  the 
land  was  the  only  profitable  part  of  the  investment. 

Hut  again,  what  would  the  land  be  now  worth  without 
markets  for  the  coal  and  means  of  transi)ortation?  Not 
more  than  it  sold  for  twenty  five  years  ago.  The  Read- 
ing Company  and  tiie  Delaware  and  Hudson  Canal 
Company  are  the  objects  of  most  bitter  attack  for  bad 
management  and  blundering  into  unnecessary  expendi- 
tures and  indebtedness.  The  Reading  road  has  reached 
out  its  arms  with  seeming  recklessness  after  new 
markets.  Take  tlie  explanation  made  by  .Mr.  President 
Crowen,  in  his  recent  annual  re|)ort  to  tiie  meeting  of 
stockholders,  January  12th,  18S0:  "  The  company  is  now 
prepared  to  transport  direct,  by  its  own  cars  and  engines, 
to  the  harbor  of  New  York  the  large  amount  of  coal  ton- 
nage which  heretofore,  at  a  cash  cost  of  fully  eighty-five 
cents  per  ton,  had  to  be  transported  over  lines  of  other 
companies.  As  the  actual  cost  of  moving  this  coal  from 
Philadelphia  to  New  York  over  the  new  line  cannot  ex- 
ceed forty  cents  per  ton,  the  difference  of  forty-five  cents 
l)er  ton  on  a  yearly  tonnage  of  about  a  million  tons, 
amounting  to  $450,000  per  annum,  will  represent  the 
saving  of  the  company."  Mr.  Gowen  estimates  a  business 
of  9,000,000  tons  over  his  roads  in  1880,  and  that  the 
average  price  will  be  §1.50  ])er  ton  higher  at  tide  water 
than  in  1879. 

The  Delaware  and  Hudson  Canal  reported  a  deficiency 
on  its  leased  lines,  but  its  northern  roads  lead  to  new  and 
growing  markets.  With  the  advance  in  prices  of  coal 
and  the  ra])id  increase  in  tonnage  this  deficiency  must 
speedily  disappear,  and  the  leased  lines  will  not  only  pay 
their  own  expenses;  but  every  additional  ton  of  anthracite 
carried  north  will  add  to  the  profits  of  the  mines  and  to 
the  trade  of  each  branch  employed  in  the  transpor- 

Increased  trade  and  advanced  prices  must  soon  estab- 
lish the  value  of  coal  lands.  Hear  Mr.  Maxwell  on  this 

'*  If  (I  popiilatidii  of  twenty-one  millions  vitliie  5.309,000  iieres  of  eonl 
Ittnil  at  SS.IHKI  per  iiere,  what  shoiilil  a  population  of  ll.A.Vi,l1)0.  luivin^ 
the  same  wants  in  proportion  to  niiintter,  \  alue  only  3"9.(W0  aeresttf  eonl 
land  at  per  acre?  Who  will  solve  this  prol>leiii  satisfaetorily  to  himself? 
The  facts  bear  out  it,s  terms  with  all  the  foreeof  inathenialieal  truth.  It 
IS  to  l>e  oliserveil  that  in  statini;  this  prolileni  thi-  lowest  priif  of  the 
English  eonl  lands  is  ailoptcil  as  one  of  its  terms.  This  leaves  a  wide 
marKin  afrainst  the  ha/jird  of  error.  ICnicland.  too,  is  inneh  nearer  her 
ina.ximtini  of  population,  niarmfactnres  and  eoal  consumption  than  we 
are,  while  our  coal  market,  in  area  four  liini-s  as  larce  as  hers,  lint  with 
half  her  population  now,  is  rapidly  Bllintr  up  with  <>omin({  millions." 

Mr.  Maxwell  estimates  1,613  tons  per  acre  to  every  foot 
thickness.  Practical  men  estimate  1,000  tons  to  the  foot, 
clear  merchantable  coal,  allowing  liberally  for  pillars  and 

The  Delaware  and  Hudson  Canal  Company  say:  "  In 
(ireat  Britain  coal  lands  are  worth  from  $5,000  to  $7,000 
per  acre.  In  the  light  of  these  facts,  why  should  not  the 
consumption    of   anthracite    continue    to    increase,    why 

should  it  not  be  mined  at  n  profit,  and  why  should  not 
the  value  per  acre  of  the  sninll  area  of  anthracite  coal 
lands  in  the  United  States  np))ri)xin).ite  that  of  the  vast- 
ly larger  area  of  coal  lands  in  (  Britain?"  Heriincni 
ipiestions,  which  are  in  course  of  solution  as  rapidly  as 
the  reluming  good  sense  of  the  large  companies  will  prr 
mil.  The  pioneers  in  the  trade  who  yet  live  may  hope 
to  see  it  answered  in  the  affirmative,  and  they  deserve  it. 
i)(  the  pioneers  in  the  early  development  nearly  all 
have  passed  away.  Of  these  Hon.  Hendrick  B.  Wright, 
in  his  Historical  Sketi  lies  of  Plymouih,  a  work  of  great 
local  interest  written  in  the  author's  best  vein,  makes 
honorable  mention,  so  far  as  connected  with  old  Shawnee 

"  Krui'iiian  Thomas  vaaw  to  IMyinoiilh  from  Nortbainplon  txiunty 
uliMut  the  year  liill.  ami  piireh  isi>d  thu  Avon<l  ili-  properly,  to  which  he 
irave  the  name  more  than  llfly  yeiri  ii'fi.  Mr.  Thmn  n  w.i<  In  ndiam  ■■ 
of  iiKxt  of  his  neiithbirs  in  his  k  1  iwledK.-  of  Ih  •  e  1  il  in"«»iire*.  .\1  nii 
early  ilay  he  eommeneeil  driving  th"  '  (iran  I  T  rinel '  Into  the  nioiiii 
lain  siile.  Hltli  the  purpose  of  Htrlklnv  the  eiMl.  This  wax  prolmldy  ii- 
early  as  l>CH.  and  was  the  llrsi  eip.-riin  Mil  In  tiinnulinv  In  Ihi-  Wyoming 
valley  ihrouxh  rock.  After  three  or  four  yeir*  of  per4e\  iTliifr  labor, 
and  with  his  i-redli  almost  sunk,  he  struck  Ihe  liiK  n- 1  ash  \eln.  Fns-- 
maii  Thomas  li\ed  to  a  t^ooil  ohi  uife.  MedkMl  «t  hi*  home  In  Northum- 
lierland  county  In  his  eiifhty-fltthlh  year.  Not  Ioiik  aftitr  the  ponMrue. 
tion  of  the  linind  Tunnel  .laine^on  llaney  dliM*iivensl  eoal  upon  hi* 
premises  near  by.  and  the«e  Iw-o  eo  il  prop 'rlle<.  belnx  mo«i  ellirllil> 
sitiiattsl.  w-ere  more  extenshely  worked  than  any  oihi-r  mine  In  tin- 
township.  William  1..  Uince  b<.-caine  lessee  of  the  (imnd  Tunnel  proper- 
ty In  1851." 

Col.  Wright  says  that  the  red  ash  vein  worked  by  the 
Smiths  and  Freeman  Thomas,  in  Plymouth,  averages 
twenty-six  feet  of  pure  coal,  being  better  and  thicker 
than  the  seam  on  the  east  side  of  the  river  where  it  crops 
out  near  the  summit  of  the  Wilkes- Barre  mountain  not 
more  than  eight  feet  in  thickness.  It  is  assumed  by  some 
that  the  lower  vein,  known  as  the  red  ash,  thins  out  as  it 
goes  east  and  disappears  on  the  Lackawanna  about  Scran- 
ton;  which  is  not  at  all  probable,  as  the  Delaware  and 
Hudson  Canal  Company  has  been  in  operation  at  Car- 
bondale  for  fifty  years,  chiefly  on  the  lower  veins  of  the 
measure,  which  are  not  vet  exhausted.  It  is  asserted  that 
a  nine-foot  vein  has  been  tested  at  Dunmore,  east  of 
Scranton,  below  any  of  the  veins  now  worked  there.  'I'he 
measures  on  the  Lackawanna  are  not  so  deep  as  in  the 
parts  of  the  basin  along  the  .Sus(|uehanna,  and  the  large 
companies  established  above  Pittslon  have  all  secured 
ample  stores  of  anthracite  in  Kingston,  Plymouth,  Ncw- 
|)ort,  Hanover,  Wilkes- Barre  and  Plains  townships  for 
centuries  to  come,  and  have  facilities  for  transportation 
from  them  both  present  and  future.  I'he  Pennsylvania 
Railroad  Company,  on  the  rich  properties  of  thr  late 
Colonel  Washington  Lee  on  the  east  and  of  Mr.  Harvey 
on  the  west  side  of  the  river,  has  already  been  mentioned, 
with  its  lines  of  communication.  The  Lehigh  and  Wilkes- 
Barre  Coal  Company,  growing  from  the  Consolidated 
Coal  Company  through  the  Wilkes- Barre  Coal  and  Iron 
Company  is,  under  the  management  of  Mr.  Charles  I'ar 
rish,  a  pioneer  in  the  trade  of  Wilkes- Barre,  Hanover  and 
Newjiort,  fast  taking  a  leading  position,  judge  Francis 
Lathrop,  in  whose  hands  the  coal  company  and  the  Cen- 
tral Railroad  of  New  Jersey  are,  as  receiver,  says  that  they 
are  improving  in  financial  condition.  The  principal  coal 
tonnage  of  the  Central  is  from  this  coal  company.     Th 




Erie  Railway  operates  chiefly  in  Pittston,  having  trnns- 
portation  by  the  Pennsylvania  Coal  Company's  road  to 
Hawley,  and  by  the  Delaware  and  Hudson  Canal  Com- 
pany's road  to  Great  Bend,  at  which  point  it  joins  its 
main  line.  The  time  must  come  when  it  will  possess 
coal  lands  on  the  Susquehanna  and  a  road  of  its  own  to 
carry  coal  out  of  the  valley.  The  tonnage  will  be  of 
great  importance  to  it.  The  box  cars  of  this  road  are 
seen  in  almost  every  train  leaving  the  valley. 

Fortunes  have  been  sunk  and  millioris  lost  in  the  early 
efforts  to  develop  the  mines  and  introduce  anthracite 
coal  to  the  various  uses  to  which  it  is  now  indispensable. 
Few  of  the  pioneers  lived  to  enjoy  the  fruits  of  their 
labors  and  enterprise.  Few  of  the  living  even  now  com- 
prehend the  value  of  anthracite;  either  the  cost  value, 
the  "  exchange  value,"  or  the  far  greater  value  as  one  of 
tlie  necessaries  of  life,  without  regard  to  ratio  or  exchange 
or  price  in  open  market.  In  the  scramble  for  control  of 
markets  it  has  come  to  be  regarded  as  a  mere  item  of 
tonnage,  by  which  to  estimate  income  to  rival  lines  of 
transportation.  The  next  generation  will  be  able  to 
estimate  it  from  a  point  of  view  gained  through  bitter 
experience,  and  will  understand  its  full  pecuniary  value. 
The  loss  of  one  hundred  lives  in  1S7S,  and  the  almost 
countless  accidents  resulting  in  loss  of  limbs  and  health, 
will  add  fearfully  to  the  cost,  whicb  cannot  be  estimated. 

If  the  estimate  which  places  tlie  limit  of  production 
below  thirty-five  millions  of  tons  per  annum  shall  prove 
correct,  then  will  the  money  value  soon  be  ascertained  in 
the  market  price.  New  collieries  are  adding  to  produc- 
tive capacity  in  each  year,  to  be  offset  by  numbers  which 
are  exhausted  and  abandoned.  In  the  report  from  the 
Lehigh  region  for  1878  the  number  of  collieries  abandoned 
uj)  to  the  time  of  report  had  reached  sixty-three,  some 
having  been  over  sixty  years  in  operation. 

BRE.AKERS     .\HK.\D. 

As  a  class  coal  miners  are  not  provident.  Like  almost 
any  other  class  in  society  it  is  mixed,  but  it  may 
safely  be  asserted  that  as  much  good  common  sense  is  to 
be  found  among  the  men  employed  in  this  coal  region  as 
among  any  class  of  laborers,  or  even  professional  men. 
True,  in  limes  of  excitement  they  are  apt  to  be  carried 
away  by  imprudent  counsels  and  do  themselves  and  the 
trade  untold  injury  in  useless  efforts  to  right  fancied 
wrongs,  while  the  men  they  combat  suffer  from  the  same 
evils  as  severely.  'I'he  miner'  has  this  excuse,  if  not 
justification:  he  has  no  influence  in  adjusting  prices. 
Those  who  direct  the  trade,  and  who  from  position  should 
understand  the  question  of  supply  and  demand  as  affect- 
ing markets,  are  as  apt  to  be  carried  off  their  feet  by 
waves  of  competition  and  wreck  prices  by  careless  pilot- 
age of  cargoes;  and  miner  and  laborer  must  bear  the  loss 
in  reduction  of  wages.  Reflection  might  teach  every 
laborer  that  the  interest  of  the  operator  to  secure  good 
Ijrices  is  as  strong  as  is  his  to  have  high  wages,  and  that 
necessity  not  appearing  upon  the  surface  forces  a  decline. 
Unfortunately  too  many  oiierators  have  not  deemed  it  a 
duty   to   make  explanations   to  those  they    employ,   and 

without  reflecting  that  tw()  wrongs  never  make  a  right  the 
men  resort  to  the  remedy  they  think  most  direct  and 

The  strike,  a  mere  cessation  from  labor,  might  not  in 
all  cases  be  objectionable  in  itself,  if  not  followed  by  in- 
terference with  the  rights  of  others  who  do  not  desire  to 
leave  work  or  who  cannot  afford  to  lie  idle,  which  is 
clearly  illegal.  One  very  favorable  sign  of  the  present 
time  is'  the  increasing  willingness  of  employers  to  yield 
gracefully  and  promptly  to  the  unquestionable  cijuities  of 
labor  on  a  rising  market,  as  it  was  made  full  partner  in 
misfortune.  A  notable  instance  of  the  beneficial  results  of 
such  a  system  in  past  years  was  that  of  the  collieries  of 
Messrs  Sharpe,  Leisenring  iS:  Company,  at  Eckley,  on 
the  Lehigh.  When  coal  prices  advanced  the  men  had 
their  full  proportion  in  increased  wages,  and  when  prices 
receded  they  submitted  to  the  reduction  without  com- 
plaint; and  for  years  there  was  little  trouble  among  them, 
until  the  great  strike  of  December,  1874,  which  it  was  a 
point  of  pride  should  be  made  general  among  the  men  in 
all  the  coal  fields,  and  they  yielded  to  that  disastrous 
suspension  of  more  than  six  months,  from  which  there 
has  bjcn  no  recovery. 

The  exercise  of  all  the  good  sense  of  parties  concerned 
will  be  needed  to  secure  the  trade  from  loss  in  the  future. 
Disaster  may  come  from  too  sudden  prosperity,  as  to  the 
apparently  convalescent  patient  from  an  excess  of  vitality. 
Prices  must  be  regulated,  or  the  goose  that  lays  the  golden 
egg  may  be  killed. 

Railroad  construction  in  1879  was  more  active  than  in 
any  year  since  1872,  and  fifty  per  cent,  greater  than  in 
1878.  Iron  is  needed  in  every  degree  of  manufacture  in 
the  construction  and  equipment  of  new  roads,  and  this 
iron  in  every  stage  from  the  ore  must  be  wrought  by  the 
aid  of  coal.  To  force  prices  too  high  may  check  the 
upward  movement  all  along  the  line  and  reflect  disastrously 
on  the  coal  trade.  Among  the  select  sentences  in  a 
school-book  of  several  generations  past,  teaching  short 
lessons  of  wisdom,  was  one  worthy  to  be  inscribed  on 
tablets  of  brass  at  every  colliery  and  workshop  in  the 
country  :  "  Time  once  past  never  returns ;  the  moment  w/iic/i 
is  lost  is  lost  forever."  Hundreds  of  industrious  miners 
and  laborers,  who  had  accumulated  homes  and  savings 
deposited  during  prosperous  days,  and  saw  them  dwindle 
and  vanish  under  enforced  idleness  in  1875  and  other 
long  suspensions,  now  realize  the  truth  and  force  of  that 
maxim.  They  cannot  desire  a  renewal  of  that  sad  expe- 
rience ;  but  another  generation  is  coming  upon  the  stage 
of  life  to  direct  affairs,  with  fresh  confidence  if  not  with 
increased  wisdom,  full  of  hope  that  they  may  be  able  to 
direct  the  storm  while  riding  upon  the  whirlwind  raised 
against  capital — the  natural  ally  rather  than  the  antagon- 
ist of  labor.  Let  the  whirlwind  be  avoided  by  ])rudent 
counsels  and  the  exercise  of  a  spirit  of  conciliation  on 
both  sides. 

There  is  a  ipiaintly  expressed  maxim  of  the  courts  to 
the  effect  that  one  who  seeks  equity  must  do  equity, 
worthy  to  be  posted  with  the  short  sentence  before 
quoted,  and  to  be  borne   in  mind  by  those  who  seek    by 





violent  measures  to  enforce  their  claims  regardless  of 
the  rights  of  fellow  workmen,  of  employers  or  of  the 
larger  number  composing  the  consuming  public,  who 
suffer  unjustly.  Sympathy  will  not  be  wasted  upon 
labor  which  allows  itself  to  be  crushed  in  a  vain  and 
wicked  attempt  to  block  the  wheels  of  progress  promising 
l)rosperity  to  all  who  are  industrious  and  frugal.  Wages 
may  be  adjusted  with  the  accuracy  of  machinery,  which 
without  attendants  in  the  workshoj)  moves  to  its  limit 
and  reverses  its  motion,  if  a  few  men  of  experience  will 
meet  for  that  object  with  an  honest  purpose  of  agree- 

Pages  could  not  record  the  changes  of  the  jinst  few 
years,  nor  can  wisdom  foresee  those  of  the  coming 
years.  (,)uestions  are  arising  in  the  courts  of  vast  im- 
portance to  land  owners  and  coal  operators.  One  is 
th.u  of 

i>am.\(;k  to  sfRi'AiK   I'RDPKR  rv. 

M  one  time  the  large  comp.iiiics  had  surveyed  num- 
bers of  lots  to  sell  to  their  employes,  but  the  policy 
seems  to  have  changed.  In  many  places  near  Wilkes- 
Harre,  in  I'ittston,  Hyde  Park  and  in  Kingston  large 
areas  of  land  undermined  have  subsided  by  the  caving  in 
of  mines,  in  some  instances  causing  damage  to  improve- 
ments made  l)y  purchasers  of  surface  lots.  The  large 
brick  school-house  near  Pittston,  at  the  corner  of  the 
road  to  Vatesville,  was  abandoned  because  the  walls 
cracked  so  as  to  be  dangerous  to  [nipils,  the  su|)ports  of 
the  mines  below  having  failed. 

In  Hyde  Park,  by  the  caving  of  the  O.xford  mines, 
some  brick  storehouses  were  injured.  The  question 
before  the  court  is  to  decide  who  is  responsible  for  the 

In  most  cases  the  surface  has  been  purchased  with 
knowledge  of  the  danger  incurred,  and  a  title  accepted 
with  full  release  of  claims  for  damage.  Still  it  does  not 
always  seem  just  that  a  man's  home  should  be  wrecked 
by  being  undermined,  without  some  recourse  in  damages, 
and  in  several  cases  recently  tried  in  Schuylkill  county 
damages  have  been  awarded.  In  one  case  at  West  Shen- 
andoah several  lots  over  the  Kohinoor  Colliery,  in  Feb- 
ruary, 1879,  to  use  the  words  of  a  reporter  for  the 
Pottsvilk  Journal,  were  visited  by  a  young  eartlxpiake, 
and  a  cave-in  which  followed  the  shake  carried  a  portion 
of  several  lots  down  into  the  colliery,  cracking  the  walls 
and  foundations  of  the  dwelling  houses,  putting  the  doors 
and  windows  out  of  place  and  leaving  a  yawning  chasm 
about  seventy  feet  deep  and  eighty  or  ninety  feet  in 
diameter  in  the  middle  of  the  lots.  To  one  was  awarded 
S800,  another  $1,350,  a  third  $1,200.  What  the  final 
judgment  will  be  on  appeal  remains  to  be  heard,  and 
whether  the  release  of  all  claims  for  damage  at  the  time 
of  purchase,  if  any  such  were  made,  avails  owner  or 
operator.  .An  important  question  of  public  jjolicy  yet 
underlies  the  question  of  claims  for  damage.  If  no  man 
who  needs  a  place  for  his  home  has  power  to  release  the 
land  owner  or  the  coal  operator  from  such  claim,  then  no 
land  owner  or  operator  will  hereafter  dispose  of  building 


lul^,  .iml  the  largely  increasing  popul.itujfi  uf  the  coal 
regions  must  hunt  lairs  like  beasts  of  the  field.  Is  it 
good  policy  to  invite  such  a  state  of  society? 

Coal  companies  do  not,  as  a  rule,  erect  buihiings  for 
the  miners  and  laborers  calculated  to  m.ike  homes  to  be 
proud  of.  .\  neat  house,  however  humble,  with  a  rose 
bush  and  fruit  trees  about  it,  are  useful  aids  in  educating 
the  young  to  cleanly  and  careful  habits  and  regard  for  the 
comforts  of  neighbors.  The  man  who  owns  his  house 
and  garden  is  a  better  citixen  in  all  respects  than  one  who 
is  tenant  of  a  shanty  at  six  or  eight  dollars  per  month. 

The  coal  is  a  necessary  of  life  which  must  be  mined, 
and  there  should  be  some  mode  devised  to  mine  it  with- 
out damage  to  the  surface.  If  this  is  impossible  should 
an  operator  be  mulcted  in  damages  for  casualities  which 
human  foresight  could  not  prevent,  any  more  than  for 
that  of  a  lightning  stroke  or  midnight  conflagration  ? 

Mr.  William  S.  Jones,  inspector  of  coal  mines  for  the 
eastern  district  of  Lu/.erene  and  Carbon  counties,  says 
over  date  of  M.irch  8th,  1879,  at  Scranton,  Pa. 

"  Another  \cry  cxlotisivt?  c«vo  ofL-iirrtMl  ii(  the  Dltiiiiiiiiil  iniii."..  aii'l 
still  iinolhfT  lit  the  iti'lleviK'  iiiln(.'S  IhmIi  iM'lonvliiif  (o  tht*  lK'liiH-iir< « 
f..arkawaTina  ami  Wi'sUtii  Hallroad  <'otnpany.  In  iiirh  <ir  tlii'M*  4^L< 
tlioy  wiTc  workinj;  IhrcL-  \«_'ins,  unv  ti\'cr  Ihi-  i»lhi-r.  ati.l  tin-  nivt..*  wi-n* 
catisf*!  liy  llu*  same  system  of  working  as  at  tlir  Mt.  rh..asant  inint-s.  In 
no  caso.  Sf>  far  as  [  know,  is  there*  any  attempt  niaOe  to  work  the  plllant 
in  one  vein  oxa(rlly  over  the  pillars  in  the  vein  tH'low,  4ir  rirr  frnHi.aiifl 
so  loni?  as  this  is  not  (Ii>iie  there  is  no  hope  of  prcventiiiff  these  eavt.!*.  I 
admit  that  it  requires  Kood  inininfj:  entfineerin^  to  4I0  this.  Imt  that  will 
not  alter  tlie  facts  of  llie  ejise.  1  helieie  it  can  Ik-  ilone.  an<l  1  N'lleve  11 
woulil  [lay  tlie  operators  to  try  the  e.x|icriinent." 

Against  careless  or  unskillful  mining  of  course  the 
courts  should  ])rotect  every  man,  whatever  the  terms  of 
his  release.  It  is  the  very  object  of  creating  courts  of 
law  and  equity  not  to  protect  man  from  his  own  acts,  or 
from  the  operation  of  natural  laws,  but  against  the  evil 
nature  and  carelessness  of  his  fellows. 

But  what  can  be  done  to  save  all  the  coal  ielt  in  pillars 
to  support  the  upper  crust  of  the  mines?  C'an  coal  be 
made  to  pay  the  expense  of  iron  or  stone  supports  in 
place  of  coal  now  wasted  for  the  purpose?  In  very  deep 
mines,  with  veins  of  six  or  eight  feet  thickness,  the  break- 
ing up  of  rocks  would  fill  the  space  excavated  before 
affecting  the  surface.  By  the  long-wall  system  of  mining 
the  surface  may  be  let  down  by  taking  out  all  support 
but  not  with  entire  safety. 

Is  it  impossible  lor  men  to  obtain  homes  without  such 
risk  to  themselves  as  to  those  who  mine  the  coal  from 
veins  below?  This  is  becoming  one  of  the  most  import- 
ant (juestions  of  the  near  future. 


.\nother  tpiestion  intimately  connected  with  that  of 
proper  support  for  the  mines  is  the  waste  of  this  store  of 
fuel  in  the  mine  and  in  its  preparation  for  market.  The 
Journal  of  Industry  \'s  quoted  on  this  subiiM  t,  from  an 
article  extremely  apropos  and  timely; 

"  Tlie  wanton  (li~<trnetiiin  of  any  kind  of  pni|>erly  is  nitanliHl  us  n 
crime,  anil  the  nevlcelfnl  waste  of  the  irifls  of  naliinv  liosiowisl  for  the 
c<iminK  ifood  of  mankind,  no  nuilter  h<iw  irreiil  their  prt-w-nt  alaindanr<.. 
onirht  is|uully  to  l>e  helil  as  an  olTen.M'aKainst  IhiTlithl.sof  humanity, 
and  Jnstly  eensnnil)le. 

"  .Vmerieans  are  proverMally  wasteful,  not  alor.e  in  smiiil  malters 
hut  ill  irreiit  oii.<     This  is  exeiiiplihisl  in  a  sirikinu  manner  in  the  on- 


thraeitf  coal  regions  of  Pennsyhariia,  wlierc  it  is  estimated  not  less  than 
SIOO.OOOJXX)  worth  of  fuel  has  been  wasted  in  sretting- out  and  preparing 
the  coal  for  market,  the  present  average  annual  loss  being  set  down  at 
SIS.OOO.IHK).  This  enormous  waste  is  ascribed  by  men  of  experience  to 
the  use  of  imperfectly  desiirned  machinery' for  breakinff  the  ciial.  This 
matter  demands  serious  attention:  f(U-  \ast  as  our  natural  resources, 
such  <'.\tra\'aK-ancc-  will  not  only  tend  to  exhaust  them  sooner  than  they 
should  be.  but  also  to  increase  present  cost  to  consunici-s.  Land  owners 
and  miners  arc  in  this  matter  C(iually  remiss  in  duty  to  their  successors 
and  the  people  of  the  countr.\',  who  have  a  ri^ht  to  demand  that  an 
article  of  such  i)rimc  necessity  shall  lie  economically  worked  in  order  to 
yield  the  best  results  to  the  various  industries  and  comforts  deiiendcnt 
upon  thiskind  of  fuel. 

"  The  great  ea\ise  of  this  waste  in  anthracite  coal  is  said  by  competent 
engineers  to  lie  what  are  known  as  coal  crushers,  toothed  c.\linders 
geared  to  run  towards  each  other,  which  of  ncces.sity  literally  crush  a 
great  part  of  the  coal  into  fragments  and  dust  too  Hue  for  use,  unless  it 
(«n  by  artificial  means  be  again  made  into  blocks  of  suitable  size.  The 
percentage  of  waste  ise-ttimated  at  one-fourth  of  Tthe  entire  product, 
the  greater  part  of  which  could  be  saved  to  the  operators  by  the  use  of 
proper  machinery.  But  the  operators  it  would  appear  are  a  very  con- 
servative set  of  gentlemen,  and  opposed  to  innovations  calculated  to  do 
away  witii  time-honored  methods.  It  is  within  the  personal  knowledge 
of  the  writer  that  a  mechanical  engineer  of  wide  experience,  and 
thoroughly'  posted  in  the  tnining  and  marketing  of  anthracite  coal,  in- 
\ented  and  set  up  at  one  of  the  great  coal  centers  machinery  for  the 
more  economical  iirejiaration  of  the  fuel.  He  invited  the  operators  and 
engineers  to  come  and  witness  his  experiments,  but  few  of  them  availed 
themselves  of  the  opportunit.v  :  and  although,  as  he  claims,  he  Cfln 
demonstrate  beyond  peradventure  that  he  can  save  from  fifty  to  eighty 
per  cent,  of  the  coal  now  lost,  he  has  as  yet  been  unable  to  secure  the 
adoption  of  his  improved  methods  and  machinery.  This  gentleman  is  a 
conspicuous  example  of  a  prophet  being  without  honor  in  his  own 

"  The  operators  of  leased  lands  have  labored  under  a  mistaken  idea 
that  waste  cannot  be  committed  by  the  destruction  of  corporal  heredita- 
ments inider  as  well  as  upon  the  surface,  or  in  the  unskillful  i>repara- 
tion  of  coal  taken  from  the  mines.  In  all  leases  there  is  an  implied  cov- 
enant, even  when  not  plainly  expressed,  to  mine  in  a  proper  and  skill- 
ful manner,  and  with  as  little  damage  as  possible  to  remaining  property, 
or  waste  in  that  which  is  taken  out ;  just  as  a  lessee  of  a  farm  is  under 
an  implied  agreement  to  farm  in  a  workmanlike  manner,  and  not  to  e.v- 
haust  the  soil  b.v  neglectful  or  improper  tillage.  Why,  then,  should  a 
coal  company  be  permitted  to  waste  such  a  valuable  fuel  b.v  improper 
crushing  to  the  extent  of  one-ijuarter  of  the  entire  product,  when  a 
tenant  may  not  cut  down  an  apple  tree  without  committing  waste  and 
being  responsible  in  damages  to  the  owner  of  the  property'/ 

"Not  only  the  land  owner,  but  every  citizen,  now  and  in  succeeding 
generations,  is  and  will  be  interested  in  staying  such  waste." 

Messrs.  Sheafer,   engineers  of    mines,    Pottsville,  Pa., 

estimate  the   waste  in  mining   and  preparing  antiiracite 

coal  at   two-tliirds  the  estimated  quantity  of  the  deposits 

in  eacli  coal  field. 



^^I^^TEWART  PEARCE,  in  his  excellent  "Annals 
i"!^^^^^  of  Luzerne,"  gives  a  history  of  the  navigation 
jy^v^^^  of  tlie  Susquehanna,  from  which  much  of  the 
[k^^2^^     following  is  condensed. 

Vii^  This  river  was  of  course  the  natural  thor- 

vS^i-Ji  oughfare  over  which  the  Indians  had  passed  in 
^^^  their  journeyings  to  and  from  their  hunting 
grounds,  or  on  their  hostile  expeditions.  Many  timers 
have  the  fleets  of  the  warlike  Iroquois  glided  silently  over 
it,  bearing  the  dusky  warriors  on  their  excursions  against 
distant  southern  tribes,  or  on  their  return  from  these  ex- 
peditions bearing  their  trophies  of  victory. 

As  stated  elsewliere  the  earliest  settlers   in    this  re"ion 

came  from  Connecticut,  crossed  the  Hudson  river  near 
Newburg  and  the  Delaware  near  the  mouth  of  Shohohi 
creek,  and  thence  came  by  Indian  trails  across  the  countr) 
to  the  Wyoming  valley.  The  waters  of  the  river  were  ;ii 
once  utilized  by  them  for  local  transportation  or  passage, 
and  for  communication  with  the  settlements  below;  but 
in  order  to  render  the  river  a  safe  avenue  of  transporta- 
tion it  was  necessary  that  the  drift  timber  should  be 
removed  and  the  bars  of  gravel  be  cleared  away.  In 
1771  the  provincial  Legislature  declared  the  riverapublii 
highway,  and  appointed  commissioners  to  su])erintend 
the  work  of  improving  tlie  channel.  This  was  done,  and 
towing  paths  were  constructed  where  there  were  rapids. 
The  expense  of  these  improvements  was  defrayed  by  con- 
tributions from  the  settlers  and  an  appropriation  for  that 
purpose  by  the  Legislature. 

What  was  called  a  Durham  I  oat  was  first  used — so 
called  because  it  was  built  at  Durham  on  the  Delaware 
river.  Boats  of  this  style  had  a  length  of  about  sixty  feet, 
a  breadth  of  eight,  and  a  depth  of  two  ;  and  with  fifteen 
tons  of  lading  they  drew  about  twenty  inches  of  water. 
They  had  decks  at  each  end  and  running  boards  for 
"poling"  at  the  sides.  Masts  with  sails  were  erected 
on  them  when  a  favorable  wind  blew,  and  a  steersman 
and  two  polers  on  each  side  constituted  the  crew.  The 
boats  built  on  the  Susquehanna  were  similar,  but  larger, 
and  carried  larger  crews. 

Increasing  trade  soon  demanded  better  facilities  for 
transportation,  and  an  attempt  was  made  to  use  a  "  team 
boat,"  which  w;is  propelled  by  poles  that  were  worked  by 
horse  power,  but  after  a  trial  the  plan  was  abandoned. 

In  1826  the  plan  of  navigating  the  Susquehanna  b\' 
steam  was  tried.  The  "  Codorus,"  a  small  stern-wheel 
steamboat  which  had  been  built  at  York,  ascended  the 
river  as  far  as  Binghamton,  and  returned.  The  com- 
mander of  this  boat  did  not  consider  the  project  of  steam 
navigation  on  the  Suscpiehanna  feasible.  A  larger  boat, 
the  "  Susquehanna,"  built  at  Baltimore  for  the  purpose, 
ascended  the  river  on  a  trial  trip  in  the  spring  of  the  same 
year,  having  on  board  commissioners  to  superintend  the 
experiment.  In  the  attempt  to  ascend  the  rapids  at  Nes- 
copeck  her  boiler  exjiloded,  killing  and  injuring  many  of 
the  passengers  and  crew  and  destroying  the  boat. 

Another  experiment  was  made  on  the  west  branch, 
but  its  success  was  not  encouraging,  and  for  a  time  all 
attempts  at  steam  navigation  on  the  river  were  abandoned 
Delay  in  the  completion  of  the  North  Branch  Canal, 
and  the  strong  desire  to  introduce  anthracite  coal  into 
regions  uj)  the  river,  induced  other  attempts  afterward,  h\ 
the  citizens  of  Wilkcs-Barre  and  Owego  in  1835,  those  of 
Tunkhannock  in  1849,  and  those  of  Bainbridge  in  185 1. 
Though  in  each  of  these  attempts  a  partial  success  was 
achieved  all  ])roved  to  be  failures  at  last.  Small  steam- 
boats for  carrying  passengers  make  voyages  now  over 
portions  of  this  river. 

In  early  times  it  was  thought  practicable  to  build  sea- 
going vessels  on  the  banks  of  this  river,  and  in  times  of 
high  water  float  them  to  the  sea.  AccordingI)-,  in  1803, 
Messrs.  Arndt  &  Phillip  built  a  sloop  of  twelve  tons  bur- 



den  on  the  common  in  Wilkes-Barre,  and  launched  it  on 
ilie  river,  down  whicli  it  lloated  in  safety  to  tide  water. 
The  success  of  this  experiment  aroused  sanguine  hopes 
ihat  i  new  brancli  of  industry  was  soon  to  be  developed 
along  the  Sus(|uehanna.  A  stock  company  was  formed 
at  Wilkes-Barre,  and  in  i<Sii  a  ship  of  helwcLii  fifty  and 
sixty  tons  burden  was  commenced,  and  launched  in 
.April,  1812.  As  it  passed  down  the  river  it  was  wrec:ked 
iin  the  rocks  at  Conawaga  Falls,  near  Middlctown,  and 
thus  perished  the  anticipations  of  those  who  had  dreamed 
of  populous  ship-building  cities  along  this  river. 

The  Susquehanna  river  has  since  about  1795  been  util- 
i/ced  for  floating  rafts  of  lumber  and  timber  to  various 
markets.  These  rafts  were  floated  down  during  the  high 
water  of  spring  or  autumn.  When  the  country  was  first 
settled  there  was  very  little  market  for  lumber,  and  much 
valuable  timber  was  piled  together  and  burned  in  the 
process  of  clearing  the  land.  As  time  went  on  a  demand 
arose  for  this  timber,  or  the  lumber  into  which  it  was 
converted,  and  mills  began  to  spring  into  existence  for 
the  manufacture  of  this  lumber.  These  mills  multiplied 
as  the  demand  increased  and  rafts  came  to  be  more 
frequently  seen. 

The  forests  on  the  river  and  its  tributaries  above  the 
Wyoming  valley  were  filled  with  valuable  timber,  and 
iluring  many  yea's  this  limber  and  the  lumber  into  which 
it  was  converted  were  almost  the  only  sources  of  wealth 
to  the  settlers.  'I'he  river  furnished  the  outlet  for  this 
lumber,  nnti  when  the  business  of  rafting  was  at  its  height 
as  many  as  one  hundred  rafts  in  a  day  might  be  seen  to 
pass  in  Tunkhannock  creek  alone,  and  of  course  many 
more  in  the  river  at  that  point. 

This  lumber  consisted  of  boards,  shingles,  staves,  hewn 
timber,  spars,  etc.,  and  its  market  was  found  at  Harris- 
burg,  Middlctown,  Columbia,  Port  Deposit  and  other 
places.  The  pine  was  of  excellent  quality,  and  the 
lumber  into  which  it  was  converted  would  now  be  con- 
sidered valuable  far  beyond  what  it  was  then. 

The  Lackawanna  river,  too,  was  utilized  for  rafting 
himber  from  about  1808  till  the  country  was  exhausted 
of  the  pine  timber  with  which  it  originally  abounded.  At 
first  rafts  were  run  in  squares,  with  one  man  on  each 
s(|uare  to  conduct  it  with  a  setting  pole.  These  scjuares 
were  of  boards  twelve  or  sixteen  feet  in  length,  laid 
crosswise,  with  usually  eight  or  ten  courses.  (Jn  arriving 
:it  the  Susquehanna  these  squares  were  doubled  or 
placed  one  on  the  other,  w^hich  could  be  done  in  the 
deeper  water  of  that  river.  Some  years  later  the  practice 
came  to  prevail  of  fastening  five  of  these  squares  or 
platforms  together  and  steering  them  with  large  oars  at 
each  end,  and  on  reaching  the  Sus(iuehanna  these  were 
doubled  as  before  and  also  made  ten  squares  in  length. 
The  rafts  were  pre])ared,  and  when  the  freshets  in  the 
^pring  and  fall  occurred,  taken  down  the  river  to  market. 
In  what  was  known  as  the  "June  fresh" — when  it 
occurred  i^which  was  not  every  year — rafts  were  also 
taken  down.  Very  little  rafting  has  been  done  on  the 
I-ackawanna  since  1840. 

It  is  known  that  in    1796   thirty   rafts  went   down  the 

river.  The  number  continued  to  increase  till  during 
twenty-six  days  in  the  spring  of  1849  i,»43  rafts,  con- 
taining 100,000,000  feet  of   lumber,  passed  Wilkes-Barre. 

The  produce  raised  here  after  the  forest  was  partially 
cleared  away  consisted  of  wheat,  rye,  oats,  corn  and  llax, 
and  the  nearest  cash  market  for  any  of  these  was  Easton, 
to  which  the  wheat  was  drawn  on  sleighs  in  winter,  over 
the  Wilkes-Barre  and  Easton  Turnpike  from  Wilkes-Barre; 
and  the  rye  and  corn  were  used  for  feed  or  converted  into 

No  arks  had  passed  down  the  river  previous  to  1800, 
but  subsecpient  to  that  wheat  was  sent  tlown  the  stream 
in  bulk  in  those  rude  vessels,  and  found  a  market  gener- 
ally at  lialtimore,  to  which  place  it  was  taken  in  sloops 
and  schooners  from  Port  Deposit.  It  is  recorded  that  in 
1814  eighty-four  arks  went  by  Wilkes-Barre,  and  in  the 
freshet  of  1849  as  many  as  two  hundred  and  sixty-eight. 
Since  that  time  timber  has  become  more  and  more  scarce, 
and  other  avenues  of  transportation  have  been  opened; 
and  now  but  few  rafts  are  seen  passing  down  this  river, 
and  no  arks  or  boats  used  for  trans(iortation. 

Action  with  regard  to  the  construction  of  canals  along 
the  Susquehanna  and  other  rivers  in  the  State  was  taken 
ill  1824,  and  in  1826  the  Legislature  enacted  a  general 
internal  improvement  law,  under  which  them.inv  miles  of 
canals  in  the  State  were  constructed. 

.\t  that  time  the  existence  of  vast  mineral  wealth  in 
this  region  had  become  known,  and  the  people  of  this 
coimty  felt  deeply  interested  in  the  projected  improve- 
ment in  transportation,  which  when  accomplished  would 
develop  that  wealth;  and  they  took  measures  to  secure  for 
this  county  a  portion  of  the  benefits  of  the  system  of  im- 
provements which  the  State  inaugurated.  They  were 
successful;  and  in  182S  the  North  Branch  Canal  was 
commenced.  It  was  completed  as  far  as  Nanticoke  in 
1830,  in  which  year  the  first  boat  in  Luzerne  county, 
the  "Wyoming,"  was  built  at  Shickshinny.  In  1831  the 
second  boat,  named  the  "  Luzerne,"  was  built  on  the 
bank  of  the  river  opposite  Wilkes-Barre,  and  during  the 
summer  of  that  year  it  made  a  trip  to  Philadelphia  and 
back  to  the  Nanticoke  dam;  and  in  1834,  after  the  com- 
pletion of  the  canal  to  the  Lackawanna,  this  boat  made  the 
first  round  tri|)  between  Wilkes-Barre  and  Philadelphia. 

Beyond  the  Lackawanna,  toward  the  north  line  of  the 
State,  slow  progress  was  made  in  the  construction  of  this 
canal,  and  the  work  was  suspended  in  1832.  In  1842 
and  1843  the  State  made  liberal  offers  to  the  North 
Branch  Canal  Com|)any,  which  was  incorporated  in  the 
former  year;  but  capitalists  did  not  see  fit  to  invest  their 
money  in  this  enterprise,  and  in  1848  it  became  evident 
that  nothing  would  be  done  by  the  company  which  had 
been  chartered,  and  successful  efforts  were  made  to 
jirocure  an  api)ropriation  for  the  prosecution  of  the  work, 
and  during  that  year  the  work  was  put  under  contract. 
It  was  by  reason  of  the  indefatigable  efforts  of  Hon.  R. 
R.  Little,  of  Wyoming  county,  that  this  appropriation 
was  made.  Connection  with  the  canals  of  New  York  was 
effected  in  1856  by  the  Junction  Canal  Company,  which 
constructed  the  last  sixteen  miles  >>(  ihi-  work. 



In  1858  the  State  canals  were  sold  to  the  Siinbury  and 
Erie  Railroad  Company,  and  this  company  at  once  sold 
the  north  branch  division,  from  Northumberland  to 
Northampton  street,  in  \Vilkes-Barre,  to  the  Nortii 
Branch  Canal  Company. 



HE  Lehigh  Navigation  &  Coal  Company  be- 
gan in  1839,  and  completed  in  1841,  the 
original  Lehigh  &  Susquehanna  Railroad, 
from  the  public  common  at  the  foot  of  South 
street,  Wilkes- Barre,  to  White  Haven,  then  the 
head  of  slack  water  navigation  of  that  company. 
It  was  designed  as  a  portage  over  which  to 
transport  boats  between  White  Haven  and  Wilkes-Barre, 
and  thus  form  a  link  in  the  connection  between  Buffalo 
and  Philadelphia  through  the  North  Branch  Canal  and 
the  canals  in  New  York  on  one  side,  and  the  Lehigh  and 
Delaware  rivers  on  the  other.  This  portage  over  the 
mountain  was  accomplished  by  three  inclined  planes, 
having  their  foot  at  Ashley.  The  aggregate  ascent  which 
these  planes  make  is  about  1,150  feet.  From  White  Haven 
the  road  was  afterward  built  down  the  Lehigh  to  Mauch 
Chunk,  and  thence  to  Easton. 

At  first  horse  cars  ran  between  Wilkes-Barre  and  the 
planes.  These  planes  have  been  much  improved,  and 
more  coal  is  taken  over  them  than  over  any  similar  planes 
in  the  world.  The  ascent  of  the  mountain  is  now  over- 
come by  a  circuit  to  the  northeast,  and  over  this  passen- 
gers and  ordinary  freight  trains  are  taken,  and  empty 
cars  are  brought  back  by  gravity.  This  circuit  was  built 
about  the  year  1866.  The  same  year  the  Lehigh  and 
Susquehanna  was  extended  to  Green  Ridge,  above  Scran- 
ton,  where  it  connects  with  the  Delaware  &  Hudson 
Canal  Company's  road. 

The  Nanticoke  and  ^V'anamie  branch  of  the  Lehigh 
and  Susquehanna  Railroad  connected  with  this  road  at 
the  foot  of  the  planes  and  extended  northeastward  a 
mile  above  Wilkes-Barre,  to  the  Baltimore  coal  mines, 
and  southwestward  to  Nanticoke  village.  It  was  built  in 
1 86 1,  by  the  Nanticoke  Railway  Company,  which  was 
composed  of  owners  of  coal  lands  along  the  route  of  the 
road.  In  1866  or  1867  the  Lehigh  and  Susquehanna 
Company,  which  had  purchased  this  road,  built  a  branch 
from  near  Nanticoke  to  Wanamie,  and  an  extension  from 
the  Baltimore  mines  to  Green  Ridge.  Subsequently  a 
connection  was  made  between  this  extension  and  the 
Delaware  and  Hudson  Canal  Company's  road.  Another 
branch,  now  owned  by  the  Delaware  and  Hudson  Canal 
Company,  connects  the  Lehigh  and  Susquehanna  at 
South  Wilkes-Barre  with  the  Bloomsburg  branch  of  the 
Delaware,    Lackawanna     and     Western     Railroad     bv    a 

bridge  in  the  township  of  Plymouth,  and  thereby  with 
the  collieries  on  the  west  side  of  the  river- 

Another  connection  between  the  Lehigh  and  Susque- 
hanna and  the  Bloomsburg  branch  is  by  a  short  track 
over  the  bridge  across  the  Sus(]uehanna  at  Nanticoke. 
This  branch  and  bridge  are  owned  by  the  Suscjuehanna 
Coal  Company.  These  extensions  and  bridges  were  built 
under  the  superintendence  of  the  engineer  Dr.  Ingham. 

The  Nescopeck  branch  was  built  by  the  Lehigh  and 
Susipiehanna  company  in  1867,  between  White  Haven 
and  Ujiper  Lehigh.  In  1871  this  road  was  leased  in 
perpetuity  by  the  Central  Railroad  Company  of  New 
Jersey,  and  it  is  now  operated  by  that  company. 


It  became  evident  to  the  owners  of  real  estate  on  the 
west  side  of  the  Susquehanna  river  in  the  Wyoming  val- 
ley that  an  outlet  was  necessary  for  the  coal  which  was 
known  to  abound  there.  The, canal  on  that  side  of  the 
river  came  no  farther  up  than  Nanticoke,  and  the  pro- 
jected railroads  on  the  opposite  side  would  not  be  avail- 
able for  the  transportation  of  coal  mined  here.  Under 
these  circumstances  capitalists  and  owners  of  coal  lands 
on  the  west  side  of  the  river  conceived  and  put  in  execu- 
tion the  project  of  constructing  a  railroad  which  would 
afford  the  desired  outlet  for  this  coal,  and  thus  greatly 
enhance  the  value  of  their  lands. 

On  the  5th  of  April,  1852,  by  an  act  of  Assembly  a 
charter  was  granted  for  a  road  between  Scranton,  Luzerne 
county,  and  Bloomsburg,  Columbia  county,  fifty-six 
miles,  with  authority  to  extend  the  same  to  Danville, 
twelve  miles.  By  a  supplementary  act  passed  March  3d, 
1853,  a  further  extension  of  twelve  miles  to  Northumber- 
land or  Sunbury  was  authorized,  making  a  total  length 
of  eighty  miles.  The  authorized  capital  of  the  road  and 
its  extensions  was  $1,400,000,  and  the  road  was  subse- 
quently bonded  for  $2,200,000  more. 

The  company  was  organized  at  Kingston,  Ayml  16th, 
1853,  and  William  Sweetland  was  chosen  president, 
Thomas  F.  Atherton  secretary,  and  Charles  D.  Shoe- 
maker treasurer.  In  1855  WilHam  C.  Reynolds  became 
president,  William  Sweetland  vice-president,  Payne  Pette- 
bone  treasurer,  and  H.  Woodhouse  secretary.  The  frst 
directors  were  Selden  T.  Scranton,  Samuel  Ijenedici, 
Stephen  B.  Jenkins,  Amos  Y.  Smith,  Thomas  F.  Atherton. 
William  Sweetland,  Samuel  Hoyt,  George  Peck,  (jeorge 
W.  Woodward,  Henderson  Gaylord,  Mordecai  \\'.  Jack- 
son and  John  R.  Grotz.  Some  changes  were  subse- 
quently made  in  the  board  of  directors  by  the  retirement 
of  some  of  the  members. 

Payne  Pettebone  served  the  company  as  treasurer  from 
the  spring  of  1855  till  the  summer  of  1863.  During  that 
period  the  collection  of  stock  subscriptions,  raising  funds, 
settling  controversies  concerning  right  of  way,  and  many 
incidental  matters  affecting  the  interests  of  the  company, 
necessarily  absorbed  much  of  his  time  and  energies 
beyond  what  his  salary  would  remunerate.  The  heavy 
responsibilities  that  the  directors  had  incurred  rendered 
these  efforts  necessary. 




Among  the  otiicers  and  managers  conspicuous  for  doing 
hard  work  and  assuming  heavy  responsibilities  to  relieve 
the  coni])any  from  embarrassment  were  Judge  William  C. 
Reynolds,  Samuel  Hoyt,  William  Sweetland,  Henderson 
(laylord,  Thomas  !•'.  Atlierton,  Joseph  H.  Scranion, 
Mordecai  W.  Jackson  and  Hon.  George  W.  Woodward; 
and  in  their  special  departments,  Hon.  Warren  J.  Wood- 
ward and  Hon.  Charles  R.  I5uckalew.  Valuable  aid  was 
also  rendered  by  R.  J.  Wisner,  Theodore  Strong  and  S. 
T.  Scranton.  John  Brisbin  and  James  .Archbald  rei)re- 
sented  the  Delaware,  Lackawanna  and  Western  Railroad 
in  the  board,  and  they  were  always  esteemed  valuable 
counselors.  Mr.  _  Pettebone  was  succeeded  by  A.  H. 

Thomas  F.  Atherton  was  the  first  secretary,  but  was 
succeeded  in  1854  by  Henry  Woodhouse,  who  served  the 
company  during  the  hard  work  of  construction  and  who 
was  universally  commended  for  his  faithfulness. 

The  grading  of  the  road  was  commenced  at  Scranton, 
in  1854,  and  in  June,  1856,  the  first  train  ran  from  Scran- 
ton to  Kingston.  In  1858  the  road  was  opened  to  Rupert, 
connecting  with  the  Catawissa  road,  and  in  i860  to  Dan- 
ville and  Northumberland. 

This  road  was  consolid-^.ted  with  the  Delaware,  Lacka- 
wanna and  Western  in  1872,  and  it  is  now^  known  as  the 
Bloomsburg  branch  of  that  road. 

The  shops  of  the  Bloomsburg  division  are  located  at 
Kingston.  They  are  for  the  manufacture  of  locomotives 
and  the  repair  of  all  cars.  They  are  five  in  number,  and 
160  men  are  employed  in  them. 

The  success  of  this  road  has  fully  demonstrated  the 
wise  prevision  of  its  jirojectors. 


In  1846  this  w-as  chartered  as  the  Delaware,  Lehigh, 
Schuylkill  and  Susquehanna  Railroad  Comi)any.  In  1850 
a  survey  of  the  road  was  first  made  between  Easton  and 
the  mouth  of  Mahoning  creek. 

In  1 85  I  Asa  Packer  became  a  large  purchaser  of  stock 
in  this  company,  and  instituted  measures  to  secure  an 
early  completion  of  the  work.  In  1852  Robert  H.  Sayre 
became  chief  engineer  and  located  the  road,  and  in  the 
latter  part  of  the  same  year  Judge  Packer  undertook  the 
construction  of  the  road  from  a  point  opposite  Mauch 
Chunk  to  Easton,  where  it  would  make  such  connections 
as  would  give  outlets  to  New  York  and  Philadelphia  for 
its  trade. 

Early  in  1853  the  name  of  the  corporation  was  changed 
to  the  Lehigh  Valley  Railroad  Company,  and  in  1855 
trains  ran  over  it  between  Easton  and  Mauch  Cluink. 
In  1865  measures  were  adopted  to  extend  the  road  to 
White  Haven,  and  in  1867  it  was  opened  to  WilkesBarre. 
Judge  Packer  had,  in  1866,  purchased  a  controlling 
interest  in  the  North  Branch  Canal  from  Wilkes-Barre  to 
the  north  line  of  Pennsylvania,  with  a  charter  from  the 
State  authorizing  a  change  in  the  name  of  the  corporation 
to  the  Pennsylvania  and  New  York  Canal  and  Railroad 
Company,  and  the  construction  of  a  railroad  the  entire 
length  of   it;  and  the  work  was  at  once  entered  on.     The 

road,  which  is  practically  an  extension  of  the  Lehigh 
Valley,  was  o|)ened  to  its  New  York  connections  in  1S69. 
.About  ten  miles  of  it,  between  Wilkcs-Barre  and  Lacka- 
wanna junction,  are  leased  by  the  Lehigh  Valley  Com- 
l>any,  and  the  remainder  is  operated  in  the  interest  of  the 
I  liter,  constituting,  as  before  stated,  an  extension  of  that 
road.  The  connection  thus  formed  with  the  New  N'ork 
and  Erie  and  with  other  roads  in  New  York  brought  a 
large  territory  into  direct  communication  with  the  anthra- 
cite coal  fields  of  Luzerne  county  and  the  region  farther 
south,  and  thus  greatly  enhanced  the  importance  of  the 
mining  interest  in  those  regions,  while  it  established  more 
intimate  commercial  relations  between  these  sections  of 
the  country. 

It  is  a  noteworthy  fact  that  the  lines  on  which  the 
railroads  in  this  section  run  are  generally  coincident  with 
those  of  the  old  Indian  war  paths. 

In  1868  the  stock  of  the  Ha/leton  Railroad  Company 
and  that  of  the  Lehigh  and  Luzerne  Railroad  Company 
became  merged  in  this  corporation. 

It  has  always  been  the  policy  of  this  company  to 
secure  a  proportion  of  the  coal  trade  by  accjuiring  in- 
terests in  coal  lands  and  in  the  stock  of  other  compa- 
nies holding  such  lands  in  the  vicinity  of  their  branches. 
They  have  thus  become  large  owners  of  real  estate  beyond 
what  is  necessary  for  purposes  of  trans])ortation. 

This  road  crosses  the  mountain  range  between  the 
Susquehanna  and  Lehigh  valleys  by  a  wide  detour  to  the 
southeast,  ind  during  the  ascent  many  sjilendid  views  are 

The  engine  house  and  shops  of  this  company  arc 
located  about  one  mile  north  from  Wilkes-Barre.  They 
are  for  the  repair  of  locomotives  only.  About  one 
hundred  and  forty  men  are  constantly  employed  in  them. 
They  were  commenced  in  1872  and  completed  as  far  as 
at  present  in  1874. 


sportsmen's    ASSOCIATIONS. 

^N  the  nth  day  of  February,  1858,  at  a  meet- 
ing held  in  the  old  Fell  tavern,  in  Wilkes 
Barre,  to  celebrate  the  fiftieth  anniversary  of 
the  burning  of  anthracite  coal  in  an  open 
.^^rgjp/  —  grate,  it  was  proposed  to  organize  a  histori- 
;^fv  cal  and  geological  society,  and  thus  collect  and 
>' >  preserve  the  early  records  of  the  local  history  of 

the  valley,  its  Indian  relics,  and  also  fossils  and  specimens 
illustrative  of  its  geology,  especially  of  the  rich  and 
extensive  deposits  of  anthracite  coal  which  underlie  the 
entire  region. 

The  suggestion  was  favorably  received,  and  on  the  loth 
of  the  following  May  the  Wyoming  Historical  and  Geo- 
logical Society  was  duly  incorporated.      Hon    E.  L.  Dana 




was  elected  the  first  president,  and  a  room  for  the  cabi- 
net was  secured  on  Franklin  street,  near  Market.  Liberal 
donations  were  made  of  historical  records,  Indian  relics, 
geological  and  mineralogical  specimens;  and  General  Wil- 
liam S.  Ross,  with  characteristic  liljerality,  purchased  at 
the  expense  of  two  thousand  dollars  the  Chambers  col- 
lection of  curiosities,  consisting  of  ancient  coins,  miner- 
als, Indian  relics,  etc.,  and  presented  it  to  the  society. 

The  monthly  meetings  of  the  association  have  been 
held  with  some  degree  of  regularity,  and  contributions 
continue  to  be  made  to  it.  These  contributions  are  sev- 
erally numbered  as  they  are  received,  and  the  names  of 
the  contributors  recorded.  The  donations  often  include 
many  articles  and  the  list  of  them  thus  kept  now  exceeds 
five  thousand. 

A  large  library,  including  a  valuable  collection  of  pub- 
lic records,  has  also  been  gathered.  The  rare  historical 
records,  many  of  them  originals,  and  the  interesting 
cabinet  of  coal  fossils,  which  it  would  be  scarcely  possible 
to  replace  in  case  of  loss,  are  deserving  of  the  protection 
of  a  fire-proof  structure. 

a(;ricui.ti're  .•^nd  agricultural  societies. 

During  the  half  century  succeeding  the  first  settlement 
of  Luzerne  county  agriculture  was  the  chief  employment 
of  the  inhabitants.  There  were  among  them  a  few  hunt- 
ers and  trappers,  and  such  mechanics  as  the  wants  of  the 
people  necessitated.  The  existence  of  the  immense 
mineral  wealth  of  the  region  was  not  then  known.  The 
farmer,  as  he  followed  his  plow  over  the  fields,  .scattered 
on  them  the  seed,  or  gathered  from  them  the  grain  which 
sprang  up,  matured,  and  ripened,  little  dreamed  that 
beneath  the  surface  on  which  he  labored  was  a  deposit 
of  wealth  compared  with  which  the  harvests  that  he 
reaped  were  mere  trifles;  or  that  the  barren  mountains 
over  which  the  hunter  pursued  his  game  would  yet  re- 
ward the  labor  of  thousands  whose  villages  would  lie 
scattered  along  their  bases.  The  settlements  were  limited 
to  the  fertile  lands  along  the  Susquehanna  and  its  afflu- 
ents, where  bountiful  returns  rewarded  the  labors  of  the 

The  agriculture  of  those  days  was,  compared  with  that 
of  the  present  time,  awkward  and  rude.  Many  of  the 
implements  then  in  use  were  clumsy  and  uncouth,  though 
some  of  them  were  well  adapted  to  the  condition  of 
things  then  existing.  The  different  methods  of  culture, 
the  proper  rotation  of  crops,  the  chemical  composition  of 
the  soil  and  its  adaptation  to  the  production  of  different 
kinds  of  grain;  the  constitution,  selection  and  ajjplication 
of  manures  ;  the  nature,  habits  and  best  means  for  pre- 
venting the  ravages  of  or  exterminating  destructive 
insects,  etc.,  had  not  been  made  the  subject  of  scientific 
investigation  to  the  extent  to  which  they  have  in  later 
years.  Scarcely  any  agricultural  publications  were 
issued,  and  such  as  existed  were  sparsely  circulated  ;  and 
no  associations  existed  among  farmers  for  the  discussion 
of  matters  pertaining  to  agricultural  science  or  for 
comparison  of  views,  methods  or  results. 

The  first  agricultural  society  in  this  State  of  which  any 

record  a[)pears  was  that  of  Philadelphia,  which  was 
established  at  the  request  of  the  Supreme  Executive 
Council.  In  1788  this  society  instituted  investigations 
and  made  a  report  on  the  subject  of  the  Hessian  fly.  The 
importation  of  American  wheat  into  England  had  been 
prohibited  by  a  proclamation  of  the  King,  and  this  report, 
by  showing  the- uselessness  of  such  prohibition,  was  of 
great  advantage  to  American  farmers. 

The  first  agricultural  society  in  Luzerne  county  was 
organized  in  1810,  at  a  meeting  held  in  the  old  court-house 
in  Wilkes-Barre.  -Jesse  Fell  was  chosen  president  of  the 
society,  Matthias  HoUenback  vice-president,  Thomas 
Dyer,  Esq.,  treasurer,  Peleg  Tracy  recording  secretary, 
and  Dr.  R.  H.  Rose  and  Jacob  Cist  corresponding  secre- 
taries. It  is  remembered  that  these  corresponding  secre- 
taries were  very  efficient  members  of  the  society,  and  that 
they  were  active  in  promoting  the  advancement  of  knowl- 
edge among  the  people.  Only  fragmentary  records  of 
the  proceedings  of  this  society  are  preserved.  For  181 1 
there  appears  a  report  on  some  specimens  of  cloth  pre- 
sented for  exhibition  by  Mr.  Ingham,  who  was  a  cloth 
dresser,  and  the  premium  list  for  1824  is  still  in  existence. 
Though  the  ]jremiums  in  this  list  were  not  large  they  were 
very  judiciously  arranged,  and  were  only  proposed  for 
those  things  which  were  substantially  useful.  Five  dollars 
each  were  offered  for  best  essays  on  the  Hessian  fly  and 
the  prevention  of  its  ravages,  on  the  curculio  and  the  best 
methods  for  its  destruction,  and  on  the  general  subject  of 
agriculture  and  manufactures.  The  list  was  not  disgraced 
by  the  offer  of  anything  for  horse  racing. 

The  Agricultural  Society  of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania 
was  organized  in  1849,  and  since  its  organization  societies 
have  sprung  up  in  almost  every  county  in  the  State.  In 
185 1  another  Luzerne  county  agricultural  society  was 
organized,  with  General  William  S.  Ross  president,  Hon. 
John  Coons  and  Hon.  William  Hancock  vice-presidents, 
S.  D.  Lewis  treasurer,  George  H.  Butler  recording  sec- 
retary, Washington  Lee,  jr.,  corresponding  secretary,  and 
Charles  Dorrance  and  William  P.  Miner  curators.  Al- 
though the  society  had  two  hundred  members  and  gave 
great  promise  of  usefulness,  its  existence  was  brief,  by 
reason  of  the  speculation  in  coal  lands  which  at  about 
that  time  overshadowed  almost  every  other  interest. 

The  third  society,  which  is  still  in  existence,  was 
organized  in  1858.  From  the  records  of  this  society  the 
following  facts  concerning  it  are  gleaned:  On  the  2Sth 
of  September  of  that  year  a  meeting  of  persons  inter- 
ested in  farming  and  gardening  was  held  in  the  "house 
of  Mr.  Wambold,"  at  Kingston.  Rev.  Thomas  P.  Hunt 
presided,  and  William  P.  Miner  acted  as  secretary. 
Colonel  Charles  Dorrance  reported  a  constitution  and 
by-laws  for  the  organization  then  and  there  to  be  formed, 
which  were  adopted.  The  constitution  named  the  asso- 
ciation the  Luzerne  County  Agricultural  Society ; 
declared  the  object  to  be  "  to  foster  and  improve 
agriculture,  horticulture,  and  the  domestic  and  house- 
hold arts  ;  fixed  the  fee  for  annual  membership  at  $1, 
and  for  life  membership  at  $5  ;  provided  for  a  meeting 
on  the  third  Tuesday  in  February  of  each  year,  at  which 





should  be  elected  a  president,  nine  vice-])residents  of 
whom  "three-fourths"  should  he  practical  farmers  or 
horticulturists)  to  look  after  the  interests  and  report  the 
condition  of  a};ricultare,  recording  and  corresponding 
secretaries,  a  librarian  and  an  agritultural  chemist  and 
geologist  ;  also  a  general  meeting  in  connection  with  the 
fair,  and  special  meetings  as  called  by  the  executive  com- 
mittee, which  was  to  consist  of  the  officers  and  five  other 

At  this  meeting  one  hundred  and  thirty-six  men  joined 
the  society.  They  chose  for  i)resident  Charles  Dorrance; 
corresponding  secretary,  Thomas   P.   Hunt;  librarian,   1. 

D.  Shoemaker;  and  the  following  vice-i)residents:  Charles 
I).   Shoemaker,  Kingston;   Samuel   Wadhams,    Plymouth; 

E.  W.  Sturdevant,  Wilkes-Barre;  Benjamin  Harvey,  Hunt- 
ington; William  W.  Bronson,  Carbondale;  David  C. 
Driesbach,  Salem;  Clark  Sisson,  Abington;  Abram  Drum, 
Butler,  and  Calvin  Parsons,  Plains.  .At  a  meeting  of  the 
executive  committee  two  days  later  Anson  A.  Church 
was  elected  treasurer,  and  Thomas  P.  Atherton  recording 

James  Jenkins  offered  fair  grounds  at  Wyoming  for 
four  years  free,  fenced  and  provided  with  a  trotting  track; 
and  the  offer  was  accepted.  Since  the  expiration  of  that 
time  the  grounds  have  been  rented  from  several  proprie- 

In  the  summer  of  1859  an  exhibition  building,  one  hun- 
dred covered  stalls,  and  a  secretary's  office  were  con- 
structed, and  a  well  was  dug.  The  expense  of  these  im- 
jirovements  was  §1,436.48.  In  arranging  for  the  fair  of 
1859  it  was  voted  that  there  should  be  no  "Shows  or 
Jim  cracks  "  on  the  ground. 

At  the  annual  meeting  held  February  21st,  i860,  the 
number  of  vice-presidents  was  changed  to  twelve,  and  the 
time  of  meeting  thereafter  to  the  second  Thursday  in 

By  invitation  of  this  society  the  State  agricultural  soci- 
ety held  its  fair  on  the  Wyoming  grounds  in  i860.  Addi- 
tional sheds  and  stalls  were  built  for  the  occasion,  which 
were  bought  by  the  county  society  for  $100. 

The  proceeds  of  the  fair  of  1862  were  appropriated  to 
the  aid  of  the  families  of  soldiers  engaged  in  the  sup- 
])ression  of  the  Rebellion. 

November  14th,  1867,  it  was  announced  that  James 
Jenkins,  J.  B.  Schooley  and  John  Sharps,  jr.,  wished  to 
resume  the  occupancy  of  portions  of  the  fair  ground 
belonging  to  them,  and  arrangements  for  reducing  it  were 
made  accordingly. 

On  the  5th  of  July,  1873,  it  was  voted  to  reorganize 
the  society  on  a  stock  basis,  shares  being  offered  at  $10 
each.  August  i6th  the  reorganization  was  coinpleted  by 
the  election  of  officers,  including  John  Sharps  as  presi- 
dent, and  ten  vice-])residents,  of  which  John  B.  Smith, 
of  Kingston,  was  "first  vice-president."  That  officer  and 
the  president,  secretary  and  treasurer  were  made  the 
executive  committee. 

At  the  annual  meeting  of  1879  it  was  voted  to  pay 
John  Sharps  $50  per  year  for  the  use  of  the  fair  grounds. 
The  annual  meetings,  as  well  as  the   fairs  of  the  society. 

have  been  held  at  Wyoming.     Quarterly  meetings  of  the 
executive  committee  were  held  under  the  old  regime. 

The  presidents  of  the  society  hive  been  as  follo\v«: 
Charles  Dorrance,  1858  6S;  P.ivne  I'ettebone.  1869  — 
resigned  September  I  I th,  and  Peter  Pursel  was  elected 
for  the  imfinislK'd  term  and  the  r.ext  year;  Ira  Tripp. 
1S71;  Steuben  Jenkins,  1872,  1873;  John  Sharps,  .-Vugusi 
16th,  1873,  after  the  reorganization,  and  for  the  sui 
ceeding  term;  John  M.  Stark,  1875;  J.  B.  Smith 

l.UZKKNK    COL'NIV     \ll|)l<  Al.    SDCIKIV. 

On  the  fourth  day  of  March,  1861,  pursuant  to  call,  .1 
convention  of  physicians  was  held  at  the  court-house  in 
Wilkes-Barre  for  the  pur|)Oseof  forming  a  medical  socieiv. 
.At  this  convention  there  were  present  doctors  1".  C.  W 
Rooney,  of  Hazleton;  N.  P.  Moody,  Lehman;  H.  Lad  I. 
C.  Marr,  William  Creen,  B.  H.Throop,  Scranton;  (1 
Urquhart,  W.  F.  Dennis,  K.  R.  NLiyir,  C.  Wagner,  E  H 
Miner,  Wilkes-Barre;  R.  H.  Tubbs,  Kingston;  S  Law 
ton,  Pittston  ;  .\.  L.  Cressler  and  J.  R.  Cassclber\, 

The   following  were  chosen   officers:    B.    IL     I'hroop, 
president;  E.  R.    Mayer  and   .A.  L.  Cressler,  vice  prcsi 
dents;  C.  I'riiuhart,   secretary,  and    R.    H.  Tubbs,  tre.i 
surer.     .A  constitution  was  adopted,  the  second  article  oi 
which  stated  the  objects  of  the  society  to  be    "  the  pro 
motion  of  knowledge  upon  subjects  connected  with  the 
healing  art,  the  advancement  of   the  character  and  the 
protection  of  the  interests  of  those  engaged  in  the  practit  c 
of  medicine,  and  the  employment  of  the  means  calculated 
to   render   the   profession    most    useful  to  the  public  and 
subservient  to  the  great  interests  of  humanity." 

The  eleventh  article  adopted  the  code  of  ethics  of  the 
State  Medical  Society,  and  declared  that  any  deparlur. 
from  its  meaning  and  spirit  might  subject  the  offender  to 
the  discipline  of  the  society. 

.At   first    the    meetings  of    the   society  were  held  four 
times   each    year,    but    during  several   years   the)^  haxc 
been  held  every  two  months.     .At  these  meetings  profes 
sional  topics  are  ably  discussed  and  a  constantly  incrcas 
ing  interest  is  developed. 

The  following  gentlemen  have  served  the  society  a^ 
president  in  the  order  named:  Drs.  N.  V.  Dennis,  S 
Lawton.  jr.,  R.  H.  Tubbs,  John  Smith,  A.  L.  Cressler,  J. 
B.  Crawford,  Horace  Ladd,  S.  Lawton,  jr.,  Edward  R 
Mayer,  James  B.  Lewis,  Horace  Ladd,  E.  Bulkely,  C. 
Underwood,  Charles  Burr,  E.  R.  Mayer.  J.  H.  Crawford, 
J.  E.  Ross.  J.  A.  Murphy. 

The  Luzerne  County  Homoeopathic  Society  was  organ- 
ized about  1866  and  was  in  existence  about  two  years. 
Dr.  .A.  C.  Stevens  was  president;  Dr.  William  Brisbin 
secretary  and  treasurer. 


This  was  first  organized  as  the  Luzerne  County  Sun- 
day-School  Association,  at    the    Presbyterian   ihnr.  h  in 




Dunniore,  September  28th,  1875,  with  the  following 
officers:  Rev.  W.  P.  Hellings,  president;  Rev.  D.  A. 
Lindsley,  Rev.  W.  V.  White,  Hon.  Theodore  Strong, 
Hon.  E.  C  Wadhams,  vice-presidents;  F.  E.  Nettleton, 
corresponding  secretary;  J.  F.  Richard,  assistant  corre- 
sponding secretary;  E.  M.  Peck,  recording  secretary; 
James  R.  Lathrop,  treasurer. 

The  work  of  the  association  has  been  carried  on  by 
means  of  Sunday-school  institutes,  till  recently  Mr. 
Crittenden  has  been  employed  as  a  missionary. 

Rev.  R.  W.  Van  Schoick  succeeded  Mr.  Hellings  as 
president,  and  occupied  the  position  till  the  [)resent  in- 
cumbent was  elected. 

The  name  of  the  association  was  changed  to  Luzerne 
and  Lackawanna  Sunday-School  Association  on  the  for- 
mation of  Lackawanna  county  in  1878;  and  in  1879  ''i*^ 
fifth  annual  convention,  held  at  West  Pittston,  Wyoming 
county,  was  by  request  included  and  tlie  present  name 
was  adopted. 

The  ])resent  officers  are:  Rev.  N.  I.  Rubinkam,  presi- 
dent; F.  C.  Johnson,  S.  C.  Mellory,  F.  E.  Nettleton,  A. 
F.  Levi,  Halsey  Lathrop,  A.  S.  Stearns,  H.  E.  Suther- 
land, E.  A.  Atherton,  C.  L.  Rice,  vice-presidents;  T.  F. 
Wells,  corresponding  secretary;  B.  R.  Wade,  recording 
secretary;   Pierce  Butler,  treasurer. 

In  1878  the  statistics  were:  Number  of  Sunday-schools, 
319;  officers  and  teachers,  3,210;  scholars,  26,566.  The 
present  number  of  scholars  is  probably  about  40,000. 


This  association  was  organized  in  October,  1875, 
and  incorporated  on  the  3d  of  January,  1876.  Its 
objects  are  "  the  preservation  and  propagation  of  game 
and  fish  within  the  county  of  Luzerne."  It  has  an  active 
membership  of  about  fifty,  and  a  land  membership  of  a 
much  greater  number.  Land  members  are  those  owners 
of  lands  who  choose  to  make  leases  to  the  club  for  the 
purpose  of  enabling  it  to  jjrevent  poaching  and  violations 
of  the  game  laws. 

The  influence  of  the  club  has  always  been  used  for  its 
legitimate  objects.  It  has  prosecuted  to  conviction  sev- 
eral violations  of  the  game  laws,  and  procured  the  ap- 
pointment of  five  fish  wardens  by  the  fish  commissioners 
of  the  State.  It  has  planted  41,000  California  salmon  in 
Bowman's  creek,  2,500  salmon  trout  and  9,000  land  locked 
salmon  in  Harvey's  lake,  and  about  25,000  brook  trout  in 
several  of  the  public  streams  of  the  county;  has  imported 
more  than  600  live  quails,  and  has  circulated  upwards  of 
3,000  copies  of  the  game  laws.  It  offers  rewards  for  the 
conviction  of  those  who  violate  the  game  laws,  and  also 
for  the  destruction  of  hawks,  owls,  foxes,  skunks,  minks 
and  weasels.  It  holds  a  meeting  on  the  first  Monday  in 
each  month.  Always  keeping  the  legitimate  objects  of 
the  club  in  view,  its  members  strive  to  accomplish  these 
with  justice  to  all  and  malice  toward  none. 


From  a  report  made  April  26th,  1879,  by  Rev.  S.  S. 
Kennedy,  agent  of  this  society,  the  following  sketch  is 
mainly  gleaned. 

Its  first  organization  w-as  effected  November  ist,  1819, 
at  a  meeting  in  the  old  church  on  the  public  square. 
The  first  officers  chosen  were  Ebenezer  Bowman,  presi- 
dent; William  Ross,  Esq.,  David  Scott,  Es(i.,and  Captain 
David  Hoyt,  vice-presidents;  Dr.  Edward  Lovell,  corres- 
ponding secretary;  .\ndrew  Beaumont,  recording  secre- 
tary; and  G.  M.  Hollenback,  treasurer.  Many  of  the 
best  citizens  of  the  county  became  patrons  of  the  society, 
and  it  is  recorded  that  a  masonic  lodge  of  Wilkes-Barre 
donated  $25. 

In  1828  David  Scott  was  chosen  president;  Thomas 
Dyer,  vice-president;  John  N.  Conyngham,  corresponding 
secretary;  Ziba  Bennett,  recording  secretary;  and  James 
D.  Haff,  treasurer. 

The  society  was  reorganized  on  the  25th  of  August, 
1S35,  and  Rev.  James  May  was  elected  president;  Rev. 
John  Dorrance,  Hon.  David  Scott,  Cristus  Collins,  Esq., 
and  John  N.  Conyngham,  Esq.,  vice-presidents;  Volney 
S.  Maxwell,  Esq.,  secretary;  Henry  C.  Anheiser,  treasu- 
rer; Dr.  Latham  Jones,  Edmund  Taylor  and  William  C. 
Gildersleeve,  executive  committee.  No  records  of  this 
org.mization  of  a  later  date  than  1S37  appear. 

On  the  28th  of  January,i853,  after  a  sleep  of  sixteen 
years,  the  society  was  again  reorganized,  and  Hon.  John 
Conyngham  was  chosen  president  ;  Hon.  Ziba  Bennett, 
treasurer  ;  Sharp  D.  Lewis,  Esq.,  recording  secretary  ; 
and  A.  T.  McClintock,  Esq.,  corresponding  secretarv. 
Judge  Conyngham  continued  in  the  office  of  president 
during  eighteen  years,  or  until  his  death.  He  was 
succeeded  by  V.  L.  Maxwell,  and  at  his  death  A.  T. 
McClintock  became  president.     Hon.  Z.  Bennett  and  S. 

D.  Lewis,  Esq.,  continued  in  the  positions  of  treasurer 
and  secretary  during  twenty-six  years,  and  were  \ery 
faithful  and  efficient  officers. 

Since  1853  the  county  has  been  three  times  canvassed 
by  the  agents  of  the  society,  and  in  each  of  these  explo- 
rations many  destitute  families  have  been  supplied  with 
the  Scriptures.  During  the  last  exploration  about  fifteen 
hundred  families  were  found  without  Bibles  and  were 
supplied.  It  was  remarked  by  the  agent  that  the  most 
grateful  among  those  who  were  supplied  were  many  who 
received  the  Scriptures  in  the  German  language.  He 
also  stated  that  the  benevolent  spirit  which  prompted 
the  work  seemed  in  many  cases  to  be  highly  appreciated, 
and  to  exert  a  very  favorable  influence. 

The  present  officers  are:  A.  T.  McClintock,  president; 

E.  L.  Dana,  vice-president  ;  G.  S.  Bennett,  secretary  ;  J. 
W.  Hollenback,  treasurer  ;  A.  T.  McClintock,  E.  L. 
Dana,  G.  S.  Bennett,  J.  W.  Hollenback,  E.  C.  Wadhams, 
Richard  Sharp,  J.  P.  Hoyt.  A.  J.  Pringle,  C.  A.  Miner, 
B.  G.  Carpenter,  H.  W.  Kalish,  Prof.  A.  Albert,  and  C. 
M.  Conyngham,  executive  committee. 


■■■■■■  <w'Jy  .-■-■.,.,,;..    .'j 





,HI'^  limits  and  scope  of  this  work  will  not  per- 
■^^  niit  even  an  enumeration  of  all  the  events 
that  led  to  the  civil  war.  It  is  (juite  proper, 
however,  that  a  brief  mention  should  be 
made  of  some  of  the  more  important  and  imme- 
diate antecedents  of  the  contest,  in  which  many 
of  the  citizens  of  these  counties  bore  a  conspicu- 
ous and  honorable  part,  and  in  which  many  laid  down 
their  lives. 

The  doctrine  which  has  by  some  been  termed  a  grand 
political  heresy — that  of  Sft7U  sm'erei^nty,  or,  as  it  was  im- 
])roperly  termed  at  the  South,  Stale  rights,  was  what  led 
to  the  civil  war.  By  this  is  meant  the  right  of  a  State  to 
set  aside  any  act  of  Congress  which  may  be  deemed  un- 
constitutional by  the  State  authorities.  This  doctrine 
was  distinctly  set  forth  in  the  famous  Kentucky  resolu- 
tions of  1798.  and  was  for  a  long  time  accepted  by  many, 
perhaps  by  a  majority,  in  all  parts  of  the  country.  It 
involves  not  the  right  of  nullification  alone,  but  that  of 
secession.  South  Carolina  in  i8j2  was  dissatisfied  with 
the  protective  tariff  which  Congress  established,  and 
adopted  an  ordinance  of  nullification  and  secession.  A 
compromise  was  effected,  some  concessions  to  her  pre- 
judices were  made,  and  she  repealed  her  ordinances. 

The  ([uestion  of  the  introduction  of  slavery  into  Kan- 
sas arose,  and  the  people  of  the  Northern  States  evinced 
a  determination  to  prevent  it,  in  which  they  were  suc- 
cessful. In  1S56  threats  of  secession  were  freely  uttered 
in  case  of  the  success  of  the  Republican  party,  which  in 
1855  had  been  formed  on  the  issue  of  slavery  extension. 
In  1S60  Abraham  Lincoln  was  elected  President,  and  this 
was  regarded  by  southern  statesmen  as  the  finishing 
stroke  against  the  e.\tension  of  their  institution,  and 
they  proceeded  to  e.xecute  their  threats.  South  Carolina 
took  the  lead  in  this,  followed  by  Georgia,  Mississippi, 
Alabama,  Virginia,  Florida  and  Louisiana,  ail  of  which 
before  the  end  of  November  issued  calls  for  State  con- 
ventions to  consider  the  question  of  secession.  In  this 
they  were  followed  after  a  time  by  Tennessee,  Texas, 
Arkansas  and  North  Carolina,  all  of  which  adopted  ordi- 
nances of  secession. 

South  Carolina  adopted  the  ordinance  on  the  first  day 
of  December,  i860.  Three  days  later  Covernor  Pickens 
issued  his  proclamation,  declaring  it  to  be  a  "separate, 
sovereign,  free  and  independent  State,  having  a  right  to 
levy  war,  conclude  peace,  negotiate  treaties,"  etc. 

John  B.  Floyd,  of  Virginia,  was  at  that  time  Secre- 
tary of  War.  He  had  caused  70,000  stands  of  arms  to 
be  placed  in  the  arsenal  at  Charleston,  and  had  put  that 
arsenal  in  the  care  of  the  governor  of  South  Carolina;  and 
thus  when  the  State  seceded  it  was  able  to  possess  itself 

of  thest  arms,  and  it  was  also  found  that  the  northern 
arsenals  generally  had  been  depleted  and  the  arms  sent 
south.  Many  of  the  ships  of  the  navy  had  been  sent  to 
distant  seas,  and  the  government  was  left  without  effi- 
cient resouicvs  with  which  to  repress  a  sudden  uprising. 

The  senators  from  South  Carolina  were  first  to  resign 
their  seats,  followed  by  others  and  by  members  of  the 
cabinet  and  of  the  House  of  Representatives.  Texas, 
the  last  of  the  seven  States  which  united  in  forming  the 
"Southern  (Confederacy,"  adopted  the  ordinance  of  se- 
cession February  ist,  1861.  On  the  4th  of  the  month 
the  tlelegates  who  had  been  appointed  by  the  conventions 
for  that  jnirpose  met  at  .Montgomery,  \\.\.,  to  form  a 
government.  They  adopted  the  constitution  of  the 
United  States,  with  some  additions  and  alterations,  as  the 
constitution  of  the  confederate  Stales,  and  chose  for  pro- 
visional President  and  Vice-President  Jefferson  Davis 
and  Alexander  H.  Stevens. 

When  South  Carolina  ])assed  the  ordinance  of  secession 
in  December,  i860,  Fort  Moultrie,  in  Charleston  harbor, 
was  garrisoned  l)y  sixty  effective  men  in  command  of 
Major  .Anderson.  The  fort  was  not  secure  against  at- 
tack, and  Major  .Anderson  denied  reinforcements. 
Accordingly  on  the  night  of  December  2olh  he  removed 
his  force  to  Fort  Sumter,  which  had  been  ipiietly  pre- 
pared for  his  occupation.  He  had  l)een  instructed  by 
the  President  "not  to  take  up  without  necessity  any  po- 
sition which  could  be  construed  into  a  hostile  attitude, 
but  to  hold  possession  of  the  forts,  and  if  attacked,  de- 
fend himself."  This  evacuation  of  P'ort  .Moultrie,  there- 
fore, surprised  the  President  and  aroused  the  indignation 
of  the  South  Carolinians,  who  thought  that  they  had  a 
pledge  from  the  President  to  jirevent  such  removal.  He 
was  induced  to  lake  this  step  because  he  entertained  just 
ajjprehensions  of  the  occu|)ancy  of  Fort  Sumter  by  the 
South  Carolina  troops,  and  an  attack  on  his  small  force 
in  the  nearly  defenseless  fort  where  he  was.  in  which 
case  it  would  have  been  impossible  for  him  to  hold  out  a 

Three  commissioners  that  had  been  appointed  by  the 
South  Carolina  convention  "to  treat  with  the  United 
States "  repaired  to  Washington,  and  in  obedience  to 
their  instructions  demanded  that  Major  .Anderson  should 
be  ordered  back  to  Fort  Moultrie,  and  in  case  of  refusal 
that  the  forts  in  Charleston  harbor  should  be  uncondi- 
tionally evacuated.  .About  this  time  the  government 
offices,  forts,  etc.,  were  possessed  by  the  State  troops, 
who  were  su|)plied  with  arms  and  ammunition  from  the 

An  attempt  was  made  by  tl'.e  government  to  revictual 
and  reinforce  Fort  Sumter,  and  for  that  purpose  the 
steamer  "  Star  of  the  West  "  was  sent  in  January,  1861, 
with  two  hundred  men,  provisions,  ammunition,  etc.  She 
was  fired  on  from  Morris  Island,  was  struck  by  several 
shot  and  compelled  to  return  without  landing  her  troops 
and  cargo. 

April  1 2th,  1861,  at  4  .A.  M.,  the  bombardment  of  Fort 
Sumter  was  commenced  from  the  batteries  of  Fort 
Moultrie.   Sullivan's    Island    and   elsewhere.     The  rebel 




forces  were  under  command  of  General  Beauregard,  who 
demanded  the  surrender  of  the  fort.  Major  Anderson 
replied  that  he  would  only  surrender  when  his  supplies 
were  exhausted.  The  cannonading  was  kept  up  with 
spirit  on  both  sides.  The  result  was  the  surrender  of 
the  fort  on  the  13th,  and  on  the  14th  Major  Anderson 
and  his  command  left  on  the  steamer  "  Isabel  "  for 
New  York. 

After  the  attack  on  Fort  Sumter  it  was  feared  that  the 
confederate  troops  would  march  at  once  on  Washington, 
and  all  the  available  forces  were  so  disposed  as  to 
afford  the  best  protection  to  the  capital  possible  with  the 
meagre  number  of  troops  available.  Measures  were 
immediately  taken  to  raise  troops  in  several  States,  and 
thousands  of  volunteers  at  once  offered  their  services. 
President  Lincoln  promptly  issued  his  proclamation  and 
call  for  75,000  troops  for  three  months,  and  stated  that 
they  would  first  be  used  to  "repossess  the  forts,  places 
and  property  which  had  been  seized  from  the  Union." 
The  proclamation  also  called  a  special  session  of  Congress 
for  the  ne.xt  4th  of  July,  to  do  whatever  might  be  deemed 
necessary  for  the  public  safety.  Another  proclamation, 
declaring  a  blockade,  was  soon  issued. 

To  this  call  for  volunteers  the  people  of  the  loyal 
States  responded  with  the  utmost  alacrity.  Only  two 
days  after  Governor  Andrew,  of  Massachusetts,  issued 
orders  calling  for  troops,  two  regiments  were  on  their 
way  to  Washington.  In  every  city  and  almost  every 
village  in  the  loyal  North  meetings  were  held,  large  sums 
of  money  were  pledged  for  the  support  of  the  families  of 
volunteers,  regiments  were  raised  and  sent  forward,  and 
a  degree  of  patriotic  feeling  was  aroused  the  existence  of 
which  had  by  some  been  doubted. 

On  the  29th  of  April  the  President  called  for  40,000 
volunteers  to  serve  for  three  years,  and  25,000  regulars 
for  five  years'  service.  In  his  message  to  Congress,  which 
convened  in  special  session  in  July,  he  recommended  the 
passage  of  a  law  authorizing  the  raising  of  400,000  men 
and  placing  $400,000,000  at  the  disposal  of  the  govern- 
ment, in  order  to  make  this  contest  a  short  and  decisive 
one.  During  the  nine  days  of  the  session  acts  were 
passed  to  legalize  the  past  action  of  the  President,  to 
authorize  the  calling  out  of  500,000  volunteers,  to  ap- 
propriate some  $266,000,000  for  the  prosecution  of  the 
war,  and  to  confiscate  property  used  for  insurrectionary 

At  the  breaking  out  of  the  war  hardly  any  one  antici- 
pated a  struggle  of  beyond  two  or  three  months;  but 
instead  of  the  short,  decisive  war  that  was  at  first  antici- 
pated the  contest  was  prolonged  through  four  years,  with 
an  expenditure  of  life  and  treasure  unparalleled  in  the 
history  of  similar  wars.  During  this  time  the  Union 
forces  experienced  alternate  successes  and  reverses  till 
the  decisive  triumphs  of  Grant  and  Sheridan,  the  resist- 
less march  of  Sherman  to  the  sea,  and  the  complete 
exhaustion  of  the  enemy's  resources,  brought  the  con- 
summation for  which  the  friends  of  the  Union  had  so 
long  labored  and  prayed.  The  tension  at  which  the  feel- 
ings of  the  friends   of   luimanity  had   been   held    during 

four   years   was  relaxed,   and    the   world    breathed    free 

In  these  counties,  as  in  all  parts  of  the  country,  the 
departure  of  the  first  company  of  volunteers  was  an 
occasion  of  peculiar  interest.  It  was  the  first  time 
in  the  history  of  the  country  that  the  national  ex- 
istence had  been  threatened,  and  the  patriotic  feel- 
ings of  every  loyal  citizen  were  roused  into  intense 
activity.  It  was  the  first  general  call  which  had  been 
made  upon  the  present  generation  for  volunteers  to  serve 
in  the  field,  and  of  course  the  first  occasion  on  which  the 
people  had  been  called  to  bid  adieu  to  fathers,  sons  or 
brothers,  who  took  their  lives  in  their  hands  for  the  de- 
fense of  their  country.  They  experienced  a  higher  pride 
in  the  patriotism  of  their  kindred  and  friends,  and  a 
more  poignant  grief  at  ])arting  than  they  felt  on  similar 
occasions  afterwards;  for  the  acuteness  of  these  feelings 
was  to  some  extent  worn  away  by  frequent  exercise,  and 
after  the  first  departure  less  of  idle  curiosity  was  felt. 

The  brave  volunteers  of  Luzerne,  Lackawanna  and 
Wyoming  counties  who  left  the  comforts  of  their  homes, 
their  social  and  domestic  pleasures,  and  who  severed  fur 
the  time  the  ties  which  linked  them  to  their  families  and 
friends,  to  rally  for  the  defense  of  the  institutions  under 
which  they  had  been  permitted  to  enjoy  these  comforts, 
pleasures  and  affections;  to  face  the  stern  realities  of  grim 
visaged  war,  to  endure  the  hardships  and  privations  of  the 
field,  to  inhale  the  pestilential  emanations  from  southern 
swamps,  to  languish  in  sickness  and  pain  on  pallets, 
"with  no  hand  of  kindred  to  smooth  their  lone  pillows," 
and,  too  often,  to  find  solitary  graves  where  neither 
mother  nor  sister,  wife  nor  children  could  come  to  drop 
affection's  tear,  deserve  a  more  minute  history  than  the 
limits  of  this  work  will  permit.  They  constituted  parts 
of  organizations  the  balance  of  which  came  from  other 
regions,  and  their  histories  are  inseparably  conected  with 
tliose  of  these  organizations. 

When  the  proclamation  of  the  President  was  issued 
calling  for  75,000  troops  to  defend  the  national  capital 
and  suppress  the  rebellion  that  had  thus  been  inaugu- 
rated, the  patriotism  of  the  people  in  Luzerne  county 
found  vent  otherwise  than  in  words.  Several  military 
companies  at  once  offered  their  services  to  the  govern- 
ment. The  Wyoming  Light  Dragoons,  the  Wyoming 
Yagers  (a  Germany  company),  the  Jackson  Rifles  a 
company  of  Irishmen)  and  the  White  Haven  Yagers 
were  among  the  earliest  to  depart  in  response  to  the  call. 
The  recruiting  of  other  companies  for  future  exigencies 
was  immediately  commenced,  and  it  was  at  once  evident 
that,  whatever  had  been  the  previous  differences  of 
opinion  among  the  |)eo|)le  in  this  country,  when  the  time 
for  action  came  patriotism  trium])hed  over  every 
feeling;  and  here  as  elsewhere  in  the  loyal  North  ]5eople 
of  all  parties  vied  with  each  other  in  their  efforts  to  pro- 
mote measures  for  the  defense  of  the  country  in  its  hour 
of  peril. 

The  first  war  meeting  was  held  at  the  court  house  in 
Wilkes-Barre,  on  Friday,  April  26th,  1861.  At  this 
meeting    Hon.    H.    B.    Wright    presided,   and    patriotic 

=>=^  ^ 



speeches  were  made  by  men  of  all  previous  shades  of 
political  opinion.  Large  sums  were  pledged  for  the  care 
of  the  families  of  volunteers.  \  noteworthy  feature  of 
the  patriotic  feeling  which  existed  in  this  county,  as  else- 
where, was  seen  in  the  fact  that  those  who  sought  by 
addresses  and  other  means  to  "bring  public  sentiment 
up,"  as  they  termed  it,  soon  found  that  they  had  mistaken 
their  mission;  that  public  sentiment  was  leading  them; 
that  the  patriotism  of  the  masses  was  in  advance  of  tiiat 
of  their  self-constituted  leaders. 

Here  as  elsewhere  the  first  burst  of  patriotism  after  the 
attack  on  Fort  Sumter  o\ershadowed  every  other  feel- 
ing, and  it  was  confidently  hoped  that  past  differences  of 
opinion  would  not  be  revived  to  become  sources  of  em- 
barrassment in  the  time  of  the  country's  peril.  Here  as 
elsewhere,  however,  this  hope  was  not  realized.  Sym- 
pathy with  the  enemies  of  the  country  manifested  itself 
among  a  few  after  a  time,  under  various  disguises.  A 
profound  veneration  for  the  constitution,  and  an  active 
fear  lest  some  of  its  provisions  should  be  violated  in 
prosecuting  the  war  for  the  ])reservation  of  the  Union, 
was  usually  professed  by  those  whose  patriotism  was  not 
stronger  than  their  party  prejudice.  By  reason  of 
numercial  inferiority,  however,  these  people  were  com- 
paratively impotent  m  Luzerne  county. 

From  a  diary  kept  by  Captain  James  B.  Harding  the 
following  facts  relative  to  the  organization  of  the  first 
company  from  Wyoming  county  in  the  war  of  the  Re- 
bellion are  gleaned: 

It  will  be  remembered  that  at  that  time  no  railroad  or 
telegraph  lines  passed  through  Wyoming  county,  and  news 
was  not  received  here  as  early  as  at  places  where  these 
facilities  existed.  Preparations  for  the  formation  of  a 
company  were  commenced  by  Mr.  Harding  on  the  19th, 
and  at  a  war  meeting  held  at  the  court-house  in  Tunk- 
hannock  on  the  evening  of  the  20th  twenty  men  were 
enlisted.  On  the  evening  of  the  22nd  another  war  meet- 
ing was  held  and  more  men  were  recruited,  and  on  the 
24th  drilling  commenced. 

Recruiting  and  drilling  continued  till  the  27th,  when 
the  company  was  nearly  full.  On  this  day  the  men  were 
drawn  up  in  front  of  the  court-house,  where  they  were 
addressed  by  .\.  K.  I'eckham  and  George  S.  Fulton;  and 
by  the  former,  in  behalf  of  the  ladies  of  Tunkhannock 
and  Eaton,  presented  with  a  flag.  Of  this  company 
James  B.  Harding  was  chosen  captain,  John  Deckover 
first  lieutenant,  and  H.  E.  Tiffany  second  lieutenant. 

Returns  of  the  organization  of  this  company  were  for- 
warded to  Harrisburg  by  Levi  H.  Stevens,  then  inspector 
of  the  sixteenth  division  of  Pennsylvania  militia,  and 
daily  drilling  was  continued. 

On  the  4th  of  May  news  was  received  that  the  com- 
pany could  not  be  accepted  for  nine  months'  service  as 
had  been  expected,  but  that  an  enlistment  for  three  years 
or  during  the  war  would  be  the  only  terms  of  acceptance. 
When  this  alternative  was  presented  about  twenty-five 
men,  with  Captain  Harding,  decided  to  enlist  as  re(iuired. 
These  united  with  a  part  of  a  company  in  Factoryville, 
and   the   consolidated  company  chose   Captain  Harding 

for  their  commander,  O.  N.  Bailey  first  lieutenant,  and 
D.  N.  Matthewson  second  lieutenant. 

On  the  evening  of  May  8th  the  company  left  Factory- 
ville for  Harrisburg,  ria  Scranton,  where  they  tarried  till 
the  morning  of  the  9lh.  On  their  arrival  at  Sunbury 
the  railroad  company  refused  to  take  them  farther,  and 
they  refused  to  leave  the  cars,  which  were  uncoupled  and 
left  standing  on  the  track.  During  the  night  of  the  9th 
they  were  quartered  in  the  court-house  and  fed  by  the 
ladies  of  Sunbury.  On  the  10th  orders  to  go  forward 
were  received  and  transportation  provided.  The  com- 
pany became  a  part  of  the  41st  regiment,  the  history  of 
which  is  given  elsewhere. 

Meetings  were  from  time  to  time  held  in  various  parts 
of  the  county  for  raising  volunteers,  and  the  histories  of 
the  different  regiments  include  the  lists  of  volunteers 
from  this  county,  as  well  as  Luzerne  and  Lackawanna. 
The  patriotic  spirit  of  the  citizens  of  the  county  |)romiited 
them  to  make  every  effort  in  their  power  to  sustain  the 
country  in  its  hour  of  trial.  The  county,  by  its  commis- 
sioners, paid  to  each  volunteer  for  nine  months'  service 
$25,  and  to  each  who  went  for  three  years  $50.  The 
commissioners  also  expended  money  under  an  act  of  the 
Legislature  for  the  support  of  needy  families  of  soldiers 
in  the  army. 

Truth  compels  the  statement  that  there  were  in  some 
l)ortions  of  the  county  manifestations  of  a  very  disloyal 
feeling,  and  even  forcible  resistance  to  the  enrollment 
was  in  one  instance  contemplated.  The  strong  loyal 
feelings  which  prevailed  in  other  parts  of  the  county 
overbore  the  disloyalty  of  these  localities,  and  prevented 
the  disgrace  of  an  armed  demonstration  in  favor  of  the 
enemies  of  the  country. 

The  loyal  women  here  as  elsewhere  did  their  part, 
through  their  aid  societies  and  otherwise,  to  furnish  such 
comforts  for  the  sick  and  wounded,  who  languished  in 
the  field  or  in  distant  hospitals,  as  under  the  circum- 
stances the  government  was  unable  to  provide. 


LUZERNE    IN  THE  CIVIL  WAR— THE  8tH,   IITH     AND   15  HI 

'  F  the  8th  regiment,  which  was  organized  for 
three  months'  service,  companies  B,  C,  D,  E, 
F,  G  and  H  were  recruited  in  Luzerne 
l  'C~^^)  county.  A  company  of  cavalry  at  Wilkes- 
*^^Vi/  i{.,rre,  of  which  Captains  Hoyt  and  Bris- 
^^'  bane  had  been  commanders,  was  filled  by  re- 
vS  cruits  and  became  Comi)any  C  of  the  regiment. 
Company  F  had  been  an  artillery  company  of  the 
same  city,  under  command  of  Captain  Emiey,  who  be- 
came colonel  of  the  regiment.  Company  G  had  been 
known  as  the  Wyoming  Yagers,  which,  together  with  a 
militia   company   from  Pittston  and   additional   recruits, 

constituted  this  company.  The  other  companies  were 
made  up  wholly  of  recruits. 

The  companies  jiroceeded  at  once  to  camp  Curtin, 
where  the  regiment  was  organized  on  the  22nd  of  April, 
1 861,  seven  days  after  the  President's  proclamation  call- 
ing for  75,000  men  was  issued.  On  the  day  of  its  organi- 
zation the  regiment  was  ordered  to  the  vicinity  of  Cham- 
bersburg,  where  it  was  attached  to  the  3d  brigade,  ist 
division.  June  yth  it  went  to  Greenville,  and  soon 
afterward  to  the  vicinity  of  Williamsport,  where  it  was 
posted  to  guard  the  forts  of  the  Potomac.  While  here 
Lieutenant  Colonel  Bowman  crossed  the  river  alone  to 
reconnoitre,  and  was  made  prisoner  by  rebel  scouts. 
Soon  after  the  Union  forces  advanced  into  Virginia. 
Two  companies  of  this  regiment  were  detailed  as  an 
escort  for  Captain  Doubleday's  battery  on  its  march  to 
Martinsburg.  On  the  6th  of  July  the  regiment  joined 
the  brigade  at  Martinsburg  ;  on  the  17th  it  participated 
in  a  flank  movement  toward  (Charleston,  and  was  sta- 
tioned at  Keyes  Yord  during  the  night  of  the  20th.  It 
returned  about  this  time,  T'/a  Harper's  Ferry  and  Hagers- 
town,  to  Harrisburg.  where  it  was  disbanded. 

The  field  and  staff  olificers  of  the  regiment  were  : — A. 
H.  Ernie)',  Wilkes-Barre,  colonel  ;  Samuel  Bowman, 
Wilkes-Barre,  lieutenant  colonel  ;  Joseph  Phillips,  Pitts- 
ton,  major  ;  Joseph  Wright,  AVilkes-Barre,  adjutant  ; 
Butler  Dilley,  (juartermaster  ;  Benjamin  H.  Throop,  sur- 
geon ;  H.  Carey  Parry,  assistant-surgeon  ;  T.  P.  Hunt, 

Of  the  companies  composing  the  8th,  B  was  recruited 
at  Moscow,  Lackawanna  county,  and  mustered  in  on  the 
23d  of  April,  1 86 1  ;  C  and  D  were  recruited  at  Wilkes- 
Barre  and  mustered  April  22nd;  E  and  H  were  recruited 
at  Scranton  and  mustered  April  23d  ;  and  F  and  G  were 
recruited  at  Wilkes-Barre  and  mustered  in,  the  first  April 
2ist  and  the  second  April  23d.  Rolls  of  these  companies 
follow  ; 


Officers. — Hiram  S.  Travis,  captain;  Frank  Wambacker, 
first  lieutenant  ;  Sanford  G.  Coglizer,  second  lieutenant; 
Jacob  Swartz,  first  sergeant;  John  F.  Sayers,  second 
sergeant  ;  John  W.  Fike,  third  sergeant  ;  Delton  F.  Mil- 
ler, fourth  sergeant  ;  Benjamin  J.  Stephens,  first  corporal; 
David  Weldy,  second  corporal;  George  Weldy,  third  cor- 
poral; Warren  Breemer,  fourth  corporal;  Paul  Debler  and 
William  Miller,  musicians. 

Privates. — William  Albro,  Shadrach  G.  Austin,  Richard 
Austin,  James  R.  Aten,  John  Bird,  Adolph  Bender, 
Thomas  Brennan,  Mathias  Barclay,  George  Barnes, 
Thomas  L.  Benson,  Nicholas  Cooper,  Nodiah  Curtis, 
George  Chrisman,  Charles  Clouse,  Horatio  V.  Colvin, 
Thomas  R.  Conner,  Henry  L.  Davenport,  James  T.  Dav- 
enport, Horatio  P.  Felts,  Samuel  Gilchrist,  Lorenzs  D. 
Hoover,  Henry  M.  Hinds,  Michael  \\ .  Hurley,  Frederick 
John,  Abraham  Kiser,  Samuel  Kilpatrick,  Joseph  Knapp, 
William  La  France,  Josei)h  La  F'rance,  Benjamin  Le 
Compt,  Westbrook  Murring,  Ezra  B.  Martin,  James 
M'Guigan,  James  S.  M'Doherty,  Herbert  iNL  Nogle,  Levi 
Powell,  David  Robinson,  Thomas  P.  Rhodes,  James  A. 
Roach,  Morris  H.  Rhodes,  William  R.  Rockwell,  Benja- 
min F.  Rodgers,  G.  William  Ryan,  William  Rease,  Rich- 
ard H.  Scott,  Freeman  Smith,  P'rancis  Switer,  Robert 
Smith,   Merrit  Stalbert,  Nelson  Swan,  David  C.  Sterling, 

Obadiah  Sherwood,  Jerome  Scott,  John  Shaffer,  Vincent 
J.  Sayers,  John  Smith,  Milton  Sylich,  John  A.  Tanfield, 
Levi  B.  Tompkins,  Joseph  W.  Wallace,  Chester  Wilber, 
Patrick  Wood,  Dorman  A.  Yarrington,  Spencer  Yeager. 

COMP.-\NV  c. 

Officers. — William  Brisbane,  captain  ;  Joseph  Wright, 
first  lieutenant;  John  B.  Conyngham,  second  lieutenant; 
Lyman  R.  Nicholson,  first  sergeant;  William  J.  Fell,  sec- 
ond sergeant;  Beriah  S.  Bowers,  third  sergeant;  William 
C.  Rohn,  fourth  sergeant;  Treat  B.  Camp,  first  corporal; 
Samuel  B.  Hibler,  second  corporal  ;  Albert  ^L  Bailey, 
third  corporal;  "Edwin  S.  Osborne,  fourth  corporal; 
Thomas  J.  Schleppy  and  Joseph  W.  Collings,  musicians. 

Privates. — Andrew  J.  Crusan,  Edward  H.  Chase,  Wil- 
liam H.  Cook,  Daniel  Clossen,  Andrew  Clossen,  George 
B.  Carey,  Orlando  Deitrick,  William  G.  Downs,  Elisha  A. 
Dailey,  Joseph  H.  Everett,  Peter  Gray.  Jacob  Gregory, 
Willett  E.  Gorham,  James  Harvey,  John  Humble,  An- 
drew J.  Hughey,  George  Hoover,  James  D.  Harris,  Bur- 
tis  Irvin,  George  W.  Jumper,  Charles  Keller,  Patrick 
Kearney,  George  W.  Kelley,  James  Kelley,  Isaiah  Kizer, 
William  Moser,  Charles  McWilliams,  Daniel  W.  McGee, 
Norman  McNeil,  John  McCormick,  Roderick  McFarlane, 
John  Powell,  John  Piper,  Joseph  W.  Patten.  Alexander 
Puterbaugh,  William  A.  Partington,  Samuel  H.  Puter- 
baugh,  Richard  Prideaux,  John  Reymer,  Stephen  D, 
Robbins,  Adam  Robbins,  Miles  Reel,  George  A.  Reese, 
\Vesley  Rittenhouse,  David  L.  Rohn,  Charles  Rennard, 
Jacob  Remmel,  James  A.  Raub,  William  W.  Rines,  Giles 
E.  Stevens,  Nathan  Schoonover,  Charles  F'.  Stevens, 
Henry  Stroll,  F^rank  Smith,  Samuel  Stookey,  Isaac  Tripp, 
Preserve  Taylor,  William  H.  Vanscoten,  George  E. 
Waring,  William  H.  Ward,  jr.,  Daniel  Wood,  Lazarus  S. 
Walker,  William  W.  Watson,  Alexander  Youngst. 

COMH.ANV     I). 

Officers. — Jacob  Bertels,  captain;  Richard  Fitzgerald, 
first  lieutenant  ;  Patrick  Lenihan,  second  lieutenant; 
Michael  Reily,  first  sergeant;  John  C.  Reily,  second  ser- 
geant; Michael  Giligan,  third  sergeant;  Joseph  P.  Byrne, 
fourth  sergeant;  Daniel  M'Bride,  first  corporal;  Daniel 
Shoolin,  second  corporal;  Thomas  Devaney,  third  cor- 
poral; John  Ryan,  fourth  corporal;  Bartholomew  Lynch 
and  John  Batterton,  musicians. 

Privates. — Philip  Boyle,  John  Baney,  Patrick  Biglin, 
Patrick  Brennan,  ist  ;  Thomas  Birm'ingham,  Thomas 
Boran,  James  Boylan,  Patrick  Brennan,  2nd;  Matthew 
Coyle,  John  Caffrey,  John  Clark,  Daniel  Cunningham, 
John  Cosgrove,  John  Collins,  Michael  Curran,  Frank  Cull, 
Michael  Goggles,  Patrick  Collins,  John  Delaney,  James 
Dolton,  Evan  Davis,  James  Dougher,  James  Dougherty, 
John  Evans,  Patrick  Fogarty,  John  Graham,  Patrick 
Gritfith,  Patrick  Gallagher,  ist;  Patrick  Gallagher,  2nd; 
Thomas  Heley,  Patrick  Houston,  Edward  Killroy, 
Michael  Keeghran,  James  Lynch,  Patrick  Levey,  John 
Looby,  John  Lisk,  Bernard  Lynch,  Thomas  Lahey,  Peter 
Lebar,  John  Lawler,  John  M'Dowell,  Thomas  M'Coy, 
Thomas  M'Cluskey,  [ohn  M'Conelogue,  William  Merg- 
han,  Thomas  M'Maniman,  Michael  Nlorris,  Michael  Mul- 
vey,  Patrick  M'Tigue.  John  M'Cool,  John  M'Reenelly, 
Michael  M'Ginness,  Daniel  .M'Cormick,  Thomas  O'Don- 
nell,  James  Plum,  Patrick  Paul,  Martin  Ryan,  Lawrence 
Reily,  Michael  Ruddy,  John  Sullivan,  Timothy  Sullivan, 
Edward  Sherron,  John  Scott,  Dalton  W.  Totton,  Martin 
Welsh,  John  Ward. 


Officers. — John  M'Casey  captain;  John  O'Grady,  first 
lieutenant;  Michael  O'Hara,  second  lieutenant;  Anthony 

ROLL  OF  THE  Kit '.Frill    REGIMENT. 

Lofters,  first  sergeant;  James  Howlcy.  second  scrjieani; 
Francis  Mahon,  third  sergeant;  Morris  O'Brien,  fourth 
sergeant;  John  Lanagan,  first  corporal;  Richard  Lanagan, 
second  corporal;  Richard  Fitzgerald,  third  corporal,  John 
(Jerry,  fourth  corporal;  Peter  I'ennypacker  and  John 
Hartline,  musicians. 

Privates. — Joseph  Blacknian,  ^L^rk  liurk,  Charles 
Brand,  Francis  Raronosky,  Thomas  Buckley,  John  Can- 
navan,  Samuel  Clouser,  Henry  Cannavan,  James  Canna- 
van,  Matthew  Cawley,  Michael  Cusick,  John  R.  Cordeii, 
William  Corden,  Josejjh  F.  Colburn,  John  Churchill, 
Henjamin  Crist,  Lewis  Decker,  Michael  Dorson,  David 
H.  Davis,  James  Fleming,  James  Forrester,  George  Flee- 
vellen,  John  Fitz|)atrick,  Thomas  Fo.\,  Thomas  Foy, 
Michael  Grass,  Charles  Gallagher,  Anthony  Gillespie, 
John  Handler,  John  F.  Jackson,  Dennis  Kelley,  Michael 
Kirk,  Patrick  Lenihan,  'Fhomas  Lanagan,  F^dward  Lynn, 
.Mien  M'Lane,  John  H.  Mullison.  James  ^^Grael,  Patrick 
Mullin,  Delos  Munford.  John  AFManus,  John  J.  Murray, 
Reuben  Mullen,  Daniel  M'Cracken,  Michael  Manning, 
David  Pearce,  Francis  Rourke,  Joseph  Ross,  John 
Ruddy,  William  Shannon,  Patrick  H.  Saxton,  John  Shib- 
Mchood,  Theodore  Sinclair,  \\'illiam  Smith,  Samuel 
Tindle,  John  H.  Taylor,  Michael  Tigue,  Jeremiah  L'r- 
frels,  Peter  Vankirk,  Michael  Walsh,  Reuben  Williams, 
Joseph  Wright,  William  Whiting,  John  Williams. 

CO.MP.ANV    F. 

Officers. — Edwin  W.  Finch,  captain;  Butler  Dilley,  first 
lieutenant;  Isaiah  AL  Leach,  second  lieutenant;  .-Mpheus 
C.  Montague,  first  sergeant;  Charles  B.  Metzgar,  second 
sergeant;  Charles  B.  Stout,  third  sergeant;  Oliver  A.  Par- 
sons, fourth  sergeant;  Benjamin  F.  Louder,  first  corporal; 
John  J.  M'Dermott,  second  corporal;  William  H.  Rown- 
tree,  third  corporal;  Paschal  L.  Hoover,  fourth  corporal; 
Charles  H.  Hay  and   David  C.  Connor,  musicians. 

Privates. — Joseph  Alberl,  Casey  J.  Atherton,  Emory 
Briggs,  ALirtin  Breese,  James  Culver,  Hugh  Collins, 
Charles  Vi.  Cyphers,  Emanuel  Detrick,  .\braham  Doobar, 
Charles  H.  Elliott,  William  W.  Ellis,  Irvin  E.  Finch,  John 
N.  Fordham,  Peter  Ficklinger,  John  Erase,  Nathan  Fritz, 
Henry  Frantz,  Samuel  C.  Fell,  John  E.  Groff,  Lee  D. 
Gruver,  Henry  M.  Gordon,  Allen  Ciormon,  George 
Hughes,  Ebert  Haney,  Peter  H.  Hay,  William  Johnson, 
John  Jenkins,  John  C.  Krupp,  Philiii  Kiilian,  Andrew  J. 
Lobach,  Isaiah  M.  Leach,  Robert  M'Laughlin,  John  H. 
.Minick,  Rufus*  M'Guire,  -Ozro  Manville,  Jiidson  W. 
Myers,  John  Xeuer,  Joseph  Newsbiggle,  Charles  B.  Post, 
.Mfred  Riley,  Bernard  Riley,  Sylvester  Rhodes,  William 
Rankins,  .Alfred  Randolph,  Henry  J.  Root,  C.  B.  Root, 
James  Russell,  James  H.  Shepherd,  Charles  B.  Stookey, 
William  A.  Swan,  David  R.  Shutt,  John  Severn,  James 
Severn,  Theodore  .\.  Tucker,  Thomas  O.  Tucker,  Gotlieb 
Troub,  James  C.  Turner,  David  J.  Taylor,  James  Up- 
linger,  William  H.  Valentine,  Horton  Wood,  Reuben  H. 
Waters,  Newton  T.  Weaver,  Jacob  Young. 


Officers. — George  N.  Reichard,  captain;  John  N.  Treff- 
eisen,  first  lieutenant;  Ciustavus  E.  Hahn,  second  lieuten- 
ant; George  W.  Smith,  first  sergeant;  Joseph  Harold, 
second  sergeant;  Christopher  'Walther,  third  sergeant; 
Jacob  Goeby,  fourth  sergeant,  Christian  Treffeisen,  first 
corporal;  Andreas  Haussam,  second  corporal;  Henry 
Katzenbacker,  third  corporal;  John  Marr,  fourth  corporal; 
William  Kaiser  and  Frederick  Andrie,  musicians. 

Privates. — Christian  Adrien,  Ma.\  Burkhardt,  Henry 
Braehl,  Benedict  Boehm,  Peter  Bohnc,  John  Bauman, 
Frederick  Bach.  Michael  Blair,  Maurice  Brandt,  NLit- 
thew  Bickle,  Lewis  Dieffenbach,  Jacob  Eastearle,  Frank- 

lin Early,  Charles  Engel,  .\braham  Frauenlhal,  Charles 
Firestine,  Conrad  Futtrer,  George  Fritz,  Zeno  Fry 
Philip  Glessner,  Jacob  Goebz,  Frederick  Gersting,  Nich- 
olas Gerlitz,  Jones  Grajip,  .Andrew  Hansam,  Henry  Harf 
man,  John  Haiwish,  Joseph  Hartman,  Emile  Haugg, 
Philip  Hess,  Nicholas  Helfrick,  Lorenzo  Ittel,  Anton 
Joachim,  Thomas  Jayne.  .Anton  Kinghammer,  Rudolph 
korff,  John  Kiilian,  C.  F.  Loomis,  Charles  Long,  Frit/ 
Loeffier,  Jacob  Luckhardt,  John  Mowery.  Jacob  Mahler, 
John  Mathews,  Morton  Mehlinann,  Florian  Mitz,  John 
Oppel,  John  Peter,  William  Riester,  Henry  Russ,  Mat- 
thew Ruebenach,  John  Sengfelder,  Frederick  Schmiti. 
Frederick  Shearer,  Ernst  Schmalst,  William  S(  haule, 
Joseph  Sittig,  Michael  Snyder,  .Albert  C.  Woolbert, 
Christian  Weiss,  Jacob  Wench,  Conrad  Wern.  Justus 
Wassmuth,  Conrad  Zibb. 


Officers. — Henry  W.  Derby,  captain;  Beaton  Smith,  jr., 
first  lieutenant;  \\illiam  D.  Snyder,  second  lieutenant; 
Thomas  Edmonds,  first  sergeant;  Henry  Derris,  second 
sergeant;  Charles  Kerr,  third  sergeant;  Joseph  R.  Shultz, 
fourth  sergeant;  Israel  Ruth,  first  corporal;  William  Bry- 
den,  second  corporal;  Monroe  Koch,  third  corporal; 
William  Booth,  fourth  corporal. 

/'/7,-rtAx.— Charles  G.  Adams,  Miles  N.  Bradford. 
Lyman  T.  Benjamin,  Thomas  B.  Bloom,  William  F. 
Bloff,  Samuel  A.  Bouten,  Abram  L.  Bound,  James  O. 
Brown,  Warren  Buckland,  Theodore  Cherry,  George  \V. 
Conklin,  Samuel  Cobb,  John  Coon,  Hugh  R.  Crawford, 
Martin  Decker,  Hugh  .M.  Diehl,  .Andrew  J.  Drake, 
Henry  Ennis,  Frederick  M.  Etting,  Alexander  L.  Flem- 
ing, Peter  S.  Gabrio,  Nathan  C.  Gregory,  Jacob  W.  Gal- 
loway, Dinsmore  Habe,  John  Haines,  Stephen  H.  Haley, 
John  Hastings,  ist;  John  Hastings,  2d;  Robert  Hardy, 
Henry  B.  Henson,  Harry  Houser,  John  Hopkins,  Wil- 
liam Jamison,  Hudson  D.  Kind,  Hiram  P.  Kirlin.  .An- 
thony Long,  William  Miller,  Thomas  Mullihan,  John  .\I. 
Palmer,  George  W.  Peters,  C.eorge  C.  Palmer,  Simon 
Rhodes,  Henry  Rex,  Nicholas  Robbing,  Joshua  Rich- 
ards, Joseph  S.  Shiffer,  Mead  S.  Silkman,  Charles  Shafer, 
Peter  Shively,  Peter  J.  Smith,  William  Stark,  Roland  N. 
Stevens,  John  G.  Swartz,  William  .A.  Staples,  William  H. 
Thomas,  David  Wigton,  John  Wittingham,  Edwin  B. 
Wilson,  Charles  E.  Ward,  William  H.  Williams,  James 
Woolley,  Fletcher  1).  Vapel. 


This  regiment  wasorganized  .April  26th,  1861,  for  three 
month's  service.  .After  a  short  period  of  drill  it  was,  on 
the  27th  of  May,  ordered  forward  to  guard  the  Philadel- 
phia, Wilmington  and  Baltimore  Railroad,  some  bridges 
on  which  had  been  destroyed.  Company  E,  Captain 
Johnson,  was  stationed  at  Charlestown.  On  the  18th  of 
June  the  regiment  went  via  Baltimore  and  Harrisburg  to 
Chambersburg,  thence  to  Hagerstown,  Md.  On  the  20th 
of  June,  it  was  placed  in  the  brigade  commanded  by 
Colonel  (afterward  General)  Abercrombie,  and  on  the 
2nd  of  July  crossed  the  Potomac  at  Williamsport  under 
that  commander  and  was  actively  engaged  in  the  battle 
at  trailing  Water,  in  which  the  forces  of  Jackson  were  put 
to  flight.  In  this  action  three  of  Company  E  James 
Morgan,  Daniel  R.  Stiles  and  Nelson  Headen  were 
wounded.  After  this  fight  the  company  went  with  the 
brigade  to  Martinsburg,  thence  to  Bunker  Hill,  and  on 
the  17th  of  July   to  Charlestown.     Here,  as  the  expira. 


tion  of  tlieir  term  of  enlistment  approached,  General 
Patterson  had  the  nth  paraded  and  requested  the  men  to 
remain  some  days  beyond  this  term.  He  asked  them  to 
signify  their  willingness  to  do  so  by  bringing  their  arms 
to  a  shoulder  at  the  word.  When  the  order  was  given 
every  musket  was  shouldered.  By  arrangement  the 
regiment  was  re-mustered  for  three  years  after  its  muster- 
out  and  allowed  to  retain  its  number. 

The  field  and  staff  officers  of  the  iith  regiment  were 
as  follows  :  Colonel,  Phaon  Jarrett;  lieutenant  colonel, 
Richard  Coulter  ;  major,  William  D.  Earnest;  adjutant, 
F.  Asbury  Awl;  quartermaster,  William  H.  Hay;  surgeon, 
Willian  T.  Babb;  assistant  surgeon,  H.  B.  Buchler. 


of  this  company  was  recruited  at  Pittston;  mustered 
in  Ajjril  21st,  1S61;  and  consisted  of  the  men  named 
below  : 

Officers — John  B.  Johnson,  captain;  John  B.  Fish,  first 
lieutenant;  Thomas  DeKetta,  second  lieutenant;  William 
E.  Sees,  first  sergeant;  Samuel  Hodgdon,  second  sergeant; 
William  C.  Blair,  third  sergeant;  Francis  C.  Woodhouse, 
fourth  sergeant;  Jacob  F"ell,  first  corporal;  George 
Cleaver,  second  corporal;  Cornelius  Vanscoy,  third  cor- 
poral; Charles  F.  Stewart,  fourth  corporal;  James  D. 
Giddings  and  Thomas  Helm,  musicians. 

Prh'ates — Henry  Aulbert,  Charles  Bird,  Samuel  Beard, 
Ervin  S.  Barnes,  John  S.  Benedick,  Alfred  B.  Bradley, 
John  Blair,  Edward  H.  Berry,  Abraham  Creamer,  David 
Creamer,  George  Chamberlain,  Bartholomew  Coggins, 
Patrick  D.  Curry,  Jeffrey  Cummings,  Asa  J.  Carlin, 
William  H.  Crawford,  John  Davis,  James  Dunkley, 
Charles  Decker,  Henry  W.  Elbridge,  William  Fausnaught, 
William  B.  Ferris,  Thomas  F.  Gilmore,  Thomas  Hoffman, 
Nelson  Hedden,  Joseph  D.  Hampton,  James  P.  Hunter, 
Robert  High,  Charles  Hamilton,  John  W.  Humphreys, 
Joseph  Jones,  John  Jarrett,  John  B.  Kelly,  Aaron 
Lamberson,  Frank  Lovvder,  Henry  Leader,  John  Mackey, 
James  Morgan,  James  Miller,  David  Newhard,  William 
Plant,  John  Perkins,  James  Powers,  William  L.  Russell, 
Thomas  Russell,  Milton  B.  Repass,  Thomas  Robinson, 
Edward  J.  Schooley,  James  E.  Smith,  John  A.  Shepherd, 
John  Shannon,  Martin  M.  Smith,  John  Snyder,  Daniel 
R.  Stiles,  William  H.  Small,  Daniel  Taylor,  John  Tliom- 
linson,  Charles  Vanderbergh,  L,ewis  Wagoner,  Daniel 
\Villiams,  David  H.  Williamson,  William  Williams,  James 
Wagoner,  David  B.  Wiley,  Edward  Welsh,  Harrison  B. 


This  was  organized  at  Camp  Curtin  May  ist,  1861. 
May  9th  the  regiment  went  to  Camp  Johnston,  near  Lan- 
caster, where  the  men  were  well  drilled  and  disciplined. 
June  3d  they  moved  to  near  Chambersburg,  and  were 
assigned  to  General  Negley's  brigade  of  General  Keim's 
division.  June  i6th  the  regiment  with  its  brigade  marched 
to  the  vicinity  of  Hagerstown.  On  the  2nd  of  July  it 
crossed  the  Potomac  with  the  army  and  Negley's  brigade, 
which  followed  a  road  that  diverged  from  the  main  line 
of  march,  threw  forward  Company  I  with  a  company  from 
another  regiment  as  skirmishers.  These  suddenly  came 
upon  a  battalion  of  Ashby's  cavalry,  disguised  as  Union 
troops,  and  before  they  suspected  their  true  character 
Lieutenant  John  B.  Hutchinson  and   a  portion  of  Com- 

pany I  were  made  prisoners,  the  first  sergeant  having 
been  shot.  They  had  even  obeyed  an  order  from  Ashby 
to  let  down  the  fence  between  them,  mistaking  the  cavalry 
for  friends.  Pursuit  witho\it  cavalry  was  unavailing,  and 
these  men  were  hurried  to  Richmond,  and  thence  through 
the  south  to  New  Orleans,  where  they  were  kept  till  that 
city  fell  into  the  possession  of  the  Federal  troops,  when 
they  were  sent  to  Salisbury  and  soon  afterward  exchanged. 
Si.x  of  their  number,  however,  had  died  from  exposure 
and  hardship.  On  the  3d  the  regiment  reached  Martins- 
burg,  where  it  remained  till  the  r5th;  then  marched  suc- 
cessively to  Bunker  Hill,  Charleston,  Hagerstown  and 
Carlisle,  where  it  encamped  on  the  27th,  and  was  mus- 
tered out  on  the  7th  of  August. 

The  colonel  of  the  isth  regiment  was  Richard  A.  Oak- 
ford;  lieutenant-colonel,  Thomas  Biddle;  major,  Stephen 
N.  Bradford;  adjutant,  John  R.  Lynch,  of  Wilkes-Barre, 
quartermaster,  Jacob  Rice;  surgeon,  A.  P.  Meylerl;  as- 
sistant surgeon,  R.  H.  Little. 

Company  A  was  recruited  at  Scranton,  Companies  B 
and  C  at  Pittston,  and  D  and  G  at  Wilkes-Barre.  Com- 
pany A  was  mustered  in  on  the  26th,  B  on  the  23d,  C  on 
the  27th,  and  D  on  the  22nd  of  April,  1861.  The  mem- 
bership of  these  companies  is  shown  by  the  following  list: 

COMP.-iNY    A. 

Officers. — John  Bradley,  captain;  Sylvester  Shively, 
first  lieutenant;  John  E.  Force,  second  lieutenant;  Free- 
man J.  Coisier,  first  sergeant;  Cliarles  Russell,  second 
sergeant;  William  H.  Miller,  third  sergeant;  Joseph  A. 
Dixon,  fourth  sergeant;  William  H.  Dixon,  first  corporal; 
Edward  G.  Kichline,  second  corporal;  Philip  W.  Cool, 
third  corporal;  Norman  R.  Coe,  fourth  corporal;  Rufus 
Walten,  Bernard  Elbert,  musicians. 

Privates. — Abraham  Bittender,  Charles  W.  Bitzenberg- 
er.  Nelson  Betron,  William  Burke,  Chauncey  Bennett, 
George  Brink,  Jeremiah  Briggs,  Edwin  J.  Burr,  Isaac 
Cornell,  Murt  Cunningham,  Theodore  B.  Combs,  Mark 
Croll,  Patrick  Cassiday,  Michael  F.  Connor,  David  Carey. 
Jonhson  A.  Cornwall,  Samuel  Day,  John  Delacey,  Wil- 
liam Derr,  John  Decker,  Andrew  Dyer,  Elijah  Detrick, 
Walter  H.  Ellis,  Jacob  W.  Evans,  George  W.  Fell,  John 
R.  Hanyon,  Preserved  S.  Hall,  James  Hinckley,  John 
Hetherby,  Stephen  'Haly,  Ulysses  W.  Hutchinson,  Nelson 
Haggarty,  Walter  R.  Hopkins,  Sylvester  Hinckley,  Harry 
L.  Knoor,  George  L.  Kater,  Alfred  W.  Leteer,  Fletcher 
Line,  Joseph  M'Daniel,  Irvin  M'Mustrie,  John  M'Cor- 
mick,  Dennis  M'Carty,  Patrick  Malone,  John  W.  Mar- 
shall, Conrad  Miller,  Nicholas  Miller,  Alexander  Neely, 
Isaac  Pierce,  Owen  Phillips,  George  Parker,  W^atkins 
Powell,  Noel  B.  Parker,  William  Patter,  Oliver  R.  Ross, 
Stephen  Remaly,  Wesley  Remaly,  Levi  Roushy,  Charles 
Stetler,  Samuel  Stetler,  Barton  Senburg,  George  E.  Shafer, 
Levi  D.  Westfall,  George  A.  Wolcott,  Hiram  White,  Rufus 


Officers — Anthony  Brown,  captain;  Andreas  Frey,  first 
lieutenant;  George  Dick,  second  lieutenant;  Henry 
Teufel,  first  sergeant;  Charles  Aicher,  second  sergeant; 
Joseph  Kaiser,  third  sergeant;  Leo  Steuer,  fourth  ser- 
geant; Albert  Feist,  first  corporal;  Joseph  Steuer,  second 
corporal;  John  Kolb,  third  corporal;  Herman  Kaspar, 
fourth  corporal;  Anthony  Wallinger,  William  Eshelman, 




fifti:i:n  III  regiment,  companies  c,  n  and  g. 


Privates. — Samuel  Barry,  Lewis  Hausher,  Eiiliraini 
Clauser,  Robert  Dowd,  Ferdinand  Durve,  Frederick 
Dresde,  Edward  Dames,  Jnse|)h  Eisenstein,  William 
Egensen,  Adam  Engraff,  John  N.  Fass,  John  Martin 
Fritz,  William  H.  Faethr,  Rudolph  Feist,  Adam  Ferne- 
kees,  Michael  Flad.  John  Filling.  Jacob  Fisher,  Henry 
Fullmer,  Elbridge  Gerald,  Frederick  Griineberg,  Conrad 
Grab,  John  Gobel.  I'eter  Ganibel,  Andreas  Hilbert,  Fred- 
eric k  Holman,  Reinhold  Hummel,  Jacob  Kien/.le,  Otto 
Kaiser,  Charles  Kessler.  Georae  Kun/elmin.  Jolin  Keller, 
Tobias  Kelber,  Peter  Krel/,  Valentine  Kliiigler,  William 
Kieffer,  Joseph  Louse,  Israel  Merehenter,  Christian 
Marsh,  Irvin  Morton,  Jacob  Matter,  Samuel  Matter, 
Nicholas  Morse,  Philip  Mishlish,  Josejih  H.  Marshall, 
Adam  Massholder,  Henry  S.  O.  Neils,  Lewis  Ott,  Noah 
Parks,  George  B.  Parsons.  Frederick  Roser,  John  Rader, 
Joseph  Rupple,  Jacob  Reizel,  Daniel  Shanz,  Jacob  Shazle, 
lohn  Schmidt,  lohn  Stark,  Frederick  Sholl,  Jacob  M. 
Shmidt,  lohn  Sholl,  James  R.  Shmidt,  Jacob  Wolf,  Ed- 
ward We'dle,  David  Willard,  Felix  Wolf.' 

CO.Ml'ANY    C. 

Officers. — Christian  Robinson,  captain;  Frederick  Wei- 
chcl,  first  lieutenant;  Charles  Robinson,  first  lieutenant; 
Willi.Tm  Stein,  second  lieutenant;  John  R.  Jones,  jr,  sec- 
ond lieutenant;  .Anthony  Ferres,  second  sergeant;  Charles 
Croner,  third  sergeant;  .Adam  Pantle,  fourth  sergeant; 
Lewis  J.  (iratz,  first  corporal;  Joseph  Mehlbaum,  second 
corporal;  William  Locher,  third  corporal;  Frederick 
Wagner,  fourth  corporal;  Frederick  Berger  and  Jacob 
Engel,  musicians. 

Privates. — Matthew  l?reithaupt,  William  Bechtold, 
George  Birkel,  F'rederick  Biel,  .Adam  Bon,  Robert  Camp- 
bell, Michael  Duvrick,  Charles  Erhard,  Charles  Elm, 
Frederick  Emrich,  Christian  Emrich,  Henry  Faller,  Wil- 
liam Frantz.  Henry  Frasch,  Ellis  Futtere,  Barnabas 
Ganther,  Frederick  Goehrs.  Peter  Gimnich,  John  Hatchen, 
P.  and  C.  Hartman,  Peter  Hess,  John  Hoffman,  Owen  Han- 
cock, Charles  Houseman,  Sylvester  Harrman,  .Adam  Koch, 
John  Kammer,  Philip  Kleinman,  Delos  P.  Kapp,  William 
Korr,  Frederick  Kunzelman,  Charles  Lennich,  Frederick 
Lewis,  Charles  Miller,  Nicholas  Miller,  George  Moser, 
Grififith  Morris,  Charles  Neuffer,  Charles  Nessle,  John 
Niemayer,  Casper  Newcomer,  ('harles  Pontius,  Jacob 
Reipert,  Jacob  Rosar,  William  Roehm  ist,  William 
Roehm  2nd,  Jacob  Re|)er,  (iustavus  Rifford,  Christian 
Schuter,  Philip  Schneider,  Philip  Schweitzer,  Jose|)h 
Schremsen,  Henry  Stahl,  William  Schmitt,  Peter  Schnei- 
der, Matthew  Schneider,  Francis  Schmitt,  Frederick 
Teufel,  Patrick  Thomas,  Daniel  Weinig,  Charles  Worth, 
Frederick  Wagner,  (ieorge  Wachtle,  Charles  Weisgarber, 
Morris  Zwick,  Charles  Zang. 


Officers. — Solomon  Strumer,  captain;  Daniel  Dobra, 
first  lieutenant;  Jacob  C.  Holm,  second  lieutenant;  Mar- 
cus K.  Bishop,  first  sergeant;  John  Gebhart,  second  ser- 
geant; (ieorge  Schaffer,  third  sergeant;  Nicholas  Smith, 
fourth  sergeant;  Rudolj)!!  .Snialtz,  first  corporal;  The- 
ophilus  H.  Stees,  second  corporal;  James  Evans,  third 
corporal;  Frantz  Gebhart,  fourth  corporal;  William 
Fuegline  and  Charles  Richter,  musicians. 

Privates. — .Ale.xander  .Anderson,  Lewis  Brand,  Amos 
Boyer,  Peter  Borer,  Irving  Berry,  CJeorge  Berner,  Fred- 
erick Badenstelt,  John  Bfund.  Charles  Cluss,  Christian 
Capp,  John  Chatham,  Daniel  Chubb,  Philip  Chubb,  Mi- 
chael Dorsh,  John  Dippre,  Jacob  Drum,  .Alexander  Dick, 
Philip  Engert,  John  Engelman,  Anthony  Fisher,  Charles 
Ferguson,  William  Fenner,  Henry  Gol)ert,  Sydney  W. 
Glace,    Peter    Hushback.    Henry    Hushback,    Ferdinand 

Hess.  Godfried  Hither,  Peter  Kralch,  John, 
.Nicholas  Lobshier,  Michael  Lifler,  (Ieorge  T.  Leebrick, 
Cyreneus  Murray.  David  P.  Miller,  .Anthony  Mindcn- 
dorfer,  William  M' Donald,  George  W.  Nevelf,  Sti-phen 
Oswald.  (Charles  Phafley.  Edward  Reman.  Charles  Ru- 
beck.  Julius  Rhote,  James  Ryeon,  Christian  Schmuck, 
Ja<()l)  Silks,  (Jeorge  S])echt,  L'Irich  .Sjjalinger,  Frantz 
Schibel,  Edward  S(  holl,  James  Smith,  Lewis  Schweitzer, 
John  Sttiner,  Dr.  John  Steiner.  Conrad  Stouter,  John 
Tritchler,  Nebmuke  X'olbnaii.  Melton  Weigner,  Hennas 
We.-ke,  Jacob  U  olf,  John  E.  Will,  Paul  Wen'izel,  Thoman 
N'oiing,  Jacob  Zimmmerman. 

CO.MHA.W    u. 

Officers. — Thomas  NLngovern,  captain  ;  Thoma.s  .A. 
Nichols,  first  lieutenant;  .Alexander  Phillips,  second  lieu- 
tenant; John  Eskings,  first  sergeant;  Richard  W.  Jack- 
son, second  sergeant;  George  S.  Kilhorn,  third  sergeant; 
David  (iarbet,  fourth  sergeant;  [olin  Magar,  first  corporal; 
James  Phillips,  second  corporal;  Jesse  B.  .Scott,  third 
corporal;  Lewis  Wo(<d(uff,  fourth  corporal;  Warner  W. 
Pins  and  Hiram  Foster,  musicians. 

Privates. — William  .Asiings,  Josiah  Bios,  Leonard  Bron- 
son,  Peter  -Barber,  Patrick  liuike,  .Albert  Brown,  Henry 
C.  Bopst,  John  Cunningham,  William  Clave,  Paul  Cool, 
Halley  Compton,  George  Chamberl.iin,  I'airick  Cahil, 
.Allen  Cassidy.  Dennis  Carannagh,  Carroll,  Nelson 
M.  Davenport,  Richard  D.iirs,  George  Deckins,  D.ivid 
Davis,  jr.,  Evan  Evans,  Luke  Gram,  John  tlrat'.on,  Wil- 
liam Griffiths,  David  (Irifiilhs,  George  Given,  .Abraham 
Hantz,  Edward  Hollern,  Is.-'ac  Hontz,  Ebenezcr  Jones, 
Dwight  Jones,  John  Jones,  Isaiah  Jones.  William  Jenkins, 
Eilward  Kiterick,  Samuel  .M.  Kaufman,  Enoch  Lloyd, 
William  Lynch,  .Asbury  Lucas,  Michael  .\Iooiiey,  William 
Morgan,  Edward  Morgan,  James  Mickle,  .Anthony 
M'Dermot,  John  .M'Gee,  Henry  .Miller,  David  .M'Gahen. 
-Alexander  Palmatory,  William  Reese,  Paul  Rimple,  John 
Roberts,  Edward  Smith,  John  Smith,  .Andrew  Scott. 
James  Smith,  Edward  Sheldon.  Stephen  Simes,  John 
Shanghey,  Jeremiah  'J'homas,  Dillon  Taylor,  Thaddeus 
Wagner,  George  Welsh,  Charles  Walker,  George  Wolff. 


LUZERNF.      IN      THK      I  IVII,      WAR 1  UK      1  \VK\rV-l:ir.H  IH 


HIS  regiment  was  raised  by  John  W.  Geary,  a 
distinguished  citizen,  and  veteran  of  the  Mex- 
ican war,  who  was  its  colonel,  and  who  was 
finally  promoted  to  the  position  of  major 
leral,  and  in  1867  and  1870  elected  governor  of 
the  State.  It  consisted  of  fifteen  companies,  ot 
which  Conii)anies  A  and  N  were  recruited  in  Lu- 
zerne county.  The  regiment  was  first  uniformed  and 
equipped  at  the  expense  of  Colonel  Geary. 

.Authority  was  given  to  raise  this  regiment  in  June, 
1 86 1,  and  on  the  27th  of  July  the  colonel  with  ten  com- 
panies went  forward  to  Harper's  Ferry,  leaving  the  other 
five  to  follow  when  full.  The  disaster  at  Bull  Run  had 
rendered  this  haste  necessary. 


"   VJU  ' 



August  i3tli  tlie  regiment  moved  to  Point  of  Rocks, 
and  engaged  in  ])icket  duty  along  twenty-five  miles  of 
the  frontier,  on  the  Potomac.  The  disloyalty  of  the  in- 
habitants was  such  that  a  picket  post  was  required  every 
four  hundred  yards,  and  the  utmost  watchfulness  was 
necessary  to  jjrevent  treasonable  communications.  In 
the  latter  jiart  of  September  the  rebels  attacked  Point  of 
Rocks,  but  were  repulsed.  In  October  the  colonel  with 
a  part  of  the  regiment  crossed  into  Virginia  to  seize  and 
carry  away  a  quantity  of  wheat,  and  when  about  to  re- 
turn they  were  attacked  by  a  large  force  and  a  s|)irited 
fight  ensued.  The  enemy  were  repulsed  with  considera- 
ble loss.  In  the  latter  part  of  the  same  month  the  com- 
mand went  forward  to  participate  in  the  action  at  Ball's 
Bluff.  During  three  months  the  regiment  was  on  duty 
along  the  Potomac,  and  had  frequent  skirmishes  with  the 
enemy.  In  the  latter  part  of  February,  1S62,  it  crossed 
to  Harper's  Ferry,  drove  the  enemy  from  Bolivar  Heights, 
crossed  the  Shenandoah  and  drove  the  rebels  from  Lou- 
don Heights;  then  pushed  forward  to  Lovellsville,  Water- 
ford  and  Leesburg,  which  (General  A.  P.  Hill  abandoned 
on  the  approach  of  Colonel  Geary's  force,  and  which  was 
occujjied  by  the  Union  troojjs.  From  Leesburg  the 
comtnand  advanced  to  Snickerville,  Upperville,  Ashhy's 
Gap,  Rectortown,  Piedmont,  Markham  and  Front  Royal. 
Returning  to  Snickerville  the  force  was  joined  by  a  por- 
tion of  the  28th  that  had  been  left  at  Leesburg.  They 
then  marched  successively,  fighting  occasionally,  to  Phile- 
mont,  Middlebury,  White  Plains,  Thoroughfare  Gap, 
Greenwich,  Catlett's  Station,  Warrentown  and  White 
Plains;  and  for  some  time,  till  about  May  ist,  guarded 
and  repaired  the  Manassas  Railroad. 

April  25th,  Colonel  Geary  was  commissioned  brigadier 
general  of  volunteers,  and  was  succeeded  as  colonel  by 
Lieutenant  Colonel  De  Korponay.  Major  Tyndall  was 
made  lieutenant  colonel,  and  he  was  succeeded  by  Cap- 
tain Ario  Pardee,  jr.  The  28th  was  soon  afterward,  or 
about  the  17th  of  May,  attached  to  the  command  of 
General  Geary,  and  its  subsequent  history  is  so  closely 
connected  with  that  of  his  brigade  that  to  give  it  fully 
would  require  a  history  of  all  the  movements  of  that 
brigade.  It  was  attached  to  the  corps  of  General  Banks 
at  the  time  of  the  retreat  from  Virginia,  and  was  engaged 
in  the  battle  of  Antietam.  It  also  took  part  in  the  battles 
of  Chancellorsville  and  Gettysburg. 

In  September,  1864,  the  iith  and  12th  corps  were  or- 
dered to  join  the  .'Krmy  of  the  Cumberland.  From  this 
time  forward  the  2Sth  was  attached  to  the  army  of  Gen- 
eral Sherman,  and  participated  in  many  battles,  which 
cannot  even  be  enumerated  here  for  want  of  space.  In 
November,  1864,  with  the  rest  of  Sherman's  army,  it 
made  the  famous  "march  to  the  sea."  After  doing  duty 
about  a  mo'nth  in  Savannah,  it  started  across  the  Caro- 
linas,  which  was  the  severest  part  of  the  march  from  .'\t- 
lanta.  As  is  well  known,  the  surrender  of  Lee  and 
Johnston  concluded  the  fighting  of  the  war;  and  the  regi- 
ment was  mustered  out  of  the  service  on  the  i8th  of 
July,   1865. 

During  its  service  of  four  years  it  lost   about  as  many 

men  as  were  originally  on  its  muster  roll.  It  is  said  that 
it  was  as  often  engaged  as  any  regiment  in  the  service, 
but  that  it  never  permitted  any  kind  of  property  belong- 
ing to  it  to  fall  into  the  hands  of  the  enemy.  One  major 
general  and  three  brigadiers  were  furnished  by  it  ;  among 
the  latter  was  Ario  Pardee,  jr. 

The  term  of  enlistment  of  this  regiment  was  three 
years.  .-^11  the  members  of  Company  N  remaining  in  the 
service  until  October  28th,  1862,  were  transferred  at  tha* 
date  to  Company  C  of  the  147th  Pennsylvania  vol-unteers. 
The  first  date  given  in  the  following  roll  is  that  of  muster- 
in,  and  as  the  year  is  1861,  except  in  case  of  recruits,  it 
need  not  be  repeated.  The  regimental  officers  and  men  of 
Company  A,  where  not  otherwise  mentioned,  were  mus- 
tered out  with  the  regiment  July  i8th,  1S65: 


Colonels. — John  W.  Geary,  June  28;  promoted  brigadier 
general  U.  S.  volunteers  April  25,  1862;  wounded  at 
Bolivar,  Cedar  Mountain  and  Chancellorsville;  promoted 
major  general  Jan.  12,  1865.  Gabriel  De  Korponay,  June 
28;  promoted  from  lieutenant  colonel  to  colonel  A])ril 
25,  1862;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  March  2(1, 
7863.  Thomas  J.  Ahl,  July  11;  promoted  from  captain 
Company  H  to  colonel  March  15,  1863;  resigned  March 
18,  1864.  John  Flynn,  July  i;  wounded  at  Gettysburg 
July  3,  1863,  and  at  North  Edisto  river,  S.  C,  Feb.  12, 
1865;  promoted  lieutenant  colonel,  Dec.  12,  1863;  to 
colonel  June  g,  1864;  brevet  brigadier  general  May  13, 
1865;   discharged  Nov.  3,  1865;   veteran. 

Lii'ittemiiit  Colonels. — Hector  Tyndale,  June  28;  pro- 
moted lieutenant  colonel  Apr.  25,  1862;  wounded  at  An- 
tietam. Sept.  17,  1862;  promoted  brigadier  general  volun- 
teers Nov.  29,  1862;  discharged  Mar.  18,  1863.  James 
Fitzpatrick,  June  28;  promoted  major  Mar.  27,  1864; 
lieutenant  colonel  Aug.  9,  1864;  wounded  at  Antietam 
Sept.  17,  1862;  at  Mill  Creek  Gap  May  8,  1864. 

Majors. — Ario  Pardee,  jr.,  June  28;  promoted  major 
Nov.  I,  1861;  lieutenant  colonel  147th  regiment  October 
9,  1S62.  William  Raphail,  July  3;  promoted  major,  July 
I,  1862;  resigned  Jan.  15,  1863.  Robert  Warden,  July 
28;  promoted  major  Apr.  25,  1862;  died  at  Winchester, 
Va.,  June  30,  1862.  Lans'd  F.  Chapman,  July  6;  pro- 
moted major  Jan.  22,  1863;  killed  at  Chancellorsville 
May  3,  1863.  Jacob  D.  Arner,  July  6;  promoted  major 
June   I,  1S65. 

Adjutants. — Samuel  Goodman,  Oct.  15;  promoted  to 
adjutant  Nov.  13,  1861;  discharged  3,  1S64;  brevet 
captain,  major,  lieutenant  colonel  and  colonel.  Mar.  13, 
1865.  Henry  Cheesman,  July  11;  promoted  adjutant 
July  28,  1864;  discharged  Feb.  8,  1865.  William  S.  Wit- 
ham,  July  2;   promoted  adjutant  June  i,  1865. 

Quartermasters. — Benjamin  F.  Lee,  June  28;  resigned 
Sept.  10,  1862,  to  accept  commission  as  captain  and  A. 
C.  S.  John  F.  Nicholson,  June  28;  promoted  from  com- 
mission sergeant  to  ciuartermaster  Sept.  10,  1862;  brevet 
captain,  major  and  lieutenant  colonel.  Mar.  13,  1862. 

Surgeons. — H.  Ernest  Goodman,  July  23;  transferred 
to  U.  S.  V.  as  assistant  surgeon,  to  date  Feb.  26,  1864; 
brevet  colonel  and  surgeon  in  chief.  Army  of  Georgia. 
William  Altman,  Dec.  17,  1862;  promoted  surgeon.  May 
8,  1864. 

Assistant  Surgeons. — Samuel  Logan,  June  28:  resigned 
Oct.  3,  1862.  William  M.  Dorland,  Aug.  i,  1862;  re- 
signed Nov.  27,  1862.  John  H.  Mullin,  Oct.  15,  1862; 
resigned  Apr.  17,  1863.  William  F".  Smith,  June  3,  1863; 
])romoted  surgeon  Dec.  23,  1864,  and  transferred  to  73d. 
Abin  H.  Light,  May  23,  1864. 




Chaf<lains. — Charles  W.  Heisley,  Nov.  :;  resigned  July 
iS,  1863.     N.  15.  Critchfiekl,  Mny  22,  1864. 

SV/xi-d///  J/ii/ofs. — James  C.  Siiiiili,  June  28;  promoted 
sergeant  major.  .Aug.  i,  1S64;  ist  lieutenant  Company  C 
28th  I'a.,  July  8,  1865.  Thomas  Monroe.June  28;  jtronioted 
sergeant  major  .Vug.  i,  1864;  ist  lieutenant  Company  C 
July  7,  1863.  Samuel  V.  McKce,  June  28;  ])ronioted  ser- 
geant major  July  20,  1861;  aujutant  147th,  Dec.  i,  1862. 
Thomas  McCune.  July  i;  i)romoted  sergeant  major  Sept. 
10,  1861;  disciiarged  on  surgeon's  certificate,  Feb.  26, 
1S63.  Michael  H.  Pevine,  July  i;  promoted  sergeant 
major  I'"eh.  26.  1863;  discharged  on  suigeon's  certificate 
.\ug.  14,  1863.  Edward  D.  Foulke,  July  6;  jiromoted 
sergeant  major  Dec  i,  1863;  reduced  to  ranks  and 
transferred  to  C'ompany  D  -Aug.  i,  1864.  R.  A.  Kerri- 
hard,  June  28;  promoted  sergeant  major  Aug.  15,  1863; 
killed  at    Taylor  Ridge,   Ga.,  Nov.  27,  1863. 

Qiiartiimaiti-r  Serjeants. — Wesley  Hamilton,  July  i; 
])ronioted  quartermaster  sergeant  Apr.  8,  1865.  David 
B.  Hilt,  July  20;  promoted  (luartermaster  sergeant  July 
20,  1861;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Aug.  17, 

Commissary  Sfigeaiit!.. — Albert  J.  \Vatt,  July  i;  pro- 
moted commissary  sergeant  Sei)t.  i,  1863.  J.  H.  I-ippin- 
cott,  June  2 1;  promoted  commissary  sergeant  Sept.  10, 
1862;  transferred  to  Company  H,  Sept.  i,  1863. 

Hos[<ital  StcuHirJs. — P.  S.  C.  Hough,  July  1 1 ;  promoted 
hos])ital  steward,  Nov.  24,  1863.  James  Kemble,  July 
24;  promoted  hospital  steward  July  24,  iS6j;  discharged 
Nov.  24,  1862,  and  promoted  hospital  steward  U.  S.  A. 

CO.MP.ANV  \. 

Officfis  {iiiiistcrcd  ill  June  28,  1861  . — Captains — .Ario 
Pardee,  jr.,  promoted  major  twenty-eighth  regiment 
Pennsylvania  volunteers  Nov.  i,  7861.  James  Fit/- 
patrick,  |)romoted  captain  Jan.  i,  1862  ;  major  Mar.  27, 
1864;  veteran.  James  Silliman,  jr.,  promoted  from  cor- 
poral to  first  sergeant  July  i,  1861  ;  second  lieuienani 
Jan.  I,  1862  ;  first  lieutenant  July  i,  1862  ;  captain  -Aug. 
16,  1864.  First  lieutenant — Ceorge  Marr,  ])romoted  first 
sergeant  July  12,  1863;  first  lieutenant  Oct.  i,  1S64. 
Second  lieutenants — John  Corman,  resigned  Dec. 31,  1861. 
Isaiah  B.  Robinson,  jiromoted  from  sergeant  Jan.  i,  1862; 
killed  July  20,  1864,  at  Peach  Tree  Creek,  Ga.  ^Villiam 
Airey,  promoted  corporal  Jan.  i,  1863;  sergeant  July 
12,  1863  ;  first  sergeant  Oct.  i,  1864  ;  second  lieutenant 
June  I,  1865.  First  sergeants — Smith  Durst,  ])romoted 
corporal  Jan.  i,  1863;  sergeant  July  12,  1863  ;  first 
sergeant  June  i,  1865.  Samuel  F.  .M'Kee,  promoted 
sergeant  major  twenty-eighth  regiment  Pennsylvania 
volunteers  July  20,  t86i.  Sergeants — George  W.  YA- 
dinger,  wounded  ;  promoted  corporal  Feb.  i,  1863-;  ser- 
geant Jan.  1,1864,  Patrick  M'Shay,  promoted  corporal 
Jan.  1,  1863;  sergeant  Oct.  i,  1864.  William  H.  Wolf, 
promoted  corporal  Jan.  i,  1864;  sergeant  Feb.  i,  1865. 
George  Burt,  wounded  ;  promoted  sergeant  June  1,  1865. 
William  M'Donald,  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate 
Jan.  16,  1863.  Robert  .A.  Kerrihard,  promoted  sergeant 
major  twenty-eighth  regiment  Pennsylvania  volunteers 
.Aug.  15,  1863.  Thomas  Monroe,  wounded  at  Chancel- 
lorsville  ;  promoted  sergeant  major  twenty-eighth  regi- 
ment Pennsylvania  volunteers  Aug.  i,  1864;  veteran. 
John  I).  I.ockhart,  died  at  Harper's  Ferry,  Va.,  Dec.  11, 
1862.  Robert  I.  Carter,  died  July  12,  1S63,  at  Philailel- 
phia,  of  wounds  received  at  Chancellorsvillc.  William 
Wylie,  died  at  Philadelphia  Nov.  26,  1862.  .Archibald 
Nesbit,  promoted  '..ergeant  Sept.  30,  1862  ;  mustered  out 
July  2,  1864.  Corporals — Dennis  Laughlin,  Joseph  H. 
Cornet,  William  H.  Doak  and  James  Shirey,  promoted 
corporal  Jan.  i,  1864.  Thomas  Karley,  promoted  cor- 
poral  Oct.  1,  1864.     Henry    Hembach,    Feb.    26,    1864  ; 


promoted  corporal  Feii.  i,  1865.  Alexander  W.  Self- 
ridge,  discharged  Fel).  28,  1 862,10  receive  commission  as 
second  lieutenant  H  forty-sixth  regiment  Penn- 
^ylvania  volunteers.  Beriah  Pratt,  discharged  for 
wounds  Nov.  29,  1S62.  William  W.  Jamts,  discharged 
on  surgeon's  certificate  Dec  7,  1862.  William  P.  Cort- 
right.  discharged  on  surgeon's  ceriifiraie  Jan.  15.  1863. 
William  Horn,  discharged  Feb.  19,  1863,  for  wounds 
nceived  at  Antietam.  James  C.  Smith,  promoted  ser- 
geant major  July  1,  1865  ;  veteran.  Musicians— Frank 
Harkins,  Feb.  9,  1864.  I'rcderick  Spoh;i.  promoted  prin- 
cipal musician  Sept.  14,  1862.  William  F.  Simpson, 
promoted  second  principal  musician  Mch.  i,  1864.  John 
R.  Young,  Feb.  14.  1865  ;   deserted  June  20,  1S65. 

Piiiuili-s. — John  Anderson,  Jan.  26.  1864.  Henry 
Albert,  Feb.  14,  1865.  Phineas  W.  Ash,  June  28  ;  dis- 
charged on  surgeon's  certificate,  Nov.  29,1862.  Samuel 
.Armpriester,  .Aug.  29.  1864  ;  discharged  by  general  order, 
.May  23,  1865.  Joseph  Achuff,  Mch.  3,  1865;  discharged 
by  general  order,  May  23,  1865.  James  Alwell,  Nov.  7, 
1864;  discharged  by  general  order.  May  23,  1865.  An- 
thony .Albert.  Feb.  14,  1865  ;  deserted  June  20,  1865. 
Edwin  M.  .Alsfield,  Feb.  13,  1865  ;  discharged  by  general 
order.  May  23.  1865.  .Amos  Buzzard,  Feb.  15,  1865. 
Isaac    Buzznrd,  Feb.    14.  1865.     (Jeorge  Bachman,   Feb. 

14,  1865.  Jacob  R.  Black,  ".\Ich.  2,  1865.  Charles  F. 
Brong,  Mch.  9,  1865.  John  Barringer  and  Isaac  Barrin- 
ger,  Dec.  22,  1864  ;  drafted.  Josiah  Buzzard,  Feb.  14, 
1865  ;  mustered  out  .Aug  9,  1865.  Christian  F.  Bender. 
Feb.  20,  1865  ;  mustered  out  July  14,  1865.  Henry  W. 
Beers,  June  28;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate,  Jan. 

15,  1863.  John  Brennan  and  Henry  E.  Brown,  discharg- 
ed on  surgeon's  certificate.  John  Brown,  June  28;  dis- 
charged on  surgeon's  certificate.  Jesse  Beahm,  June  28, 
discharged  July  20,  1864.  Francis  Barker.  Aug.  11.  1816; 
1864  ;  discharged  by  general  order,  June  2,  1865.  Patrick 
Boyle,  June  28;  deserted  July  17,  1862.  Burton  Bur- 
well,  Feb.  14,  1865;  discharged  by  general  order,  .May 
23,  1865.  John  Behrens,  June  28:  absent,  in  arrest,  at 
muster  out  ;  veteran.  Joseph  N.  Conklin,  Feb.  14,  1865. 
Henry  Collins,  Feb.  17,  1865  ;  absent,  sick,  at  muster 
out.  Thomas  Cunningham  and  John  Campbell.  June 
28,  1861  ;  discharged  July  20,  1864.  Reuben  Clay  well, 
June  28;  killed  at  .Antietam,  .Sept.  17,  1862.  Daniel 
C'ampbfll,  June  28;  deserted  June  29,  1863;  returned 
.April  II,  1865.  Hugh  Dolan,  June  28.  Eugene  Durst, 
Ian.  22,  1864.  Paul  Deer.  Feb.  14,  1865.  John  F. 
Decker,  June  28;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate, 
Feb.  28,  1863.  .Abraham  Depue  and  Eli  Dout,  June  28, 
1861;  dischargetl  July  20,  1864.  George  H.  Dunham, 
Feb.  24,  1864  ;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate,  June 
30,  1865.  John  Dean,  June  28;  died  May  18,  1863,  of 
wounds  received  at  Chancellorsville.  William  H.  Drake, 
Feb.  16,  1865;  discharged  by  general  order.  May  2-^, 
1865.  George  1-ike.  Feb.  24,  1864.  Peter  Fox,  Feb.  25, 
1864.  Christopher  Fagan,  June  28;  discharged  on  sur- 
geon's certificate;  date  unknown.  Peter  Fagen,  June  28; 
discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate,  Aug.  18,  1863.  Charles 
Furry,  June  28;  discharged  Mrh.  4,  1863,  for  wounds 
received  at  Antietam.  James  Fowler  and  Nicholas  Faich- 
ter,  June  28,  1861:  discharged  July  20,  1864.  John 
Fatkins,  June  28;  transferred  to  sixth  regiment  U.  S. 
cavalry,  Nov.  i,  1862.  John  W.  Funk,  1-eb.  14,  1865; 
deserted  June  20,  1865.  James  Furlong,  Feb  24,  1865; 
deserted.  Benjamin  F.  Godshalk,  Mch.  11,  1865;  absent, 
sick,  at  muster  out.  Jacob  Graur,  Jan.  28,  1864;  dis- 
charged on  surgeon's  certificate,  July  11,  1865.  James 
Givens,  June  28;  discharged  on  surgeon's certificate.Mch. 
10,  1863.  Henry  Grow,  John  Girard  and  John  W.  Gcn- 
sil,  June  28,  1861  •  discharged  July  20,  1864.  Charles 
Grum.  June   28:  wommiIiiI-   mn^irriil    out    .Aug.  8.  1S64. 


1 06 



Henry  Grum,  June  28;  killed  at  Gettysburg,  July  3,  1863. 
Charles  Godley,  Feb.  20,  1865;  deserted  June  20,  1865. 
John  Heater,  June  28.  William  H.  Herman,  Jan.  26, 
1865.  Henry  C.  Hess,  Feb.  10,  1865.  George  W.'Houck, 
Feb.  20,  1865.  Christian  Hogland,  Feb.  14,  1865;  absent, 
sick,  at  muster  out.  John  Holler.  Harrison  Hill  and 
Jacob  Hehr,  June  28,  1861;  discharged  July  20,  T864. 
John  P.  Hay,  Feb.  14,  1865:  discharged  on  surgeon's 
certificate,  June  8,  1865.  William  H.  Hartzell.  William 
P.  Innes  and  John  A.  Innes,  Feb.  14,  1865;  discharged 
by  general  order.  May  23,  1865.  Aaron  F.  Knauss,  Feb. 
17,  1865.  Joseph  Karns,  Dec.  22,  1864;  drafted;  mus- 
tered out  with  company,  July  18,  1865.  Edward  Kale, 
July  25;  discharged  July  20,  1864.  William  Kortz,  June 
28;  discharged  July  20,  1864.  Ezra  H.  Kindred,  Feb. 
24,  1864;  discharged  by  general  order,  June  20,  1865. 
Andrew  Kunkle,  June  28;  killed  at  Anlietam,  Md.,  Sejit. 

17,  1862.  James  Laughlin,  Feb.  16,  1864.  John  E. 
Lerch,  Feb.  18,  1865.  Joseph  Little,  June  28;  discharged 
on  surgeon's  certificate,  Dec.  18,  1862.  Edward  Little- 
ton, July  17;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate,  June  14, 
1864.  Jacob  Lambert,  June  28;  discharged  July  20,  1864. 
George  Langham,  September  5,  1863  ;  drafted  ;  dis- 
charged for  wounds  December  3,  1864.  Theodore 
Labar,  Feb.  14,  1865;  deserted  June  17,  1865.  Isaac 
Labar,  Feb.  20,  1865  ;  deserted  June  18,  1865.  Adam 
Lehm,  Feb.  16,  1865  ;  discharged  by  general  order  May 
23,  1865.  George  Mowrie,  June  28.  Barney  Maloy,  Feb. 
12,  1862.  Robert  Monroe,  Feb.  14,  1864.  John  Magee, 
Feb.  14,  1864.  Patrick  Martin,  June  28;  wounded  at 
Chancellorsville;  discharged  July  20,  1864.  William  H. 
Moyer,  June  28;  captured  at  Gettysburg  June  3,  1863; 
discharged  July  20,  1864.  Josiah  Mowrie,  June  28; 
discharged  July  20,  1864,  Stephen  Myers,  Feb.  20,  1865; 
discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  June  30,  1865.  Samuel 
Minig,  June  28  ;  transferred  to  i6th  U.  S.  infantry  Jan. 
23,  1S62.  John  Maloney,  June  28;  killed  at  Antietam, 
Md.,  September  17,  1862.  Nicholas  Marx,  Feb.  26,  1864; 
died  at  Bridgeport,  Ala.,  May  i,  1864.  William  H. 
Morgan,  Jan.  29,  1864;  Killed  at  Pine  Hill,  Ga.,  June  15, 
1864.  Daniel  M'Geichan,  Feb.  12,  1862  ;  wounded. 
William  M'Daniels,  Feb.  14,  1865,  Alexander  M'Kech- 
ney,  June  28;  wounded  at  Antietam;  discharged  July  20, 
1864.  Henry  M'Donald,  June  28;  discharged  July  20, 
1864.  James  D.  M'Curley,  June  28;  wounded  at  Antie- 
tam; discharged  July  20,  1864.  John  M'Hoes,  Feb.  16, 
1865;  discharged  June  20,  1865.  Joseph  Nuss,  Feb. 
15,  1865.      Joseph    Nixon,  June  28;  discharged  July  20, 

1864.  William  H.  Nixon,  Feb.  20,  1865;  discharged  on 
surgeon's  certificate  June  27,  1865.  Patrick  O'Donnell, 
May  I,  1864;  drafted;  mustered  out  with  company  July 

18,  1865.  John  B.  Penrose  and  James  Petrie,  June  28,  186 1 ; 
discharged  July  20,  1864.  Martin  Pysher,  Feb.  20,  1865; 
discharged  by  general  order  June  17,  1865.  John  Petrie, 
June  28;  died  June  12,  1863,  of  wounds  received  at 
Chancellorsville.  Patrick  Quinn,  June  28;  killed  at  An- 
tietam, Md.,  Sept.  17,  1862.  Isaac  Rough.  June  28. 
William  Roseberry,  Feb.  14,  1865.  John  G.  Richardt, 
Feb.  14,  1865.  Jefferson  Rightnour,  Sept.  5,  1863;  draft- 
ed. Jacob  Rough,  June  28;  discharged  on  surgeon's 
certificate  March  28,  1863.  Jacob  Rosenstock,  June  28; 
wounded  at  Chancellorsville;  discharged  July  20,  1864. 
Robert  Roling.  James  M.  Rodenbaugh,  Feb,  13,  1865; 
discharged  by  general  order  May  23,  1865.  Washington 
H.  Smith,  June  28.  William  P.  Shaver,  Jan.  29,  1864. 
William  H.  Salmon,  Feb.  24,  1864.  Edward  N.  Smith, 
Feb.  18,  1865.  Aaron  Serfass,  March  i,  1865.  Harrison 
D.   Seiple,    Mar.    i,   1865.     Bernard  Schlenzing,  Jan.  26, 

1865.  Jackson  E.  Stoker,  Feb.  16,  1865.  William  H. 
Seip,  Feb.  13,  1865.  Samuel  Shank,  Nov.  18,  1864; 
drafted.     Solomon  Smith,  Sept.   21,  1864;  drafted.     Jos- 

eph Smith,  Nov.  4,  1864;  drafted;  mustered  out  July  14, 
1865.  Jacob  Shafer,  Jan.  10,  1865;  drafted;  mustered 
out  July  27,  1865.  John  Shiiver,  Dec.  22,  1864;  drafted; 
mustered  out  June  9,  1865.  John  Smith,  June  28;  dis- 
charged for  wounds;  date  unknown.  Daniel  Sitler,  June 
28;  discharged  July  20,  1864.  Joseph  Sonn,  June  28; 
wounded  at  Antietam;  discharged  July  20,  1864.  John 
D.Smith.  Paul  Staub.  John  Shugart,  June28,  1861; 
discharged  July  20,  1864.  Oscar  L.  Sprague,  Feb.  24, 
1864;  discharged  for  wounds  May  18,  1865.  William  E. 
Sprague,  Jan.  29,  1864;  discharged  for  wounds  Feb.  28, 
1865.  Levi  L.  Smith,  June  28;  died  at  Philadelphi:i 
December  13,  1862.  Charles  Steel,  Feb.  18,  1864;  killed 
at  DaUon,  Ga.,  August  18,  1864.  Emanuel  Spatzer,  Jan. 
26,  1865;  deserted  June  17,  1865.  Emanuel  Stetler,  Feb. 
15,  1865;  deserted  June  20,  1865.  James  W.  Smith, 
June  28;  discharged  July  20,  1864.  Thomas  Tarn,  June 
28;  discharged  September  16,  1864.  James  B.  Tweedle, 
June  28;  discharged  July  20,  1864.  Anthony  Transue, 
Feb.  20,  1865;  discharged  by  general  order  May  23,  1865. 
Jacob  T.  Ultz,   Feb.  28,  1865.     Jacob  Wildman,  Jan.  29, 

1864.  Alexander  Wier,  Feb.  18,1864.  Jacob  L,  Wal- 
ters, Feb.  14,  1S65.  Prosper  Worg,  February  14,  1865. 
Thomas  Williams,  February  20,  1865.  Henry  Weaver 
and  Reuben  Washburn,  June  28,  1861;  discharged  July 
20,  1864.  W.  H.  Whitbread,  Feb.  24,  1864;  discharged 
on  surgeon's  certificate  June  6,  1865.  Herman  Walters, 
September  21,  1864;  drafted;  deserted  June  7,  1865. 
Lewis  Wilhelm,   February    14,   1865;    deserted  June   20, 

1865.  Andrew  Wilson,  March  13,  1865;  deserted 
June  20,  1865.  Samuel  R.  Yost,  June  28,  1861;  dis- 
charged March  19,  1863,  for  wounds  received  at 


Officets. — Captain,  John  Craig,  Aug.  30.  First  lieu- 
tenants— Patrick  J.  Hughes,  Aug.  20,  resigned  Dec.  16, 
1861;  Calvin  Pardee,  Aug  30,  promoted  from  second  to 
first  lieutenant  Dec.  20,  1861.  Second  lieutenants — 
Hugh  Hyndman,  Aug.  30,  promoted  from  corporal  to 
second  lieutenant  Dec.  20,  1861,  died  Feb.  14,  1862; 
Nicholas  Glace,  Aug.  20,  promoted  from  first  sergeant  to 
second  lieutenant  Feb.  17,  1862.  Sergeants — David 
Bryan,  Aug.  20,  promoted  sergeant  Feb.  16,  1862;  John 
Kindland,  Aug.  20,  reduced  Jan.  i,  1862;  John  H. 
Kentz,  Aug.  26;  Alexander  Youngst,  Aug.  20;  Samuel. 
Henry,  Aug.  30,  promoted  from  corporal  to  sergeant 
Feb.  14,  1862.  Corporals — John  Grubb,  John  Lindsc)', 
Owen  McGovern,  John  O'Conner,  Alfred  Reiley  and 
William  T.  West,  Aug.  20;  Emmett  Sayres,  Aug.  30, 
promoted  to  corporal  Jan.  i,  1862.  Musician — N.  F'. 
Dunham,  Aug.  30. 

Privates. — Samuel  K.  Austin,  John  .Altmiller,  John 
Burns,  Henry  Bloomey,  Peter  Brown  and  Eugene  Ben- 
nett, Aug.  20.  Peter  Bishop,  Aug.  26.  Thomas  B.  Black, 
William  Butler,  David  Bahr  and  Jesse  B.  Car])enter,  Aug. 
30.  Bryan  Dolan,  Aug.  20.  Charles  Drum,  Aug.  26. 
Russell  De  Roemer,  Jacob  Drumheller,  .'\ug.  30.  Robert 
O.  Dowda,  Aug.  30;  killed  at  Antietam  Sept.  17,  1S62. 
Thomas  Edgar,  Charles  Edwards,  Wm.  A.  Eddinger, 
William  Farrow  and  William  Farmer,  Aug.  20.  Cyrus  B. 
Faux,  Aug.  26.  Lands  Frederick,  Aug.  26;  deserted  Feb. 
15,  1862.  Aaron  Green,  Aug.  20.  Sidney  W.  Glace,  Aug. 
26.  Andrew  Y.  Green,  Aug.  30;  transferred  to  Knap's  Pa. 
Battery  Oct.  5,  1861.  James  Hamilton,  Aug.  20;  killed 
at  Antietam  Sept.  17,  1862.  Aaron  Harris,  Aug.  20. 
George  Hughes,  Aug.  20;  killed  at  Antietam  Sept.  17, 
1862.  Henry  Hartman,  Aug.  26.  John  Hoover,  Aug.  26: 
killed  at  Antietam  September  17,  1862.  John  Jacobs, 
Aug.  30.  C.  Knopenberger,  Aug.  20;  wounded  at  Anlie- 
tam Sept.  17,  1862.    Jacob  Kimtzman,  Aug.  20.    Warner 




Kcntz,  Gus  Kemherling,  Andrew  Kresze  and  Paulin 
Kresze,  Aug.  26.  William  Kern,  Aug.  26:  disc  hargcd  on 
surgeon's  ceruficate  June  12,  1862.  Josiah  H.  King  and 
Geo.  W.  Kenieron,  Aug.  30.  John  Lewis,  Hugii  McPon- 
ald,  John  McKinley,  John  McCorinick  and  Patrick  Mc- 
Laughlin, .Aug.  20.  Obed  McMurtrie,  Aug.  26.  Samuel 
I'".  May  and  Daniel  Martin,  Aug.  20.  John  Moy,  Aug.  20; 
discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Dec.  27,  i86r. 
William  Major,  Hiram  S.  Miller  and  Nelson  Mellick. 
.\ug.  30.  Israel  Machessut,  .Aug.  26.  Edward  Oberander, 
.Aug.  30.  Jesse  Pryor  and  John  Powell,  Aug.  20.  Lewis 
Ruty,  .Aug.  20;  transferred  to  Knap's  Pa.  Battery  Oct. 
29,  i86t.  Samuel  Rough,  Shadrack  Reese,  John  Rut- 
kdge,  James  H.  Root,  Samuel  Stookey,  Owen  Smith, 
James  Smith  and  George  Spader.  Aug,  20.  .Archibald  \V. 
Smith,  Aug.  20;  transferred  to  Knaj/s  Pa.  Battery  Oct. 
29,  1861.  Lewis  Schnar,  .Aug.  20.  Philip  Sebias,  .Aug.  26; 
not  on  muster-out  roll.  John  Sower,  Aug.  26.  Daniel 
Swank.  .Aug.  26;  died  at  Point  of  Rocks,  Md.,  Oct.  14, 
1861.  William  Steinmetz,  George  Searles  and  Edward 
Schooley,  Aug.  30.  Edward  Treble  and  William  Tanner, 
.\ug.  20.  Joseph  Van  Sickle,  Aug.  26;  discharged  on  sur- 
geon's certificate  Jan.  20,  1862.  William  Wittick,  Aug. 
20;  discharged  A|)ril  24,  1862,  for  wounds  received  at 
Berlin,  Md.,  Dec.  14,  1861.  James  Winget,  Aug.  20;  dis- 
charged on  surgeon's  certificate  Nov.  19,  i86r.  John 
Warren  and  Robert  Webster,  Aug.  30.  August  W'illiams, 
.\ug.  20.  John  Youngst,  Aug.  30.  William  Zacharias, 
Aug.  26. 


l.UZERNK    IN    THE    CIVIL    W.AR — IHE  36TH   AND  4IST   REG- 


^  HE  Seventh   Reserve   regiment   was  organized 

on   the  26th    of  June,    1861.   and   Elisha  B. 

>^'\      Harvey,  of  Wilkes-Barre,  was  made  colonel; 

TlJja^U  Joseph  Totten.  of  Mechanicsburg.  lieutenant 
colonel,  and  Chaunccy  .A.  Lyman,  of  Lock  Haven, 

The  regiment  was  ordered  to  Washington  on  the 
:;ist  of  July,  and  on  the  27th  was  mustered  into  the  ser- 
vice of  the  United  States.  On  the  2nd  of  August  it  went 
forward  to  the  rendezvous  of  the  Pennsylvania  reserves, 
and  was  assigned  to  the  brigade  of  General  George  G. 
Meade.  From  this  time  till  October  it  was  engaged  in 
drilling  and  picket  duty.  In  the  latter  month  it  joined 
the  army  of  the  Potomac.  From  this  time  till  March, 
1863,  but  little  service  beyond  drill  was  seen.  When  the 
.irmy  moved  forward  to  the  peninsula  in  April  the  sev- 
enth was  retained,  with  other  troops,  for  the  defense  of 
\\'ashington.  In  June  they  went  forward  to  the  front 
;ind  became  a  part  of  the  5th  corps,  under  General  Fitz- 
john  Porter.  On  the  26th  of  June  the  battle  of  Me- 
chanicsville,  in  which  the  7th  was  engaged,  was  fought. 
The  next  day  the  battle  of  Gaines'  Mill,  in  which  the 
7th  also  ]iarticipated,  took  place.  Then  followed  some 
marching  and  skirmishing,  in  which  the  regiment  was 
engaged  till  the  end  of  the  "  seven  days  "  fighting.  It 
then    marched   "  by    devious    ways "  to    the  vicinity   of 

Groveton,  where  on  the  29lh  and  3cth  of  August,  1862, 
the  7th  was  engaged.  Its  next  battle  was  at  South 
Mountain,  where  it  made  an  impetuous  charge,  in  which 
Colonel  Bolinger  was  severely  wounded.  .At  the  battle 
of  Antietam  it  was  .ictively  engaged  and  lost  heavily. 
After  this  battle  it  moved  to  the  Potomac,  and  thence,  in 
the  latter  part  of  October,  to  Warrenton,  Va.  Thence  it 
went,  in  the  latter  part  of  November,  to  the  vicinity  of 
Fredericksburg,  where  on  the  iith  of  December  it  was 
desperately  engaged.  At  this  battle  it  made  its  most 
brilliant  record.  It  made  a  gallant  charge  on  the  corps 
of  Longstreet,  in  which  it  captured  more  than  a  hundred 
prisoners  and  a  battle-flag — the  only  one  taken  in  this 
action.  The  losses  of  the  regiment  in  this  action  were 

During  the  winter  following  the  7th  remained  in  its 
camp  near  Belle  Plain,  with  the  exception  of  a  short  time 
spent  on  what  is  known  as  the  "  mud  march."  In  Feb- 
ruary, 1863,  it  was  transferred  from  the  field  to  the 
Department  of  Washington,  where  it  remained,  in  the 
discharge  mostly  of  provost  and  guard  duty,  during  more 
than  a  year.  In  this  time  several  changes  were  made 
among  the  field  officers,  and  Captain  L.  G.  Speese  was 
promoted  to  the  position  of  major. 

In  the  latter  part  of  A\m\  it  again  took  the  field,  and 
joined  the  army  at  about  the  commencement  of  the 
Wilderness  campaign.  In  the  course  of  the  first  action 
in  which  the  7th  was  engaged  a  large  portion  of  the  regi- 
ment was  by  one  of  the  casualties  of  war  captured,  and 
the  men  were  sent  to  the  notorious  and  infamous  prison 
pen  at  .Andersonville,  Georgia,  where  they  were  starved 
during  nearly  eight  months.  Out  of  about  two  hundred 
and  fifty  privates  who  were  taken  sixty-seven  died  in 
this  prison,  and  many  others  afterward  by  reason  of  their 
hardships  and  exposure  there.  The  surrender  of  the 
rebel  armies  to  Grant  and  Sherman  opened  their  prison 

Company  F  of  the  regiment  whose  achievements  and 
sufferings  have  just  been  rcounted,  was  recruited  in  Lu- 
zerne county.  We  give  below  the  records  of  that  com- 
pany as  published  by  the  State.  The  time  of  service 
was  three  years.  In  the  roll  the  date  of  muster-in  is 
generally  omitted,  as  in  nearly  all  cases  it  was  June  13th, 
i86f;  in  other  cases  it  is  the  first  date  given. 


Officers. — Captains — Le  Grand  B.  Speese,  promoted 
major  July  25,  1863.  John  Robinson,  (jromoted  sergeant 
July  26,  1 861;  first  sergeant  Nov.  12,  1861;  second  lieu- 
tenant August  r,  1862;  first  lieutenant  March  i,  1863; 
captain  July  20,  1863;  brevet  major  March  13,  1865; 
mustered  out  with  company  June  16,  1864.  First  lieu- 
tenants— t'harlis  W.  Garretson,  resigned  .Aug.  11.  1862. 
James  S.  Robinson,  promoted  sergeant  July  26,  1861; 
sergeant  major  .April  i,  1862;  second  lieutenant  Manh  i, 
1863;  first  lieutenant  July  20,  1863;  mustered  out  with 
company  June  16,  1863.  Second  lieutenants — Charles 
A.  Lane,  resigned  July  9,  1862.  John  B.  Laycock,  pro- 
moted sergeant  July  26,  1861;  first  sergeant  Oct.  15, 
1862;  second  lieutenant  July  20  1863;  brevet  first  lieu- 
tenant March  13,  1865;  captured  May  5.  1864;  dis- 
charged    March     12,     1865.     First    sergeants — Levi    G. 


McCauley,  promoted  first  lieutenant  Company  C  Jan.  i, 
1862.  Albert  Jones,  promoted  corporal  July  26,  1861; 
first  sergeant  Aug.  15,  1S62;  died  Oct.  15,  1862,  of 
wounds  received  at  Antietam  Sept.  77,  1862.  Isaac  B. 
Tubbs,  promoted  corporal  Aug.  1862;  sergeant  Oct., 
1863;  first  sergeant  May  i,  1S64;  missing  in  action  at 
Wilderness  May  5,  1864;  veteran.  Sergeants — John  S. 
Harrison,  promoted  corporal  July  26,  1861;  sergeant 
Oct.  8,  1863;  absent,  sick,  at  muster-out.  Thomas 
Markle,  promoted  sergeant  July  26,  1861;  discharged  on 
surgeon's  certificate  June  23,  1862.  William  Helf,  pro- 
moted corporal  Nov.  1,  1861;  sergeant  Ncv.  1862;  miss- 
ing in  action  at  Wilderness  May  5,  1864;  veteran.  Jame- 
son Bells,  promoted  corporal  July  i,  1862;  sergeant  Nov., 
1862;  missing  in  action  at  Wilderness  May  5,  1864;  vet- 
eran. James  Green,  killed  at  Gaines'  Mill  June  27,  1862. 
James  S.  Haney,  Nov.  5  ;  killed   al   White   Oak   Swamp, 



Corporals — Oliver  Gregory  ;  promoted 

corporal  Oct.  1862  ;  wounded  Dec.  13,  1862  ;  mustered 
out  with  company  June  16,  1864.  Joseph  R.  Westner  ; 
promoted  corporal  July  26,  1861  ;  discharged  Oct.  20, 
1862,  for  wounds  received  at  Gaines's  Mill,  June  27,  1862. 
Daniel  D.  Wilcox,  promoted  corporal  Sept.,  1862  ;  dis- 
charged on  surgeon's  certificate  Oct.  20,  1862.  Solo- 
mon Taylor,  Sept.  14  ;  promoted  corporal  Nov.  i,  1861  ; 
discharged  Oct.  8,  1862,  for  wounds  received  at  Gaines's 
Mill  June  27,  1862.  Alfred  B.  Bowman,  promoted  cor- 
poral July  26,  1861  ;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate 
Sept.  22,  1 86 1.  G.  W.  Lietington,  promoted  corporal 
Nov.,  1862  ;  missing  in  action  at  Wilderness  May  5,  1864; 
veteran.  Wilson  Long,  promoted  corporal  Nov.,  1862; 
prisoner  from  May  5  to  Dec.  16,  1S64  ;  discharged  Feb. 
27,  1865.  John  R.  Koons,  July  19  ;  promoted  corporal 
Nov.  1862  ;  prisoner  from  May  5  to  Dec.  11,  1864  ;  dis- 
charged Mch.  22,  1865.  George  W.  Holmes,  killed  at 
Gaines's  Mill,  June  27,  1862.  Ogdon  Hoffman,  killed  at 
White  Oak  Swamp  June  30,  1862.  Minor  A  Britton, 
died  at  Alexandria,  Va,,  January  10,  1863,  of  wounds  re- 
ceived at  Fredericksburg  Dec.  13,  1862.  Musicians — 
George  W.  Charters,  July  27  ;  discharged  on  surgeon's 
certificate  Dec.  31,  1861.  Nathan  Kleintop,  July  19  ; 
promoted  principal  musician  June  i,  1862. 

Privates. — Robert  Ackers,  discharged  on  surgeon's 
certificate  Oct.  31,  1861.  Mark  Ashworth,  discharged 
on  surgeon's  certificate  Mch.  5,  1863.  Henry  Albert, 
killed  at  Antietam,  Sept.  17,  1862.  Hudson  Allen,  mus- 
tered out  with  company  June  16  1864.  R.  C.  Buckalew, 
mustered  out  with  company  June  16,  1864.  George  H. 
Burrows,  July  15  ;  discharged  Sept.  29,  1862,  for  wounds 
received  at  Gaines'  Mill  June  27,  1862.  Oscar  Bucka- 
lew, discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Oct.  17,  1862. 
William  Bryant,  discharged  Nov.  i8,  1862,  for  wounds 
received  at  Gaines's  Mill  June  27,  1862.  James  N. 
Brown,  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Jan.  13,  1863, 
Andrew  Collins,  transferred  to  veteran  reserve  corps. 
Dec.  I,  1863.  John  W.  Caranel,  killed  at  Bull  Run 
Aug.  30,  1862.  Alexander  Dodson,  mustered  out  with 
company  June  16,  1864.  Elias  B.  Dodson,  mustered 
out  with  company  June  16,  1864.  Hiram  Detrick, 
July  15  ;  mustered  out  with  companv  June  16,  1864. 
Samuel  R.  Daily,  Sept.  4,  discharged  Jan.  11,  1863,  for 
wounds  received  at  Antietam  Sept.  17,  1862.  Franklin 
Daily,  jr.,  Sept.  4,  transferred  to  190th  Pennsylvania 
May  31,  1864  ;  veteran.  John  Dunmore,  Sept.  2  ;  trans- 
ferred to  190th  Pennsylvania  May  31,  1S64.  Luther 
Dodson,  prisoner  from  May  5,  1864,  to  Feb.  24,  1865  ; 
discharged  April  7,  1865.  Evan  B.  Dodson,  July  26  ; 
prisoner  from  May  5,  1864,  to  March  9,  1865  ;  dis- 
charged March  29,  1865.  Arch  Dunsmore,  July  26  ; 
missing  in  action  at  Wilderness  May  5,  1864  ;  veteran. 
John  Daily,  July  15  ;  killed  at   Antietam   Sept.  17,  1862. 

Charles  Dare,  July  15  ;  deserted  Aug.  19,  1862.  Daniel 
Edwards,  July  15  ;  discharged  February  5,  1S63,  for 
wounds  received  at  Gaines's  Mill  June  27,  1862.  Alex- 
ander Emmons,  prisoner  from  May  5  to  December  10, 
1864;  discharged  February  27,  1865.  Byron  Fairchild, 
transferred  to  veteran  reserve  corjjs  July  15,  1863. 
Franklin  Flora,  wounded,  with  lossof  arm  June  30,  1862  ; 
discharged  Oct.  3,  1862.  John  P.  Fell,  missing  in  action 
at  Wilderness  iMay  5,  1864;  veteran.  Alvin  H.  Ford,  jjris- 
oner  from  May  5,  1864,  to  February  26,  1865  ;  discharged 
Mch.  30,  1865.  Ransford  Fairchild,  missing  in  action  at 
Wilderness  ALiy  5,  1S54.  Daniel  Goodman,  prisoner 
from  May  5,  1864,  to  Febrviary  26,  1865  ;  discl^arged 
Mch.  30,  1865.  Bowman  Garrison,  captured  at  Wilder- 
ness ISIay  5,  1864;  discharged  July  16,  1864.  Samuel 
H.  Hagaman,  discharged  Oct.  24,  1862,  for  wounds  re- 
ceived at  Gaines's  Mill  June  27,  1862.  Robert  Hunter, 
Feb.  5,  1862  ;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate,  Jan. 
ig,  1863.  Jerome  Haleker,  transferred  to  logth  Penn- 
sylvania May  31,  1864;  veteran.  Newel  S.  Harrison,  cap- 
tured May  5,  1864;  discharged  May  11,  1865.  S.  L. 
Hagenback,  prisoner  from  May  5,  1864,  to  February  27, 
1S65  ;  discharged  April  i,  1865.  Nathaniel  B.  Harrison, 
Sept.  14  ;  died  at  Harrison's  Landing,  Va.,  July  21,  1862. 
William  Hinkley,  killed  at  White  Oak  Swamp  June  30, 
1862.  Benton  L.  Huser,  deserted  Nov.  16,  1863.  Levi 
Johnson,  July  15;  missing  in  action  at  Wilderness  May 
5,  1864  ;  veteran.  Charles  D.  Jackson,  July  15  ;  killed 
at  Gaines'  Mill  June  27,  1862.  Andrew  Keiper,  dis- 
charged on  surgeon's  certificate  Dec.  29,  1863.  Edward 
Kelly,  July  15  ;  prisoner  May  5,  1864  ;  died  at  Ander- 
sonville  Oct.  24,  7864.  Joseph  Longworth,  July  15  ; 
transferred  to  veteran  reserve  corps  Nov.  15,  1863. 
Israel  P.  Long,  Mch.  6.  1862  ;  missing  i.i  action  at  Wilder- 
ness May  5,  1864;  veteran.  William  Lape,  July  15  ; 
missing  in  action  at  Wilderness  May  5,  1864;  veteran. 
Reuben  Labor,  prisoner  May  5,  1864;  died  at  Anderson- 
ville  Oct.  10,  1864.  Samuel  W.  Long,  Sept.  14  ;  died 
July  8,  1862,  of  wounds  received  June  30,  1862.  Mervin 
O.  Matthews,  transferred  to  veteran  reserve  corps  Oct. 
7,  1863.  James  Monegan,  July  19  ;  transferred  to  vet- 
•eran  reserve  corps  Dec.  15,  1S63.  John  Montgomery, 
Oct.  17  ;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Jan.  8,  1863. 
William  B.  Mears,  transferred  to  tgoth  Pa.  May  31,  1864  ; 
veteran.  William  B.  Marshall,  Mch.  22,  1864  ;  trans- 
ferred to  190th  Pa.  May  31,  1864.  Martin  L.  M'Neal, 
Sept.  13  ;  transferred  to  190th  Pa.  May  31,  1864.  Wil- 
liam R.  Monroe,  Sept.  12  ;  prisoner  from  May  5,  1864, 
to  Feb.  28,  1865  ;  discharged  April  i,  1865.  Bryant 
Morton,  prisoner  May  5,  1864  ;  died  at  Andersonville 
Aug.  3,  1864.  Lockwood  F.  Millard,  Feb.  26,  1863;  mis- 
sing in  action  at  Wilderness  May  5,  1864.  Evan  B. 
Myers,  June  18  ;  killed  at  Gaines's  Mill  June  27,  1862. 
Samuel  Mershon.died  Sept.  26,  1862,  of  wounds  received 
at  Antietam  Sept.  17,  1862.  Charles  H.  Owen,  July  18  ; 
missing  in  action  at  Wilderness  May  5,  1864.  Francis 
A.  O'Dell,  July  15  ;  deserted  Nov.  26,  1862.  George  W. 
Porter,  Sept.  14  ;  discharged  Nov.  18,  1862,  for  wounds 
received  at  Antietam  Sept.  17.  1862.  Isaac  H.  Phillips, 
Sept.  24  ;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  June  17, 
1862.  Samuel  J.  Pealor,  July  19  ;  deserted.  William 
Row,  July  15  ;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Mch. 
16,1862.  Henry  Ridler,  missing  in  action  at  Wilderness 
May  5,  1864  ;  veteran.  George  W.  Roat,  July  -15  ;  pris- 
oner from  May  5,  to  Dec.  16,  1864  ;  discharged  Mch.  r, 
1865.  George  Staub,  July  15  ;  transferred  to  veteran 
reserve  corps  Oct.  7,  1865.  Williini  C.  Stoner,  trans- 
ferred to  U.  S.  gunboat  service  Feb.  14,  1862.  Edwin  C. 
Seeley,  Aug.  28,  1861  ;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certifi- 
cate Oct.  9,  1862.  Josiah  Sox,  discharged  on  surgeon's 
certificate,  Jan  19,  1863.     Cyclare   Smallwood,   July   15  ; 




jirisoner  Mays,  1864  ;  died  at  Andersonville  Oct.  8,  1864; 
\ctcran.  Andrew  C.  Smith,  Mch.  28,  1864;  missing  in 
action  at  Wilderness  May  5,  1864.  lasi)er  Steel,  Mch. 
23,  1864;  missing  in  action  at  Wilderness  May  5,  1864. 
Hamilton  Tubbs,  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Oct. 
ji,  1861.  Charles  Tuttle,  July  15;  discharged  on  sur- 
geon's certificate  May  8,  1862.  John  W.  'I'homas,  Jan. 
28,  1862  ;  discharged  Sept.  4,  1863,  for  woimds  received 
at  Fredericksburg  Dec.  13,  1862.  John  C.  Turner,  Sei)t. 
12;  missing  in  action  at  Wilderness  May  5,  1864;  veteran. 
John  K.  Torbet,  prisoner  from  May  5,  1864,  to  Feb.  24, 
1S65;  discharged  May  8,  1865.  Francis  Transure,  cap- 
tured ^L'^y  5,  1864;  discharged  Feb.  9,  1865.  .Mmon 
Woodworth,  discharged  Oct.  24,  1862,  for  wounds  re- 
ceived at  (iaines's  ^lill,  June  27,  1862.  Daniel  Wood, 
July  15;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Dec.  20, 
1862.  Johh  H.  Workheiser,  discharged  on  surgeon's 
certificate  Dec.  19,  1862.  .\dam  Wray,  discharged  Dec. 
31,  1862,  for  wounds  received  at  Charles  City  Cross 
Roads  June  30,  1S62.  Reuben  Wilson,  missing  in  action 
at  Wilderness  May  5,  1864.     Josiah  White,  deserted. 


The  companies  composing  this  regiment  were  recruited 
for  the  three  months'  service,  but  were  not  accepted. 
They  were  mustered  into  the  State  service  as  reserves  for 
three  years,  and  organized  into  a  regiment,  which,  on  the 
17th  day  of  August,  1861,  was  mustered  into  the  service 
of  the  United  States.  They  proceeded  at  once  to  Ten- 
nallytown.  near  Washington,  where  they  were  drilled  till 
the  loth  of  October,  when  they  crossed  to  Virginia  and 
went  into  winter  quarters  at  camp  Langley.  With  the 
e.xception  of  the  expedition  to  Drainesville,  in  which  they 
participated,  they  remained  at  that  camp  till  March,  1862, 
when,  with  the  rest  of  the  army,  the  regiment  moved  to- 
ward Manassas.  It  was  sent  forward  to  the  Peninsula  in 
June,  and  on  the  26th  of  that  month  engaged  in  the  bat- 
tle of  Cold  Harbor.  Immediately  afterward  it  was  en- 
gaged in  the  battle  of  Gaines's  Mill.  For  two  or  three 
days  after  this  battle  the  regiment  suffered  intensely  from 
fatigue  and  thirst.  At  the  battle  of  Malvern  Hill  this 
regiment  was  posted  on  a  height  from  which  the  fighting 
could  be  seen,  but  it  was  not  engaged.  .After  remaining 
some  time  at  Harrison's  Landing  the  12th  left  the  Pe- 
ninsula and  marched  to  join  the  army  of  General  Pope. 
At  Groveton  it  was  engaged,  and  aided  in  repulsing  an 
impetuous  charge  by  the  enemy.  It  was  next  in  action 
at  South  Mountain,  and  three  days  later  at  Antietam. 
In  the  succeeding  December  it  was  again  engaged,  at 
the  battle  of  Fredericksburg,  where  it  lost  in  killed, 
wounded  and  prisoners  about  one  hundred  men. 

In  February,  1863,  the  regiment,  with  its  division,  was 
ordered  to  the  defenses  of  Washington,  where  its  effective 
condition  was  greatly  improved  by  the  return  of  absentees 
and  by  promotions.  In  .April  it  commenced  provost 
duty  in  the  city  of  Washington,  under  General  Martin- 
dale.  It  rejoined  the  main  army  in  June,  at  the  com- 
mencement of  the  Gettysburg  campaign,  and  was  present 
at  the  battle  of  Gettysburg.  During  the  campaign  of 
that  summer  and  autumn  the  12th  was  engaged  at  Bristoe 
Station,  Rappahannock  Station,  and  at  Mine  Run.     Dur- 

ing the  winter  of  1863-4  it  was  engaged  in  guard  and 
picket  duly  along  the  line  of  the  Orange  and  Alexandria 
Railroad,  through  a  region  that  was  infested  by  sneaking 

On  the  opening  of  the  campaign  in  May,  1864,  the 
I  2th  took  the  field  again,  and  was  engaged  during  three 
days  in  the  Wilderness.  It  was  again  engaged  in  the  bat- 
tle near  Bethesda  Church,  on  the  30th  of  May.  Its  term 
of  service  exjiired  about  this  time,  and  it  marched  to 
Harrisburg,  where  it  was  on  the  nth  of  June  mustered 

Below  we  give  the  records  of  the  officers  of  this  regi- 
ment ;  and  also  of  company  15,  which  was  recruited 
in  Wyoming  county.  Nearly  all  the  members  of  the  com- 
pany were  mustered  in  on  the  15th  of  May,  1861,  and 
that  date  is  to  be  understood  where  no  other  is  given. 
The  first  date  that  appears  in  other  cases  is  that  of  mus- 
ter-in. Where  nothing  is  said  to  the  contrary,  the  men 
whose  records  are  here  given  were  mustered  out  with  the 
regiment  Jime  nth,  1864. 

IIF.I.l)    .\NI)    STAFF   OFFICERS. 

Colotifls. — John  H.  Taggart,  July  25;  resigned  July  8, 
1862;  recommissioned  August  19,  1862;  mustered  out 
Sept.  23,  1862.  Martin  D.  Hardin,  promoted  to  lieuten- 
ant colonel  April  I,  1862;  colonel  .Xug.  i,  1862;  brigadier 
general  July  2,  1864;  mustered  out  Jan.  15,  1866;  ap- 
pointed major  43d  U.  S.  infantry  July  28,  1866. 

Lieiilenant  Coloiifh. — Samuel  N.  Bailey,  July  25;  dis- 
charged March  4,  1S62.  Peter  Baldy,  July  25;  promoted 
from  major  to  lieutenant  colonel  Aug.  1,  1862;  discharged 
Feb.  15,  1863.  Richard  Gustin,  June  n;  [iromoted  from 
captain  Company  C  to  lieutenant  colonel  April  6,  1863; 
brevet  colonel,  March   13,  1S65. 

Majors. — Andrew  J.  Bolar,  July  24;  promoted  from 
captain  Company  H  to  major  July  8,  1862;  discharged 
for  wounds  receiwd  in  action  June  30,  1864.  Charles 
W.  Di\en,  June  25;  ])romoted  from  captain  Company  Ci 
to  major,  April  19,  1864. 

Ailjiitants. — Theodore  M'Murtrie,  Dec.  5;  transferred 
to  veteran  reserve  corps,  Oct.  18,  1863. 

Quartermasters. — Etinee  D.  Reid,  July  25;  discharged 
and  promoted  to  captain  and  A.  C.  S.  volunteers.  James 
T.  Woodall,  Sept.  22,  1862;  promoted  from  ))rivate  to 
quartermaster-sergeant;  to  captain;  absent  on  duty  with 
provisional  regiment  in  field. 

Siny;eoiis. — William  H.  Thome,  July  25;  promoted  to 
brigade  surgeon  .April  28,  1862;  discharged  May  3,  1862. 
Isaac  J.  Clark,  .\[)ril  28,  1862;  promoted  from  assistant 
surgeon  to  surgeon  May  i,  1862;  brevet  lieutenant  colo- 
nel   March  13,  1865. 

Assistant  Surgeons. — John  B.  Crawford,  Feb.  18,  1862; 
discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Sept.  18,  1862.  Wil- 
liam Taylor,  July  26,  1862;  resigned  Dec.  20,  1862. 
James  M.  Shearer,  April  ii,  1863;  discharged  on  sur- 
geon's certificate  Aug  18,  1863.  Henry  A.  Grim,  Oct. 
6,  1862;  promoted  to  surgeon  34th  Pa.  April  13.  1864. 
David  R.  Beaver,  April  13.  1864. 

Chaplain. — Obadiah  H.  Miller,  June  18,  1862:  resigned 
June  9,  1863. 

Serf^eant  Majors. — William  Myers,  July  24;  promoted 
to  first  lieutenant  Company  I  .April  21,  1863.  Jcseph 
W.  Eckley,  June  25;  transferred  to  Company  F  as  ser- 
geant Feb.  16,  1864. 

Quartermaster  Ser/^eants. — James  Loan,  June  13.  C. 
W.  Croasdale,  May  30;  promoted  to  first  lieutenant  Com- 
pany A  May  i,  1863. 





Commissary  Sergi-nii/. — Henry  Kraft,  Mny  15;  promoted 
from  private  ("om])any  1)  to  commissary  sergeant. 
Hospital  Stcoard. — John  Evans.  July  24. 
Principal  Musician. — John  C.  f^ckert,  July  15. 


C75?,Y;-i-,— Captains — D.  N.   Mathewson,   resigned  July 
31,  1862.  Simon  H.  Briggs,  promoted  first  lieutenant  March 

18,  1S63;  captain  July  31,  1S62;  brevet  major  March  13, 
1865.  First  lieutenants— John  B.  Harding,  discharged 
March  4,  1862.  John  F.  Hoadley,  promoted  first  lieu- 
tenant July  31,  i'862;  brevet  captain  March  13,  1865. 
Second  lieutenants— Arthur  M.  Philips,  resigned  July  21, 
1862,  P.  H.  Reynolds,  promoted  second  lieutenant  July 
21,  1862.  First  sergeant — Martin  N.  Reynolds.  Ser- 
geants— George  Moore,  Oscar  H.  Benjamin;  Andrew  F. 
Ely,  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Feb.  21,  1862. 
Mason  Parker,  discharged   on   surgeon's  certificate  Dec. 

30,  1861.  Charles  Johnson,  transferred  to  igoth 
Pennsylvania  volunteers  May  31,  1864;  veteran. 
Samuel  A.  Danner,  died  at  Washington,  D.  C,  May 
6,  1863.  Charles  A.  Meeker,  died  Oct.  30,  1862,  at 
Smoketown,  Md.,  of  wounds  received  in  action. 
Corporals — A.  H.  Wintermute,  John  Shingler,  Milton 
Moyer,  J-  C.  Reynolds;  Porter  Squires,  discharged  on 
surgeon's  certificate  Jan.  i,  1862;  Merritt  S.  Harding, 
wounded,  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Feb.  27, 
1863;  (jeorge  Fetzer,  wounded,  discharged  on  surgeon's 
certificate  Jan.  28,  1863;  Levi  B.  Knowls,  transferred 
to  battery  A,  43d  Pennsylvania  volunteers  April  6,  1862; 
.\lexander  Morgan,  died  at  Camp  Pierpont,  Va.  Dec. 
3,  1861;  James  C.  Keeney,  died  at  Harrison's  Landing, 
Ya.,  July  22,  1862.  Musicians — Lewis  C.  Miller,  War- 
den Reynolds,  Christian  C.  Eckert. 

Privates. — C.  Arnold,   L.  V.  Armstrong,  William  And- 
rews, transferred   to   190th  Peniisylvania  volunteers  May 

31,  1864;  veteran.  Samuel  Arnold,  discharged  on  sur- 
geon's certificate  May  20,  1862.  Silas  Aunrick,  dis- 
charged on  surgeon's  certificate  Dec.  15,  1862.  C.  C. 
Bennigan,  absent  at  muster-out.  Warren  Barber,  trans- 
ferred to  190th  Pennsylvania  volunteers  May  31,  1864; 
veteran.  Robert  Blakeslee,  discharged  on  surgeon's  cer- 
tificate June  27,  1S61.  Alonzo  H.  Beebe,  discharged  on 
surgeon's  certificate  Dec.  15,  1862;  John  Bonno,  trans- 
ferred to  190th  Pennsylvania  volunteers  May  31,  1864. 
James  Bailey,  died  at  Acquia  Creek,  Va.,  Dec.  i,  1862. 
Harvey  Corbey.  William  Croupe,  discharged  on  surgeon's 
certificate  March  6,  1862.  Charles  L.  Card,  transferred 
to  2nd  U.  S.  cavalry  May  31,    1864;  prisoner  from  Aug. 

19,  1864,  to  Feb.  22,  1S65;  discharged  Feb.  27,  1865. 
Asher  Cook,  transferred  to  190th  Pennsylvania  volun- 
teers May  31,  1864.  A-bsalom  Crawford,  died  at  Freder- 
icksburg of  wounds  received  Dec.  13,  1862.  John  H. 
Davis,  Joseph  Dellenger,  Thomas  Davis.  Elihu  Dymond, 
discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  April  21,  1862. 
[ohn  Dressier,  killed  at  White  Oak  Swamp  June  30,  1862. 
Henry  W.  Dean,  killed  at  South  Mountain  Sept.  14,  1S62. 
Isaiah  Evans,  May  30,  1861;  discharged  on  surgeon's 
certificate  Jan.  i,  1863  John  C.  Eckert,  June  15,  1861; 
promoted  principal  musician  July  31,  1863.  Lyman  J. 
Freeman.  Sidney  Freeman.  Squire  B.  Fisk,  Nov.  21, 
1 861;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  May  24,  1862. 
William  F^ox;  transferred  to  U.  S.  artillery  Nov.  24, 
1862.  James  B.  Fisk,  Mar.  31,  1864;  transferred  to 
190th  Pennsylvania  volunteers  May  31,  1864.  James 
Gillespie,  Feb.  7,  1862;  transferred  to  190th  Pennsyl- 
vania volunteers  May  31,  1864;  veteran.  Patrick  Gannon; 
discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Feb.  2,  1862.  Edwin 
P.  Gardner,  Nov.  21,  1861;  died  at  Philadelphia  April  5, 
1862.  Edward  House.  Jasper  Hoadley.  Charles  F. 
Harvey;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Feb.  4,  1862. 

Frederick  Hinkley;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate 
Oct.  15,  1862.  Albert  Hadsall;  discharged  on  surgeon's 
certificate  Oct.  11,  1862.  Oran  Hinkley;  discharged  on 
surgeon's  certificate  Oct.  15,  1862.  James  C.  Hastings; 
transferred  to  190th  Pennsylvania  volunteers  May  31, 
1864;  veteran.  William  Hastings,  Aug.  2.  1862;  trans- 
ferred to  190th  Pennsylvania  volunteers  May  31,  1864. 
John  Hastings,  Aug.  2,  1862;  transferred  to  190th  Penn- 
sylvania volunteers  May  31,  1864.  James  N.  Herbert, 
Aug.  2,  1862;  transferred  to  190th  Pennsylvania  volun- 
teers May  31,  1864.  Joseph  Hess;  killed  at  Spottsyl- 
vania  Court-house  May  8,  1864.  James  Hedden;  killed 
at  White  Oak  Swamp  June  30,  1S62.  Fuller  A.  John- 
ston. James  Jones,  Nov.  30,  1861;  transferred  to  vet- 
eran reserve  corps  Feb.  19,  1864.  John  H.  Jaquis,  Mar. 
19,  1864;  transferred  to  190th  Pennsylvania  volunteers 
May  31,  1864.  William  Langley.  Francis  J.  Le|jpo; 
discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Sept.  30,  1861. 
George  Labarr;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Feb. 
23,  1863.  Francis  J.  Lathrop;  discharged  on  surgeon's 
certificate  May  21,  1862.  James  F.  Linthurst,  June  15, 
1861;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  April  9,  1863. 
David  R.  Lerch,  June  15,  1861;  transferred  from  Com- 
])any  K  July  20,  1862;  never  reported.  Theodore  H. 
Luckey,  Mar.  29,  1864;  transferred  to  190th  Pennsyl- 
vania volunteers  May  31,  1864.  Martin  Morgan.  Calvin 
Moore.  John  M'Cord.  John  H.  Mullison;  transferred 
to  190th  Pennsylvania  volunteers  May  31,  1864;  veteran. 
Minor  Moyer;  transferred  to  190th  Pennsylvania  volun- 
teers May  31,  1864;  veteran.  Reuben  M'Sherrer;  trans- 
ferred to  6th  United  States  cavalry  Nov.  2,  1862.  John 
Moyer,  transferred  to  190th  Pennsylvania  volunteers 
May  31,  1864.  Jacob  Moyer;  died  of  wounds  received 
at  Fredericksburg  Dec.  13,  1862.  Jacob  Maynard;  died 
of  wounds  received  at  Antietam  Sept.  17,  1862.  Thomas 
May;  deserted  Jan.  15,  1862.  Noel  Harrison;  deserted 
July  2,  1863.  Thomas  J.  Osterhout.  Mason  Parker, 
Mar.  25,  1864;  transferred  to  190th  Pennsylvania  volun- 
teers May  31,  1864.  Marvin  Potter,  Nov.  7,  1861;  died 
of  wounds  received  at  White  Oak  Swamp  June  30,  1861. 
Warren  Parrish;  died  at  Georgetown,  D.  C,  Feb.  lo, 
1862.  Harrison  Patrick;  missing  in  action  May  9,  1864. 
Frederick  R.  Puckner,  June  15,  1861;  deserted  Sept.  28, 
1862.  Rensselaer  Ross.  Alexander  Rageon;  discharged 
on  surgeon's  certificate  Nov.  24,  1862.  Jesse  Rauden- 
bush;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Aug.  20,  1862. 
Patrick  Roon;  deserted  May  12,  1863.  Jacob  R.  Shot- 
well.  Cyrus  H.  Smeed.  John  Sly.  William  E.  Stark. 
Daniel  Shumber.  Sydney  Schooley;  discharged  on  sur- 
geon's certificate  Jan.  15,  1862.  William  H.  Sanders; 
discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  July  18,  1862.  John 
H.  Snyder,  June  15,  1861;  transferred  to  190th  Pennsyl- 
vania volunteers  May  31,  1864;  veteran.  Norman 
Sprague,  Nov.  21,  1861;  transferred  to  190th  Pennysyl- 
vania  volunteers  May  31,  1864;  veteran.  James  Shaffer, 
Mar.  31,  1 861;  transferred  to  190th  Pennsylvania  volun- 
teers May  31,  1S64.  F'loyd  F.  Sprague,  Mar.  10,  1864; 
transferred  to  190th  Pennsylvania  volunteers  May  31, 
1864.  Joseph  B.  Sprague,  Mar.  18,  1864;  transferred  to 
190th  Pennsylvania  volunteers  May  31,  1864.  T.  S. 
Stansburry,  Mar  2,  1861;  transferred  to  190th  Pennsyl- 
vani  volunteers  May  31,  1864.  Roger  S.  Searle;  trans- 
ferred to  33d  Pennsylvania  volunteers  July  21,  1861. 
William  Stonier;  died  at  Camp  Pierpont,  Va.,  Nov.  18, 
1861;  buried  in  military  asylum  cemetery.  William 
Stoey;  died  at  Camp  Pierpont,  Va.,  No\'.  21,  1861.  Wil- 
liam Stager;  died  of  wounds  received  at  Mechanicsville 
[une  27,  1862.  George  K.  Thompson;  discharged  on 
surgeon's  certificate  Sept.  24,  1862.  William  Thompson; 
discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Nov.  22,  1862.  James 
Taylor,  Nov.  2t,  1861;  discharged   on    surgeon's  certifi- 



cate  Oct.  27,  1862.  Morris  Toome/;  transferred  to 
igoth  Pennsylvania  volunteers  May.  31,  1S64;  veteran. 
Perry  L.  Taylor,  Mar.  31,  1864;  transferred  to  iQotli 
Pennsylvania  volunteers  May  31,  1864.  Harvey  Tiffa- 
ney,  ^iar.  18,  1864;  transferred  to  190th  Pennsylvania 
volunteers  May  31,  1864.  Charles  .X.  Thompson;  died  at 
(^amj)  Pierpont,  Va.,  Nov.  3,  1861.  Charles  Terry;  de- 
serted July  2,  1863.  Edward  Vaannauker;  deserted 
.•\ug.  10,  1861.  Thomas  C.  Woods,  June  15,  1861.  Al- 
niuda  Wilbur.  Orlando  Wright.  James  Wilson;  trans- 
ferred from  Company  K  July  20,  1862;  never  reported. 
Ceorge  W.  Wagoner;  transferred  to  5th  U.  S.  artillery, 
Nov.  24,  1862;  Conrad  Wisemiller,  June  15,  1861;  died 
Dec.  28,  1862,  of  wounds  received  at  Fredericksburg  Dec. 
13.  1862.  Frederick  Waugh,  .Aug.  10,  1861.  Sanford 
Wandall;  prisoner  from  April  8  to  Mav,  1864. 

CHAPTER    -Will. 

I.fZKKNK    IN    THE    Civil,    \V.\R HISTOKIKS  OK    TIIK.  FOR  IV- 


v^5^^^  HE  Logan  Guards,  of  Mifflin  county,  one  of 
fVf '-iS^ ^  the  first  five  companies  of  volunteers  that 
''  ^ftrv  ij  reached  Washington  on  the  breaking  out  of 
i^V^^tl  the  Rebellion,  became  Com])any  .\  of  the 
V"'^)  4M-\  regiment.  Companies  C  and  I)  also  served 
■■•^  in  three  months'  regiments,  and  preserved  their 
com])any  organizations  in  this. 

The  46th  was  organized  September  ist,  i86i,with 
Joseph  F.  Knipe  colonel,  James  L.  Selfridge  lieutenant 
colonel,  and  Arnold  C.  Lewis  major.  On  the  death  of 
Major  Lewis,  who  was  shot  by  a  private  of  Company  I 
soon  after  the  organization  of  the  regiment,  J.  A.  Mat- 
thews became  major. 

Soon  after  the  organization  of  the  46th  it  was  ordered 
to  the  command  of  General  Banks,  near  Harper's  Ferry, 
and  was  assigned  to  the  ist  brigade.  General  Crawford, 
2nd  division.  General  Williams.  Camp  duty,  drill  and 
occasional  skirmishing  occupied  the  regiment  till  the  lat- 
ter part  of  February,  1862;  when,  with  the  rest  of  Banks's 
forces,  it  crossed  the  Potomac  and  occupied  successively 
Leesburg,  Charlestown,  Martinsburg  and  Winchester. 
In  an  engagement  near  Kernstown  three  companies  of 
the  46th,  under  Major  Matthews,  participated,  and  in  the 
pursuit  of  Jackson  by  Banks  the  regiment  took  an  active 

At  the  severe  and  unequal  contest  with  the  rebels  under 
Jackson  at  Winchester  the  46th  held  its  ground  for  five 
hours  without  flinching.  At  the  battle  of  Cedar  Moun- 
tain, in  August,  1862,  the  regiment  charged  three  times 
across  an  open  field,  exposed  to  a  terrific  fire  of  shot, 
shell  and  musketry,  and  only  retired  after  the  colonel, 
major  and  several  of  the  line  officers  were  wounded.  The 
46th  was  again  engaged  at  the  battle  of  .Antietam,  where 
it  was  again  commanded  by  Colonel  Selfridge.  The  reg- 
iment was  next  engaged  at  Chancellorsville,  after  having 
wintered  at  F'airfax  Station  and  Stafford  Court-house. 

At  the  battle  of  Gettysburg  the  regiment  was  engaged 
heavily,  but  by  reason  of  it  sheltered  position  it  did  not 
lose  largely,  .\fter  the  bailie  of  (Jettysburg  the  nth 
corps,  of  which  the  46lh  was  a  part,  was  detached  from 
the  .Army  of  the  Potomac  and  sent  wc^l.  The  first  duty 
lo  which  ihe  regiment  was  assigned  was  guarding  the 
Chattanooga  Railro.ul  thruugii  a  country  infested  with 

In  Janu.Try,  1864.  a  sufficient  number  of  the  officers 
and  men  of  this  regiment  h.iving  re-enlisted  to  insure  its 
continuance,  they  were  given  a  veteran  furlough.  During 
its  visit  at  home  its  r.inks  were  recruited,  and  after  its 
return  it  remained  in  winter  (piarlers  till  the  next  May. 
In  the  campaign  that  followed  the  46th  was  engaged  at 
Resaca,  where,  among  others.  Lieutenant  John  H.  Knipe, 
of  Company  I,  was  killed.  It  participated  successively  in 
the  actions  at  Pumpkiiivine  creek.  New  Hoi)e  Church, 
Dallas,  Pine  Knob,  Kenesaw  Mount  lin  and  Marietta,  in 
all  of  which  it  had  fourteen  killed  and  about  thirty 
wounded.  In  the  severe  fight  with  Hood  at  Peach  Tree 
Creek,  near  .Atl.inta,  the  46th  Inst  ten  killed  and  twenty 
wounded.  In  another  action  with  Hood  near  .Atlanta  it 
lost  six  killed  and  several  wounded. 

The  regiment  had  no  severe  fighting  after  ihe  surrender 
of  .Atlanta,  September  ist,  1864.  General  Knipe,  who 
had  been  jiromoled,  was  transferred  to  the  command  of 
cavalry,  and  the  46th,  under  Major  Griffith  Colonel 
Selfridge,  whose  promotion  had  followeil  that  of  General 
Knipe,  being  in  command  of  the  brigade  ,  went  on  its 
march  through  Georgia  and  the  Carolinas,  after  which  it 
commenced  its  march  homeward.  It  wis  mustered  out 
July  i6th,  1865. 

Company  I  of  the  forty-sixth  was  recruited  in  Luzerne 
county,  and  we  give  below  a  synopsis  of  the  records  of 
its  members,  together  with  a  similar  statement  in  regard 
to  the  regimental  officers.  The  first  date  given  is  that  of 
muster-in;  where  not  otherwise  stated,  each  man  was 
mustered  out  with  the  regiment,  July  16th,  1865. 


Co/oiif/s. —  loseph  F.  Knipe,  Aug.  i,  1861;  proinoie<l 
brigadier  general  Nov.  29,  1862.  James  L.  Selfridge, 
Aug.  8,  1861;  i)romoted  from  lieutenant  colonel  to  colonel 
May  10,  1863;  brevet  brigadier  general  March    16,  1S65. 

LieuttnanI  Colonel. — William  I..  Foulk,  .Aug.  26,  1861; 
promoted  from  captain  Company  B  to  lieutenant  colonel 
June  7,  1863;  on  detached  duty  from  Feb.  3,  1864,  to 
July  29,  1865  ;  mustered  out  by  special  order  July  29, 

Majors. — .Arnold  C.  Lewis,  Aug.  17,  1861;  killed  Sept. 
22nd,  1861.  Joseph  A.  Matthews,  Sept.  27,  1861,  pro- 
moted colonel  i28ih  Pennsylvania  volunteers  Nov.  1,  1862. 
Cyrus  Strouse,  Sept.  4,  i86i;  promoted  from  captain 
Company  K  Nov.  i.  1862;  killed  at  Chancellorsville,  Va., 
May  2,  1863.  Patrick  Griffith,  Sept.  16,  1861;  promoted 
from  private  to  second  lieutenant  Sept.  i6.  1861;  captain. 
Feb.  15.  1862;  major,  .Aug.  1,  1863;  captured  at  Cedar 
Mountain,  and  at  Chancellorsville,  Va.,  May  3,  1S65. 

A,l/n/afi/s.— George  W.  Boyd,  Sept.  17.  1861;  resigned 
Oct.  14,  1862.  William  15.  Weber,  Aug.  14.  1861;  pro- 
moted to  captain  Company  .A  Feb.  1 1,  1863  L.  R.  Whit- 
man, May  I,  1862;  promoted  from  sergeant-major  Feb. 
12,  1863;  died  .Aug.  6,  1864.  of  wounds  received  at  Peach 


Tree  Creek,  Cxa,  July  20,  1864.  Joseph  H.  M'Carty, 
Aug.  24,  1862;  promoted  from  private  to  adjutant  Aug. 
12,  1864. 

Quartermoskrs.—Gtorge  B.  Cadvvalader,  ,\ug.  30,  1^561; 
promoted  assistant  quartermaster  U.  S.  volunteers  July 
8,  1863.  Levi  Tice,  Aug.  17,  1861;  promoted  from  pri- 
vate to  quartermaster  sergeant  Dec.  19,  1862;  quarter- 
master, April  I,  1864. 

^//;y<w«.— Lavington  Quick,  Aug.  26,  1861;  promoted 
brigade  surgeon  Jan.  21,  1862.  Daniel  Holmes,  Jan.  21, 
1862;  resigned  March  6,  1862.  William  C.  Rodgers,  Aug. 
29,  1861;  resigned  May  19,  1863.  George  P.  Tracy, 
July  4,  1863. 

Assistant  Surgeons.— ]o\\n  B.  Coover,  Nov.  13,  1862; 
promoted  surgeon  70th  Pennsylvania  volunteers  Dec.  10, 
1862.  Ceorge  W.  Burke,  Aug.'i,  1862.  James  B,  M'Don- 
ough,  Ian.  27,  1863. 

Chaplains— ]o\\n  A.  Rubolt,  Sept.  10,  1861;  resigned 
Nov.  30,  1 86 1  Charles  Strong,  Jan.  14,  1862;  resigned 
Sept.  24,  1862. 

Sergeant  Afajors.— Charles  B.  M'Carty,  Jan.  13,  1864; 
promoted  sergeant  major  Feb.  12,  1863.  Thomas  B. 
Gorman,  Aug.  17,  1861;  promoted  first  lieutenant  Com- 
pany H  Feb.  I,  1862.  George  Elberty,  Aug.  20,  1861; 
transferred  to  Company  A  April  7,  1S62.  L.  R.  Whit- 
man, May  I,  1862;  promoted  adjutant  Feb.  12,  1863. 

Quartermaster  Sergeants.— ]zme?,  F.  Duncan,  Sept.  2, 
1861;  promoted  from  commissary  sergeant  April  15,  1864; 
lieutenant  Company  A  July  15,  1865;  not  mustered; 
veteran.  Orlando  J.  Reese,  Sept.  12,  1861;  promoted 
second  lieutenant  Company  H  Dec.  19,  1862.  John  M. 
Martin,  Sept.  i,  1861;  discharged;  date  unknown.  Levi 
Tice,  Aug.  17,  i86r;  promoted  (|uartermaster  April  i, 

Commissary  Sergeants. — James  Bray,  January  13,  1864; 
promoted  commissary  sergeant  April  12,  1864;  veteran. 
D.  H.  Chesebro,  Sept.  12,  i86r;  promoted  captain  Com- 
pany G  Nov.  I,  1863. 

Hospital  steivarils.—C\\ar\ti  Newman,  Sept.  2,  i86i; 
promoted  hospital  steward  Nov.  i,  1862;  veteran.  Adam 
Gillett,  Sept.  4,  1861;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate 
Oct.  3,  1862. 

Musicians. — Jonathan  Ocker,  Nov.  30,  1863;  transfer- 
red from  Company  A  Aug.  i,  1864;  veteran.  B.  C.  Zim- 
merman, Sept.  4,  i86t;  transferred  from  Company  K 
Aug.  31,  1864;  veteran. 


C>j^(-(V.f.— Captains— Richard  Fitzgerald,  Oct.  31,  1861; 
discharged  February.  15,  1862.  Patrick  Griffith,  Sept. 
16,  1861;  promoted  major  August  1,  1863.  John  Care, 
Oct.  31,  1861;  promoted  from  1st  lieutenant  to  captain 
Aug.  17,  1863;  resigned  June  10,  1864.  Joseph  Matchett, 
Aug.  17,  1861;  promoted  from  1st  lieutenant  of  Company 
C  to  captain  July  17,  1864.  First  lieutenants— George 
W.  Boyd,   Sept.    17,    1861;   promoted   adjutant   Sept.  17, 

1861.  John  H.  Knipe,  Aug.  24,  1862;  promoted  from 
private  Company  B  Aug.  5,  1863;  died  of  wounds  received 
at  Resaca,  Ga.,  May  15,  1864.  Robert  Young,  Oct.  31, 
1 861;  promoted  from  sergeant  to  lieutenant  Jan.  15,  1863 
to  I  St  lieutenant  Nov.  12,  1864;  mustered  out  May  15, 
1865,  by  order  of  the  war  department.  Second  lieuten- 
ants—lohn  Auglun,  Oct.   31,  1861;   discharged   Feb.  15, 

1862.  "Samuel  Chambers,  Oct.  13,  1861 ;  resigned  Jan. 
22,  1863.  Peter  Van  Kirk,  July  27,  1864;  promoted  to 
sergeant  Oct.  10,  1862;  to  2nd  lieutenant  July  27,  1864. 
First  sergeants — Lewis  C.  Eakman,  July  14,  1863; 
drafted;  promoted  to  corporal  Sept.  10,  1863;  to  sergeant 
Sept.  I,  1864;  to  1st  sergeant  June  8,  1865;  com- 
missioned ist  lieutenant  July  15,  1865;  not  mustered. 
Michael  I.  Hawley,  Oct.  13,  1861;  mustered  out  Sept.  18, 

1S64;  e.xpiration  of  term.  John  E.  M'Carty,  Aug.  29, 
1862;  discharged  Jane  8,  1865,  by  general  order.  Oliver 
B.  Simmons,  Mar.  1,  1862;  promoted  2nd  lieutenant  of 
company  D  October  9,  1862.  Sergeants — Jeremiah  Ryan, 
Jan.  13,  1864;  promoted  corporal  Nov.  10,  1863;  to  ser- 
geant Sept.  I,  1864;  veteran.  LTriah  Kern,  July  13,  1863; 
drafted;  promoted  corporal  April  i,  1864;  sergeant  Nov. 
I,  1864.  James  M.  Bigler,  Feb.  29,  1864;  promoted  cor- 
poral Sept.  I,  1 8f)4  ;  sergeant  Nov.  i,  1864.  Hugh 
Quinan,  Jan.  13,  1864;  promoted  corporal  Nov.  i,  1864; 
sergeant  June  8,  1865;  veteran.  John  Burke,  Oct.  31,  1861; 
mustered  out  Sept.  18,  1864;  e.xpiration  of  term.  M.  F. 
O'Rourke,  Oct.  31,  1861;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certifi- 
cate Feb.  9,  1863.  Charles  Hessley,  Oct.  31,  1861;  killed 
at  Antietam  Sept.  17,  1862.  Corporals — .\nthony  Coyle, 
Jan.  13,  1862;  promoted  corporal  November  29,  1863;  vet- 
eran. John  I).  Leclere,  July  13,  1863;  drafted;  promoted 
corporal  Sept.  i,  1864.  Wm.  T.  Smith,  July  13,  1863; 
drafted;  promoted  coporal  Nov.  1,  1864.  Thomas 
M'Lane,  Mar.  9,  1864;  promoted  corporal  Nov.  i,  1864; 
Henry  S.  Kern,  July  13,  1863;  drafted;  promoted  cor- 
poral Nov.  I,  1864.  Geo.  W.  Arnold,  Mar.  9,  1864;  pro- 
moted corporal  Nov.  i,  1864.  Henry  Booth,  Jan.  13. 
1864;  ])romoted  corporal  June  8,  1865.  William  H. 
Booth,  ALir.  31,  1864;  promoted  corporal  June  8,  1865. 
Henry  Schlepe,  Oct.  31,  1861;  mustered  out  Sept.  18, 
1864;  e.xpiration  of  term.  Patrick  Clark,  Oct.  31,  1861; 
mustered  out  SejJt.  18,  1864;  expiration  of  term.  James 
Kevlin,  Oct.  31,  1861;  mustered  out  Sept.  18,  1864;  ex- 
piration of  term.  Richard  Mallory,  Oct.  31,  1861;  dis- 
charged on  surgeon's  certificate  Oct.  10,  1862.  Henry 
Runge,  Oct.  31,  1861;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate 
Mar.  11,  1863.  John  Homer,  July  14,  1863;  drafted; 
discharged  by  general  order  June  8,  1865.  Musicians — 
Henry  E.  Gould,  Oct.  31,  1861;  deserted  Dec.  30,  1862. 
Lyman  Moore,  Feb.  17,  1864;  prisoner  from  May  28, 
1864,  to  May  22,  1865.  John  M'Comb,  Oct.  31,  i86t; 
mustered  out  Sept.  18,  1864;  expiration  of  term. 

Privates. — John  Ammann,  Feb.  3,  '64.  J.  Anderson, 
Feb.  20,  '61;  transferred  to  veteran  reserve  corps.  Mar. 
22,  '65.  Peter  Awe,  July  14,  '63;  drafted;  discharged  by 
general  order  May  26,  '65.  John  Bates,  Feb.  23,  '64. 
Wm.  Ballentine,  Mar.  8,  '64.  Henry  G.  Barnes,  Feb.  14, 
'65.  John  Burkey,  July  13,  '63;  drafted.  John  Ballen- 
tine, July  14,  '63;  drafted.  Henry  Blystone,  July  13, '63; 
James  Barrett,  Oct.  31,  '61;  drowned  in  "dam  No.  6, 
Chesapeake  and  Ohio  canal,  Feb.  9,  '62.  Jacob  Bowman, 
Feb.  ID,  '64;  died  Aug.  17,  '64,  of  wounds  received  at 
Peach  Tree  Creek,  Ga.  Anthony  Burke,  Jan.  13,  '64;  died 
of  wounds  received  at  Bentonville,  N.  C,  March  19,1865; 
veteran.  Israel  Bush,  July  13,  '63;  drafted;  died  Sept. 
26,  '63.  Charles  Bushell,  Oct.  31,  '61;  died  Aug.  19,  '62, 
of  wounds  received  at  Cedar  Mountain,  Va.,  Aug.  6,  '62. 
Patrick  Burke,  Oct.  31,  '61;  deserted  December  30,  '62. 
Leander  Bush,  July  13,  '63;  substitute;  prisoner  from 
Feb.  6  to  May  6,  '65.  .  Henry  Cannavan,  Jan.  13,  '64;  vet- 
eran. John  Clark,  Oct.  31,  '61;  mustered  out  Sept.  18,  '64; 
expiration  of  term.  Patrick  Cassidy,  Oct.  31,  '61;  dis- 
charged on  surgeon's  certificate  Feb.  18,  '63.  Thomas 
Corcoran,  Oct.  31,  '61;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate 
Oct.  25,  '62.  Barney  Cain,  Sept.  16,  '63;  substitute;  dis- 
charged by  general  order  May  30,  1865.  Patrick  Cain, 
Oct.  13,  '61;  transferred  to  vetern  reserve  corps.  Geo. 
W.  Crow,  Aug.  I,  '63;  transferred  to  vetern  reserve  corps 
Oct.  14,  '64.  Will.  Coughlan,  Oct.  31.  '61;  deserted  Aug. 
17,  '62.  Peter  Carrigan,  Oct.  31,  '61,  deserted  Aug. 
17/62;  Michael  Clark,  Oct.  31,  '61;  deserted  June  30, 
'62.  James  Calhoun,  Oct.  31,  '61;  missing  in  action 
at  Cedar  Mountain,  Va.,  Aug.  9,  '62.  John  D.  Clary, 
Mar.  17,  '64;  not  on  muster-out  roll.  Henry  Dickey, 
Mar.  3,  '64.     M.   A.    Dowling,   Sept.    16,  '63;   substitute. 






James  Duncan,  July  13,  '63;  drafted;  discharged  by  gen- 
eral order  May  22,  '65.  Patrick  Devine,  Oct.  31,  '61; 
transferred  to  veteran  corps.  Henry  Davis,  Mar.  9,  '64; 
killed  at  Peach  Tree  Creek,  C.a.,  July  29,  '64.  deorge 
l{.  Etter,  Sept.  17,  '62;  killed  at  .\ntietam  Sejjt.  17,  '62. 
James  Frederick,  July  13,  '63;  drafted.  Peter  Flynn, 
Oct.  31,  '61;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Dec.  9, 
'62.  Silas  Fisher,  Sept.  16,  "63;  substitute;  disi  harged 
by  general  order  .\pril  25,  1865.     ik-njaniin  Fullum,  July 

23,  '63;  substitute;  discharged  by  general  order  .Xpril  27, 
"65.  John  M.  Freelnirn,  Feb.  29,  '64;  wounded  at  Dallas 
dap,  ("la..  May  25,  '64;  discharged  by  general  order  May 
17,  '65.  Harvey  Fullerton,  |uly  15,  '63;  drafted;  died  at 
Kelly's   Ford,  Va.,   Sept.    8,  "1863.     Alex.  ("..  Frank,  Feb. 

24,  '64;  died  July  23,  '64,  of  wounds  received  at  Atlanta, 
('■a.  James  Fox,  Oct.  13,  '61;  deserted  January  25,  '63. 
John  Fisher,  Oct,  13,  '61  ;  deserted  .August  17,  '62. 
Martin  Gouldin.  Jan.  12,  1864;  veteran.  Nathaniel  Cood- 
rich.  Mar.  7,  1864.  Joseph  Gloegle,  July  9,  1863;  drafted; 
wounded  at  Peach  'I'ree  t'reek,  da.,  July  20,  1864;  absent 
in  hospital  at  muster  out.  Paul  F.  Ciraham,  July  14, 
1S63;  drafted;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Jan.  8, 
1864.  Daniel  K..  drim,  Sept.  16,  1S63;  drafted;  deserted 
November  19,  1864;  returned  May  10,  1865;  discharged 
May  II,  1865,  Martin  Cioughan,  Oct.  31,  1861;  dis- 
charged on  surgeon's  certificate  Aug.  16,  1862.  James 
drier,  Oct.  30,  1861;  deserted  June  9,1862.  Franklin 
1).  Houk,  Jan.  4,  1864.  Patrick  Hamaker,  Feb.  9,  1864. 
John  C.  Harman,  July  13,  1863;  drafted.  Rudolph  Ha- 
berstick,  Aug.  3,  1863;  substitute.  William  Holloran. 
Oct.  31,  1861;  discharged   on   surgeon's   certificate    Feb. 

25,  1863.  John  Harrigan,  Oct.  31,  1861;  discharged  on 
surgeon's  certificate  Mar.  15,  1863  Patrick  Hearty,  Oct. 
31,  1861;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Dec.  9,  1862. 
James  Hay,  Mar.  8,  1864;  deserted  July  i,  1865.  Wil- 
liam J.  Johnston,  Oct.  31,  1861;  discharged  on  surgeon's 
certificate  Mar.  31,  1863.  William  Johnson,  Jan.  13, 
1864;  deserted  Feb.  9,  1865;  veteran,  deorge  R.  Koonts, 
Dec.  12,  1863.  James  F.  P.  Kelley,  Mar.  3,  1864.  David 
Koonts,  July  23,  1864;  substitute;  wounded  in  action 
May  15,  1864;  absent  in  hospital  at  muster  out.  John 
Kevlin,  Mar.  24,  1864;  discharged  by  general  order  July 
10,  1865.  Jacob  G.  Keener,  Feb.  3,  1864;  deserted  June 
23,  1865.  Edmund  J.  Lehr,  Feb.  i,  1865.  John  Lavery, 
Sept.  16,  1863;  drafted.  Jos.  Loudermilch,  Mar.  16, 
1864;  absent,  sick,  at  muster  out.  Isaac  I.yter,  Sept.  14, 
1864;  discharged  by  general  order  June  8,  1865.  John 
Lanehan,  Oct.  31,  1861;  executed  for  the  murder  of 
Major  Lewis  Dec.  23,  1861.  Samuel  A.  Leclere,  Sept. 
16,  1863;  drafted;  died  at  Savannah,  Ga.,  June  22,  1865. 
Edward  Lee,  July  14,  1863;  substitute;  deserted  Sept. 
30,  1864.  Michael  Leonard,  Aug.,  1861;  not  mustered 
into  United  States  service.  William  H.  Morton,  Feb.  27, 
1864.  Martin  Maughin,  Jan.  13,  1864;  prisoner  from 
Aug.  9  to  Sept.  13,  1862,  and  from  May  2  to  May  15, 
1863;  veteran.  Daniel  Murphy,  .\pril  i  2,  1864;  wounded 
in  action  July  20,  1864;  absent  in  hosjjital  at  muster  out. 
John  Metzger,  Sept.  14,  1864;  discharged  by  general 
order  June  8,  1865.  William  Malone,  July  14,  1863; 
substitute;  died  at  Goldsboro',  N.  C,  Mar.  27,  1865. 
John  Millan,  Oct.  31,  1861;  deserted  Sept.  30,  1862. 
Thomas  Martin,  Oct.  31,  1861;  deserted  .Aug.  11,  1S62. 
Patrick  MuUin.  Oct.  31.1861;  deserted  Jan.  19,  1862.  Owen 
McLaughlin,  Mar.  31,  1864;  veteran.  Dennis  McSwee- 
ney,  July  13,  1863;  drafted.  James  A.  McLain,  Sept.  13. 
1863;  drafted;  discharged  by  general  order  June  5,  1.S65, 
Peter  Mcdonegal,  Oct.  31,  1861;  discharged  on  surgeon's 
certificate  Oct.  16,  1862.  Adam  McCullough,  July  1 1, 
1863;  drafted;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  F'eb. 
13,  1864.  Thomas  McKennon,  Feb.  24,  1864;  deserted 
May  II,  1864.     Robert   McTigert,  Oct.  13,  1861;  not  on 

muster-out  roll.  Elijah  J.  Newton,  Jan.  4,  1864.  John 
H.  Newton,  Jan.  4,  1864.  Charles  Newton,  Mar.  9.  1H64; 
prisoner  from  March  3  to  March  30,  1865;  discharged  by 
general  order  June  29,  1865.  William  H.  Neill,  July  13, 
1S63;  drafted;  discharged  by  general  order  June  21, 
186s.  James  Oliver,  Oct.  13,  1861;  deserted  July  i, 
1862.  Patrick  Ore,  Oct.  13,  1861;  deserted  Dec.  30, 
1862  David  I.  Potts,  July  12.  1862;  drafted.  Thomas 
Painter,  July  13,  1863;  drafted.  Peter  (".  Powell.  Oct. 
31,  1861;  mustered  out  Sept.  18,  1864;  expiration  of 
term.  William  Parham,  Oct.  31,  1861,  discharged  on 
surgeon's  certificate  Feb.  21,  1863.  William  Phillipi. 
July  16,  1863;  substitute;  died  .Aug.  11,  1864,  at  Chatta- 
nooga,Tenn.  Matthew  T.  Rankin,  July  13,  1863;  drafted. 
Patrick  Reap,  Jan.  13,  1864;  veteran,  (ieorge  W.  Shad- 
dow,  Mar.  4,  1864.  William  Singer.  F'eb.  20,  1864. 
Martin  Swart/,  Mar.  8,  1864;  veteran.  William  Stivison, 
July  13,  1863;  drafted.  Robert  K.  Stuchall.  July  13, 
1864;  drafted.  John  Shriner,  Feb.  10.  1864;  discharged 
by  general  order  Sept.  13,  1865.  George  W.  Sweigard, 
Feb.  22.  1864;  discharged  by  general  order  July  24.  1865. 
John  Sullivan.  Oct.  31.  1861;  discharged  on  surgeon's 
certificate;  date  unknown.  Robert  Stewart,  July  13, 
1863;  substitute;  died  June  8,  1864,  of  wounds  received 
at  Decherd,  Tennessee.  David  H.  Singer,  F'eb.  28,  1864; 
died  at  Chattanooga,  Tenn.,  Aug.  7,  1864.  John  Shields. 
Oct.  31,  1861;  died  of  wounds  received  at  Resaca,  Ga.. 
May  15.  1864.  John  Slonoski.  Oct.  13.  1861;  deserted. 
Charles  Stewart,  Sept.  16,  1861;  substitute;  deserted  Jan. 
10,  1864.  Wash.  Wilhelm,  July  13,  1863;  substitute. 
Michael  Walsh,  Oct.  31,  1861;  mustered  out  Sept.  18, 
1864,  expiration  of  term.  Wm.  H.  Weamef,  July  13, 
1863;  drafted;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  June 
2,  1865.  Patrick  Whalon,  Oct.  31,  1861;  discharged  on 
surgeon's  certificate.  Thomas  R.  Wimer,  July  13,  1863; 
drafted;  died  at  Kingston,  Ga.,  .\ug.  17,  1864.  William 
Whiting,  Oct.  13,  1861;  deserted  .\ug.  31,  1862.  William 
I.  Wright,  Fel).  24,  1864;  missing  in  action  at  Culjj's 
Farm,  Ga.,  June  22,  1864.  Joseph  Young,  Dec.  12,  1863; 
wounded  in  action  July  20,  1S64;  absent  in  hospital  at 
muster  out.  James  Young,  Oct.  31,  1861;  discharged  on 
surgeon's  certificate.     C.  Zimmerman,  F'eb.  23,  1864. 


Comi)any  I  in  this  regiment  was  recruited  in  Luzurne 
county.  The  regiment  was  organized  September  25th, 
1 86 1,  with  Benjamin  C.  Christ  as  colonel.  It  proceeded 
to  Washington  on  the  2nd  of  October,  and  thence  to 
.\nnapolis  on  the  9th.  On  the  19th  it  embarked  on 
transports,  and  after  a  perilous  voyage,  in  the  course  of 
which  one  of  the  vessels  came  very  near  being  lost,  it 
landed  and  went  into  camp  on  Port  Royal  island.  In 
December  the  regiment  went  to  Beaufort,  which  place  it 
was  the  first  to  occupy.  Here  in  its  first  skirmish  it 
drove  the  enemy  from  the  island.  On  the  1st  of  Janu- 
ary the  regiment  was  in  its  first  engagement,  at  the  battle 
of  Coosaw,  where  a  partially  constructed  fort  was  taken 
and  destroyed. 

May  29th  the  regiment,  with  a  section  of  artillery  and 
two  comj)anies  of  cavalry,  went  to  Pocotaligo  to  assist  in 
a  demonstration  on  Charleston.  Six  companies  of  the 
regiment  accomplished  the  perilous  feat  of  crossing  a 
bridge  from  which  the  plank  had  been  removed,  on  the 
stringers,  under  fire,  driving  the  enemy  from  his  position  on 
the  opposite  side  and  rej>lanking  the  bridge,  thus  enabling 
the  entire  force  to  cross.     Captain  Parker,  who  led  these 





companies,  was  killed.  July  12th  the  regiment  was  or- 
dered from  Beaufort  to  Fortress  Monroe,  where  it  became  a 
part  of  General  Burnside's  (9th)  corps,  and  marched  to  the 
support  of  General  Pope,  on  the  Rapidan.  At  the  second 
battle  of  Bull  Run  it  was  engaged  on  both  days  of  the  fight, 
but  most  severely  on  the  second.  The  men  recollected 
with  pride  that  in  every  encounter  they  drove  the  enemy. 

On  the  ist  of  August  the  regiment  was  engaged  in  the 
battle  of  Chantilly,  where  General  Stevens,  who  was  in 
command  of  the  division  to  which  it  was  attached,  was 
killed.  On  the  14th  of  September  it  participated  in  the 
battle  of  Soiith  Mountain,  where  it  aided  in  a  charge  that 
drove  the  enemy  from  the  field.  Its  next  engagement  was  at 
Antietam,  where  it  lost  seven  killed.  Although  present 
at  the  battle  of  Fredericksburg  in  December,  it  was  not 
actively  engaged. 

Some  time  after  the  battle  of  Fredericksburg  the  regi- 
ment went  with  the  9th  corps  to  Kentucky  and  subse- 
quently, by  way  of  Cincinnatti  and  Cairo,  to  Vicksburg. 
After  the  fall  of  that  place  it  was  attached  to  (General 
Sherman's  army,  and  was  engaged  in  the  action  for  the 
occupancy  of  Jackson,  Miss.  In  August  the  regiment  re- 
turned to  Kentucky,  where  the  health  of  the  men,  who 
had  suffered  greatly  from  malaria,  was  recruited  and  sick 
absentees  returned.  In  October  the  50th,  with  the  rest 
of  the  brigade  commanded  by  Colonel  Christ,  went  to 
assist  in  repelling  a  force  of  the  enemy  which  had  come 
into  East  Tennessee  from  Virginia,  and  was  engaged  in  a 
battle  by  which  they  were  driven  back.  Soon  after  re- 
turning to  Knoxville  they  went  forward  again  to  check  an 
invasion  of  the  State  by  General  Longstreet,  but  were 
driven  back.  In  the  latter  part  of  November  the  regi- 
ment assisted  in  repelling  an  assault  on  the  defenses  of 
Knoxville,  and  on  the  5th  of  December  the  siege  was 
raised  and  the  rebel  army  retreated,  followed  by  the  50th 
among  other  troops.  It  pursued  the  enemy,  occasionally 
skirmishing  with  the  rear  guard,  as  far  as  Blaine's  cross 
roads.  Here  the  regiment  encamped,  and  on  the  ist  of 
January,  1864,  about  three  hundred  of  the  men  re-enlisted. 
After  a  painful  march  to  Nicholasville,  Ky.,  a  veteran 
furlough  was  given  them. 

.*\t  the  expiration  of  their  furlough  they  were  attached 
to  the  9th  corps  in  Virginia,  went  forward,  and  on  the 
5th  of  May  were  engaged  in  the  battle  of  the  Wilderness. 
On  the  9th  they  were  engaged  at  Spottsylvania  Court- 
house, and  in  this  battle  and  at  tiie  Wilderness  lost  in 
killed,  wounded  and  missing  about  two  hundred.  On  the 
12th  it  was  again  engaged,  and  from  that  time  forward 
almost  daily  till  the  battle  of  Cold  Harbor,  in  which  it 
took  a  part  and  suffered  severely.  It  marclied  tlience  to 
the  front  of  Petersburg,  where  it  did  picket  duty  till  the 
latter  part  of  July.  It  assisted  in  the  assault  after  the 
explosion  of  the  mine.  On  the  19th  of  August  it  marched 
toward  the  Weldon  railroad,  and  was  attacked  by  the  en- 
emy on  two  successive  days.  Some  thirty  of  the  men 
were  discharged  about  this  time  by  reason  of  the  expira- 
tion of  their  term  of  service.  In  October  147  recruits 
were  received,  and  after  two  weeks  spent  in  drilling 
active  duty  was  resumed. 

The  regiment  in  the  latter  part  of  November  took  a 
position  in  front  of  Petersburg,  and  remained  there  dur- 
ing the  winter.  It  was  engaged  in  the  active  operations 
of  early  April,  1865,  and  was  among  the  first  regiments 
that  reached  Petersburg  when  it  fell.  About  the  middle 
of  that  month  it  went  to  Washington,  and  remained  there 
till  the  last  of  June.  On  the  4th  of  July  it  took  part  in 
the  laying  of  the  corner  stone  of  the  national  monument 
at  Gettysburg,  and  it  was  mustered  out  of  the  service  on 
the  30th  of  that  month. 

Of  the  50th  regiment  the  following  were  the 


Coloih'h. — Benjamin  C.  Christ,  mustered  in  July  27, 
186 1 ;  promoted  brevet  brigadier  general  Aug.  i,  1864; 
mustered  out  Sept.  30,  1864.  William  H.  Telford,  Aug. 
8,  1861;  promoted  from  captain  Company  G  to  lieuten- 
ant colonel  Feb.  8,  T865;  colonel  May  15,  1865 ;  mustered 
out  with  regiment  July  30,  1865. 

Lieutenant  Colonels.— 'X\\ovc\a.i  S.  Brenholtz,  Sept.  10, 
1861;  promoted  from  captain  Company  H  Sept.  30,  1861; 
died  Aug.  19,  1863,  of  wounds  received  at  Jackson,  Miss., 
July  i6,  1863.  Edward  Overton,  jr.,  Sept.  30,  1861;  pro- 
moted from  major  to  lieutenant  colonel  Dec.  15,  1863; 
mustered  out  Sept.  30,  1864.  Samuel  K.  Schwenk,  Feb. 
28,  1865;  promoted  from  major  to  lieutenant  colonel 
May  15,  1865;  brevet  colonel  and  brigadier  general  July 
24,  1865;  mustered  out  with  regiment  July  30,  1865. 

Alajor. — George  W.  Brumm,  Sept.  g,  i86i;  promoted 
from  captain  Company  F  May  19,  1865;  mustered  out 
with  regiment  July  30,  1865. 

Adjutants. — Henry  T.  Kendall,  Sept.  10,  1861;  pro- 
moted from  first  lieutenant  Company  H  May  3,  1864; 
captured  May  12,  1864;  captain  Company  H  Jan.  19, 
1865;  not  mustered;  discharged  by  special  order  Feb. 
II,  1865.  Lewis  Crater,  Sept.  10,  1861:  promoted  from 
frst  lieutenant  Company  F  April  16,  1865;  mustered  out 
with  regiment  July  30,  1865;  veteran. 

Quartermasters. — Alfred  Jones,  Sept.  30,  1861;  cap- 
tured July,  1864;  discharged  by  special  order  Mar.  22, 
1865.  John  S.  Eckel,  April  i,  1862;  promoted  from  first 
lieutenant  Company  C  Jan.  15,  1865;  mustered  out  with 
regiment  July  30,  1865;  veteran. 

Surgeons. — David  J.  M'Kibben,  Sept.  14,  1861;  pro- 
moted brigade  surgeon  U.  S.  volunteers  Oct.  21,  1861. 
C.  J.  Siemans,  Mch.  7,  1862;  resigned  Mch.  16,  1864. 
John  M.  Kollock,  July  25,  1862;  promoted  from  assistant 
surgeon  118th  Pennsylvania  Sept.  3,  1864;  resigned  June 
20,  1865. 

Assistant  Surgeons. — Joseph  P.  Vickers,  .Aug.  30,  i86r; 
resigned  July  18,  1864.  William  P.  Book,  Aug.  i,  1862; 
mustered  out  Sept.  30,  1864.  Frank  P.  Wilson,  Mar. 
31,  1865;  mustered  out  with  regiment  July  30,  1865. 

Chaplains. — John  F.  Meredith,  April  22,  1862;  dis- 
charged January  13,  1863.  Halleck  Armstrong,  Feb. 
24,  1865;  mustered  out  with  regiment  July  30,  1865. 

Sergeant  Majors. — Alexander  P.  Garrett,  Sept.  9,  1861; 
promoted  from  sergeant  Company  C  Mar.  29,  1864; 
mustered  out  with  regiment  July  30,  1865;  veteran. 
Tliomas  F.  Foster,  Sept.  6,  1861;  promoted  from  cor|)oral 
Company  D  to  sergeant  major;  to  second  lieutenant 
Company  D  April  8,  1864;  veteran.  Frank  H.  Barnhart, 
Sept.  19,1861;  promoted  first  lieutenant  Company  B  Nov. 
26,  1864;  veteran,  .\lfred  J.  Steiihens,  Sept.  6,  1861;  pro- 
moted from  sergeant  Company  D  Nov.  21,  1864,  to 
first  lieutenant  Company  B  Mar.  21,  1865;  veteran. 
Henry  A.  Lantz,  Sept.  30,  1861;  promoted  first  lieuten- 
ant Company  E  Jan.  18,  1862. 




Quartermaster  Serjeants. — Simon  Cloiiser,  Feb.  25, 
1864;  promoted  from  sergeant  Comi)any  K  May  9,  1865; 
mustered  out  with  regiment  July  30,  1865;  veteran. 
Frank  H.  Forbes,  Jan.  i,  1864;  promoted  second  lieu- 
tenant Company  E  May  10,  1865;  veteran.  John  S. 
Eckel,  .\pril  i,  1862;  promoted  second  lieutenant  Com- 
pany C  Mar.  17,  1864.  .Mfred  W.  Oift,  Sept.  13,  1861; 
]iromoted  from  pri\ate  Company  E  Mch.  21,  1865;  mus- 
tered out  with  regiment  Julv  30,  1865;  veteran.  lon'as 
Faust,  Sept.  9,  1S61;  promoted  from  priyate  Company 
.\  Dec.  4,  1864;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Slay, 
1865;  veteran.  Lewis  Crater,  Sept.  10,  1861;  |)romoted 
from  private  Company  H  May  i,  1862  to  first  lieutenant 
Company  F  Dec.  5,  1864;  veteran. 

Hospital  Steu<ar(L — .Me.xander  H.  Shaffer,  Sept.,  iSdi; 
promoted  from  private  Company  G  Sept.,  1861;  mus- 
tered out  with  regiment  July  30,  1865;  veteran. 

Principal  Miisieiaiis. — William  K.  Schuckert,  Sept. 
9.  1861;  promoted  from  musician  Company  -\  Oct.  25, 
1S64:  mustered  out  with  regiment  July  30,  1865;  veteran. 
Reed  W.  Dumfee,  Sept.  9,  1861;  promoted  from  musician 
Company  K  .Vpril  13,  1865:  mustered  out  with  regiment 
July  30,  1865;  veteran.  Henry  .V.  Hoffman,  Sept.  30, 
1861;  discharged  by  general  order  .\ug.,  1862. 


Tlie  date  following  the  name  of  each  man  in  the  roll 
below  is  that  of  his  muster-in.  Unless  otherwise  stated 
each  man  was  mustered  out  with  the  company  July  30th, 

Officers. — Captains — Samuel  F.  Bossard,  Sept.  25,  i86i; 
resigned  January  28,  1863.  James  H.  Levan,  Sept.  9, 
1 861;  promoted  from  sergeant  Company  C  to  cajjtain 
Nov.  26,  1864;  veteran.  First  lieutenants — William  Rey- 
nolds, Sept.  25,  1861;  mustered  out  Sept.  29,  1864.  Ed- 
ward .\.  Wilbur,  Sept.  25,  1861;  jjromoted  from  private 
to  sergeant;  to  first  lieutenant  Dec.  4,  1864;  veteran. 
Second  lieutenants — .Mfred  J.  Huntzinger,  Sept.  25,  1861; 
promoted  captain  Company  K  Sept.  17,  1862.  Richard 
Rahn,  Sept.  25,  1861;  promoted  from  first  sergeant  to 
second  lieutenant  Sept.  17,  1862;  mustered  out  Sept.  29, 
1864.  First  sergeant — John  Dennison,  Sept.  25,  1861; 
jjromoted  from  private  to  sergeant;  first  sergeant  June 
15,  1865;  commissioned  second  lieutenant  Sept.  30,  1864; 
not  mustered;  veteran.  Sergeants — Casper  Kahle,  Sei)t. 
25,  1861;  promoted  from  private  to  sergeant;  veteran. 
Burrell  E.  Reed,  Sept.  25,  1861;  wounded  at  Petersburg, 
\'a..\  transferred  to  veteran  reserve  corps;  returnetl  Jan. 
7,  1865;  promoted  from  corporal  to  sergeant  Feb.  i.  1865; 
veteran.  Joseph  Hedden,  dept.  25,  iSfii;  promoted  cor- 
poral; sergeant  June  15,  1865.  Andrew  Jackson,  Sept. 
25,  1861;  prisoner  from  May  12  to  Dec.  10,  1864;  mus- 
tered out  Jan.  31,  1865,  to  date  Dec.  15,  1864.  John 
.Mackey,  Sept.  25,  186 1;  died  June  7,  1864,  of  wounds 
received  June  5,  1864;  veteran.  Aaron  0.\rider,  Sept. 
25,  i86r;  died  June  18,  1864,  of  wounds  received  at 
Petersburg,  Ya.;  veteran.  William  Cole,  Sept.  25,  1861; 
not  on  muster-out  roll.  George  W.  Dickens,  Sept.  25, 
1861;  promoted  from  corporal  to  sergeant  Jan.  i,  1863; 
not  on  muster-out  roll.  Corporals — James  M.  Wagner, 
Sept.  15,  1861;  promoted  corporal;  discharged  by  gen- 
eral order  July  25,  1865;  veteran.  Jeremiah  W.  Darn- 
sife,  Feb.  29,  1864.  Joseph  Clouser,  Feb.  29,  1864;  pro- 
moted corporal  .\pril  7,  1865.  Hiram  Michaels,  Feb. 
29,  1864;  promoted  corporal  .\pril  7,  1865.  Humjihrey 
Brown,  Dec.  7,  1861;  discharged  March  16,  1865,  for 
wounds,  with  loss  of  leg,  received  Sept.  30,  1864.  Mat- 
thew Berkley,  Sept.  25,  1861;  prisoner;  died  at  .Ander- 
sonville,  Ga.,  July  26,  1864.  Solomon  Rudisill,  .\pril  22, 
1862;  died    July    12,    1S64,  of    wounds    received  in   ac- 

tion. William  B.  Michael,  Sept.  25,  1861;  discharged 
March  12,  1862.  Charles  Croner,  Sept.  25,  1861; 
killed  at  Chantilly,  Va.,  Sept.  i,  1862.  Stephen  H.  Haley, 
Sept.  25.  1861:  discharged  Nov.  16,  1862.  John  A.  Bush, 
Sept.  25,  1861;  discharged  Lin.  17,1863.  Nicholas  Rice, 
Sept.  25,  1861 ;  discharged  Oct.  18,  1863.  Josiah  Wright, 
Sei)t.  25.  1861:  discharged  Dec.  3,  1862.  Musicians — 
Alfred  Fairchild,  Feb,  29,  1864.     Hiram    Brant,  Feb.  24, 

1864.  Edwin  B.  Woodward,  Sej)!.  25,  1861;  discharged 
Feb.  23,   1863. 

/V/>(;/«.— George  Allspach,  Sept.  25,  1861;  veteran. 
Isaac  Allison,  Feb.  22,  1865;  drafted;  discharged  general 
order  June  23,  1865.  Charles  .\ckley,  Dec.  7,  1861; 
wounded  in  action,  with  loss  of  leg;  discharged   April   i, 

1865.  William  Armstrong,  March  13,  1865;  substitute; 
deserted  March  18,  1865.  Von  Henry  Andis,  Sept.  25, 
1 861;  discharged;  March  5,  1862.  Christ  Barringer. 
March  13,  1865;  substitute;  at  muster  out.  Franklin 
Bretz,  March  i,  1864.  Thomas  Burch,  Sept.  26,  1864; 
substitute;  discharged  bv  general  order  June  2,  1865. 
John  Butow,  Sept.  20,  1864;  substitute;  discharged  by 
general  order,  June  2,  1865.  William  Biery,  Sept.  13, 
1861;  killed  at  Petersburg,  Va.,  June  25,  1864;  buried  in 
9th  corps  cemetery,  Meade  Station,  Va.  Thomas  Birch, 
March  6,  1S65;  substitute;  deserted  May  28,  1S65.  D. 
J.  Brighthoupt,  Sept.  25,  1861;  not  on  muster-out  roll. 
Marion  D.  Belts,  Sept.  25,  1861;  discharged  Feb.  5,  1863. 
Charles  C.  Bosse,  Sept.  25,  1861;  deserted  March  26, 
1863.  William  H.  Baldwin,  Dec.  7,  1861;  discharged 
Feb.  4,  1863.  John  L.  Cunningham,  Sept.  25,  1861; 
mustered  out  Sept.  29,  1864.  John  Casey,  Sept.  27.  1864; 
substitute;  discharged  June  2,  1865.  Jacob  Clenians, 
Sept.  28,  1864;  substitute;  discharged  June  2,  1865. 
John  Calvert,  Sept.  28.  1864;  substitute;  discharged  June 
2,  1865.  Calvin  Crutchman,  .Aug.  31,  1864;  substitute; 
discharged  June  2,  1865.  Robert  Collier,  Feb.  23,  1865; 
drafted;  discharged  June,  1865.  Thomas  Cotter,  March 
13,  1865;  substitute;  deserted  March  18.  1865.  James  R. 
Carman,  Sept.  25,  1861;  not  on  muster-out  roll.  Ezra  F. 
Carpenter,  Sept.  25,  1861;  not  on  muster-out  roll.  George 
De  Gran,  March  9,  1864.  Isaac  H.  Darnsife,  Feb.  29, 
1864;  absent,  in  hospital,  at  muster-out.  George  Dolloway, 
March  11,  1865;  substitute;  mustered  out  July  30,  1865. 
Zach.  Dennehower,  March  10,  1865;  substitute;  mustered 
out  July  30,  1865.  Henry  Diffendurfer,  .Aug.  28,  1864; 
substitute;  discharged  June  2,  1865.  Dennis  Dogan, 
Sept.  28,  1864;  substitute;  discharged  June  2,  1865. 
loseph  Dishboro,  Feb.  23,  1865;  drafted;  discharged 
July  5.  1865.  Levi  Doutrick,  Feb.  25.  1864;  prisoner; 
died  at  Andersonville,  Ga.,  Aug.  i,  1864;  grave  4,481. 
Thomas  Donnahue,  March  7,  18O5;  substitute;  deserted 
March  20,  1865.  Isaac  Daniels,  Sept.  25.  1861;  sick  in 
hosjjital  from  Sept.  i,  1862.  John  H.  De  Graw,  Sept. 
25,  1S61;  discharged  Oct.  18,  1S62.  George  Danner, 
\\m\  22,  1862  ;  not  on  muster-out  roll.  James  C. 
F:nglish,  March  9,  1865;  substitute;  mustered  out  July 
30,  1865.  James  Edwards,  Sept.  25,  1861;  absent,  in 
hospital  at  Newport  News,  Va.,  since  August  4,  1862. 
lanies  Edmons,  Sept.  25,  1861;  mustered  out  Sept.  29, 
1854.  Frank  Fuent,  March  14,  1865;  substitute.  Hiram 
Focht,  March  i,  1864.  John  Fore,  February  21,  1865; 
drafted;  discharged  May  8,  1865.  Sanmcl  Fox,  Sept. 
28,  1864;  substitute;  discharged  June  2,  1865.  Lewis 
Fee,  Sept.  28,  1864;  substitute;  discharged  June  2,  1865. 
J.icob  Fisher,  Sept.  i,  1864;  substitute;  discharged  June 
2,  1865.  John  Farley,  March  13,  1865;  substitute;  de- 
serted May  18,  1865.  Albion  Gleville,  March  11,  1865; 
substitute.  James  M.  Gaskins,  Sept.  25,  1865;  absent  at 
muster  out;  veteran.  William  Gallagher,  Feb.  29,  1864: 
discharged  by  general  order  July  to,  1865.  Joseph 
Gapen,  Sept.   28,   1864:  substitute;    discharged    June   2. 

186c,     Hiram  Gould,  Sept.   25,  1861;  not  on  muster-out 
roll."    Thomas  S.  Goss,  Sept.  25,  1861;   discharged  June 
25,  1862.     Justice  Garret,  Sept.  13,  1861;    mustered   out 
Dec.    10,   1864.     George  W.  Hall,  July  8,  1863;  drafted. 
Jonathan  Hoover,  Feb.  24,  1865;  drafted.    John  B.  Hist, 
July  29,  1864;  drafted.      Daniel  W.  Hunsiker,  March  15, 
1855;  substitute.    John  C.  Hoyt,  Sept.  25,  1861;  mustered 
out  Sept.   29,   1864.      Daniel   S.    Haffley,   Feb.   24,   1865; 
drafted;  discharged  May  8,  1865.     Eli   Hamilton,  Sept. 
24,  1864;  substitute;  discharged  lune  2,  1865.    James  C. 
Higgins,  March    10,   1864;    discharged  by  general  order 
May  22,  1865.     Alexander  Hanley,  Sept.   25,   1861;    de- 
serted Sept.  12,  1862.      Hiram   Henian,  jr.,  Dec.  7,  1861; 
discharged  May  12,  1862.     Horace  Heman,  Dec.  7,  1861; 
deserted    July  25,  1862.     Henry   D.   Jeffords,    March   9, 
1865;  substitute.     Ebet  J.  Jeffords,  March  9,  1864;  sub- 
stitute.    Lewis    Krebs.    March    7,    1864.     Daniel    Keen, 
Ai)ril   30,   1862;  mustered  out   April   19,    1865.     Samuel 
Kevser,  Sept.    28,   1864;   substitute;  discharged  June   2, 
1865.     John  Kern,  March  13,  1865;  substitute;  died  May 
21,  1865.     Philip  Knight,  Sept.  25,  1861;  discharged  Feb. 
17,   1862.     Francis  Leiberman,   Feb.  23,   1865;    drafted; 
absent  at  muster  out.       Obadiah  Lockart,  Aug.  29,  1864; 
substitute;  died   at    City    Point,  Va.     John  Luther,  Jan. 
14,    1862;    deserted    Mar.    8,    1864;    veteran.     John   G. 
Lettick,.  April  22,    1862;  not  on   muster-out  roll.     Wells 
Mengos,  April   12,   1864.     Albert    Miller,    Mar.    i,   1864. 
Reuben  Mayberry,  Feb.  10,  1864.    John  Mayer,  Sept.  25, 
1861;    mustered   out   Sept.    29,    1864.      Charles  Merrill, 
Sept.    25,    1 861;    mustered   out  Sept.    29,    1864.     James 
Miller,  Feb.  24,  1865;    drafted;    discharged  May  8,  1865. 
Samuel   Miller,    Sept.    21,   1864;    substitute;    discharged 
May  12,  1865.     Jacob  Myer,  Sept.   24,   1864;  substitute; 
discharged  June  2,  1865.     Augustus  Miller,  Sept.  9,  1861; 
killed   in   action  June  30,  1864.     John  Maugh,  Sept.  25, 
1861;  dischargedDec.  31,  1862.     John   Moog,  Sept.    25, 
1 861;    discharged.     Newton    D.    Mabre,  Jan.    14,    1862; 
missing   in   action.     David   M'Knight,  March    13,    1865; 
drafted.     Timothy   M'Carty,  March  15,  1864.     Harrison 
Newman,  Sept.  28,  1864;    substitute;  discharged  June  2, 
1865.    John  Nacey,  April  22,  1862;  killed  at  Spottsylvania 
Court-house  May   15,   1864.      William  Olver,  March  13, 
1865;  substitute.     Henry  O'Neil,   Sept.   25,    1861;    died 
Sept.  3,  1862,  of  wounds   received  at  Bull  Run   Aug.  30, 
1862.     Abraham     Philips,     March     7,      1864.      Thomas 

A.  Piper,  Mar.  24,  1865;  drafted;  discharged  May 
8,  1865.  H.  W.  H.  Rhoads,  Jan.  27,  1864;  veteran. 
George  Reese,  March  8,  1865;  substitute.  Henry  Ruth, 
March  10,  1865;  substitute.  Henry  Rudorf,  March  10, 
1865;  substitute.  Jacob  Ruble,  Sept.  3,  1864;  substitute; 
discharged  June  2,  1865.  Gotlieb  Rogler,  Sept.  i,  1864; 
substitute;  discharged  June  2,  1865.  John  Riley,  March 
13,  1865;  substitute;  deserted  March  18,  1865.  Peter 
Reedy,  Sept.  25,  1861;  discharged  Jan.  22,  1863.     James 

B.  Ross,  Sept.  25,  1861;  discharged  Feb.  4,  1863.  Jacob 
Stinerook,  March  13,  1865;  substitute;  mustered  out  with 
company  July  30,  1865.  Alexander  Sheffhour,  Sept.  29, 
1S64;  substitute;  discharged  June  2,  1865.  John  Steck- 
ley,  Feb.  29,  1864;  killed  at  Spottsylvania  Court-house 
May  12,  1864.  Henry  Sager,  March  9,  1864;  died  at 
Washington,  D.  C.  James  Smith,  March  13,  1865;  sub- 
stitute; deserted  March  18,  1865.  William  Sweeney, 
March  13,  1865;  substitute;  deserted  INLarch  20,  1865. 
Owen  K.  Smith,  March  11,  1865;  substitute;  deserted 
April  9,  1865.  John  Slighter,  March  13,  1865;  substitute; 
deserted  .\pril  29,  1865.  Philip  Springer,  Sept.  25,  i86i; 
not  on  muster-out  roll.  Tonis  Springer,  Sept.  25,  1861; 
deserted  Sept.  12,  1862.  Peter  Smith,  Sept.  25,  1861; 
discharged  Dec.  18,  1862.  John  N.  Thomas,  Sept. 
25,  1861;  absent  at  muster-out;  veteran.  Samuel 
Townsend,  Sept.  25,  1861;  mustered  ovit  Sept.  29,  1864. 

Henry  F.  Thrasher,  Sept.  5,  1864;  substitute;  discharged 
June  2,  1865.  Charles  Thirl,  Sept.  25,  1861;  discharged 
Feb.  4,  1863.  William  Tallada,  Dec.  7,  1861;  wounded 
at  Antietam  Sept.  17,  1862;  not  on  muster-roll.  Good- 
rich Tallada,  Jan.  14,  1862;  discharged  May  20,  1862. 
Daniel  \'an  Pelt,  Sept.  25,  1861.  Jasper  \'liet,  Sept.  25, 
1861;  died  Nov.  2,  1861.  Henry  Vanderpool,  Jan.  14, 
1862;  not  on  muster-out  roll.  Henry  D.  Wismer,  March 
13,  1865;  substitute.  James  West,  March  2,  1865; 
drafted.  John  T.  Williams,  Sept.  25,  1861;  mustered- 
out  Sept.  29,  1864,  Culbertson  Wright,  Sept.  2,  1864; 
substitute;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  June  5, 
1865.  George  White,  March  8,  1865;  substitute;  de- 
serted March  18,  1865.  John  Webster,  March  10,  1865; 
substitute;  deserted  March  18,  1865.  William  Wiley, 
March  8,  1865;  substitute;  deserted  April  29,  1865. 
Lewis  Warg,  Sept.  25,  1861;  not  on  muster-out  roll. 
Jacob  Zimmerman,  Sept.  9,  1861;  prisoner  from  June 
7  to  Nov.  26,  1864;  mustered  out  Jan.  30,  1865  to  date 
Nov.  30  1864.  David  W.  Zehner,  Sept.  25,  1861;  killed 
at  Chantilly,  Va.,  Sept.  i,  1862. 


LUZERNE     IN     THE     CIVIL    WAR — HISTORY    OF    THE     FIFTY- 

("ALL  was  issued  by  the  President  in  July, 
i86r,  for  sixteen  regiments,  and  under  this 
call  authority  was  granted  by  Governor  Curtin, 
August  ist,  1861,  to  Jolin  C.  Dodge,  jr.,  to 
recruit  this  regiment. 

John  C.  Dodge,  jr.,  of  Lycoming  county,  was 
appointed  colonel;  Henry  ^L  Hoyt,  of  Luzerne 
county  inow  governor  of  the  State),  lieutenant  colonel; 
and  John  B.  Conyngham,  also  of  Luzerne  county,  major. 
The  rendezvous  of  the  regiment  was  Camp  Curtin,  near 

November  8th,  1861,  the  regiment  proceeded  to  Wash- 
ington. It  remained  there,  engaged  in  drill  and  camp 
duty,  till  the  28th  of  March,  1862,  when  it  was  ordered 
to  take  the  field.  During  this  time  it  furnished  ten  vol- 
unteers for  gunboat  service  at  the  West,  most  of  whom 
were  subsequently  killed  by  an  explosion. 

On  taking  the  field  it  was  assigned  to  the  ist  brigade, 
3d  division  and  4th  corps.  It  marched  to  Alexandria, 
and  thence  went  by  transports  to  Newport  News,  where 
it  debarked;  and  soon  afterwards  it  encamped  near 
Yorktown,  where  the  siege  was  in  progress.  As  the  regi- 
ment marched  to  take  possession  of  the  deserted  works 
on  the  4th  of  May  a  torpedo  exploded  under  Company 
F,  killing  one  man  and  wounding  six  others. 

From  Yorktown  it  moved  forward  with  its  brigade  to 
Williamsburg,  where  it  arrived  just  in  time  to  support 
Hancock  in  his  gallant  charge,  which  resulted  in  driving 
the  enemy  from  the  field.  The  regiment  arrived  with  its 
brigade  at  the  Chickahominy  on  the  20th  of  May.  On 
the   24th   it  went  on  a  reconnoisance   toward   Richmond, 



which  lasted  four  days,  and  in  the  course  of  which  a 
lively  engagement  occurred.  In  this  reconnoisance  a 
company  of  sharpshooters  which  had  been  selected  from 
the  regiment  did  excellent  service. 

The  regiment  was  engaged  in  the  battle  of  l''air  O.iks, 
which  occurred  on  the  31st  of  May,  and  out  of  249  lost 
125  killed  and  wounded,  and  four  prisoners.  .Among  the 
wounded  oflicers  were  Captains  Davis,  Lennard  and 
Chamberlain,  and  Lieutenants  Weidensaul  and  Carskaden. 
While  the  battle  at  Caines's  Mill  was  in  progress,  the 
52nd,  with  other  regiments  of  the  brigade,  was  guarding 
the  bridge  across  the  Chickaliominy;  the  men  were  often 
standing  waist  deep  in  the  water  of  the  swamp,  and  this 
duty  continued  during  several  consecutive  days.  Soon 
afterward  the  regiment  retired  with  the  army  to  Harrison's 
Landing,  and  on  the  20th  of  August  to  Yorktown,  where 
circumstances  detained  the  brigade  to  which  it  was  at- 
tached while  a  large  part  of  the  army  went  to  the  support 
of  Cleneral  Pope.  While  occupying  the  fortifications  at 
Yorktown  the  men  were  drilled  in  heavy  artillery  tactics. 

In  December  the  52nd,  with  other  troops,  went  to  I?eau- 
fort,  and  thence  in  the  latter  part  of  January,  1863,  to 
Port  Royal,  S.  C.  From  there  in  April,  1863,  it  went  on 
a  transport  up  the  North  Edisto,  to  co-operate  in  an  at- 
tack on  the  city  of  Charleston.  The  attack  failed,  and 
the  regiment,  after  drifting  among  the  Sea  islands  some 
days  and  passing  an  uncomfortable  night  at  sea,  landed 
at  Beaufort.  On  the  nth  of  July  it  moved  to  F'olly 
island,  and  on  the  9th  went  up  the  Stono  river  wMth  an- 
other regiment  to  make  a  diversion  in  favor  of  the  attack 
on  Morris  island.  It  landpd  at  lames  island  at  mid- 
night, and  in  the  morning  attacked  and  drove  in  the 
pickets  and  cavalry  of  the  enemy.  The  rebel  force  on 
the  island  was  reinforced,  and  on  the  i6th  an  attack  was 
made  by  the  enemy.  On  the  night  of  the  17th  the  island 
was  evacuated,  and  tiie  52nd  returned  to  F'olly  island. 
'I'he  regiment  participated  in  the  siege  of  F'ort  Wagner 
during  the  perilous  forty  or  fifty  days  that  it  lasted;  when 
preparations  were  made  for  the  final  assault.  It  was 
formed  ready  to  pass  the  fort  and  attack  F'ort  Gregg, 
when  intelligence  was  received  that  the  works  and  the 
island  were  evacuated.  During  the  operations  against 
this  fort  the  regiment  suffered  severely,  but  no  exact 
record  of  its  casualties  can  be  given. 

In  December  many  of  the  men  in  the  regiment  re-en- 
listed, and  were  granted  a  veteran  furlough.  When  they 
returned  the  regiment  was  recruited  to  the  maximum 
and  newly  armed  and  equipped.  It  remained  at  Hilton 
Head  till  the  20th  of  May,  1864,  during  which  time  it 
made  occasional  expeditions  among  the  Sea  islands. 

On  the  morning  of  the  4th  of  July  the  duty  of  sur- 
prising and  taking  Fort  Johnson  in  the  badly  planned  at- 
tempt on  the  rebel  works  at  Charleston  harbor  was  as- 
signed to  the  52nd.  Accordingly,  just  at  daybreak,  one 
hundred  and  twenty-five  men,  under  the  command  of 
Colonel  Hoyt,  landed,  took  a  two-gun  battery,  rushed  for- 
ward, scaled  the  parapet  of  the  fort  and  entered  the 
works.  F"ailing  to  receive  the  support  which  they  expect- 
ed,   they    were    overpowered   by  superior   numbers   and 

made  prisoners.  Seven  of  the  assaulting  party  were 
killed  and  sixteen  wounded.  Of  the  balance,  who  were 
made  prisoners,  upwards  of  fifty  died  at  Andersonville 
and  Columbia,  and  the  officers,  after  a  period  of  confine- 
ment at  Macon,  were  transferred  to  Charleston  and 
placed  under  the  fire  of  the  Union  batteries  on  Morris 
island.  During  the  summer  and  autumn  of  1864  the 
balance  of  the  regiment  was  on  Morris  island,  where  the 
men  did  duty- as  heavy  artillery. 

During  the'  winter  of  1864-5  they  were  engaged  in 
])ickeling  the  harbor  in  boats;  a  duty  that  was  anything 
but  enviable  by  reason  of  the  ex|)osures  and  hardships 
which  it  involved.  February  18th,  1865,  a  boat  crew 
under  the  command  of  Major  Hcnnesy  rowed  across  the 
harbor  and  landed  near  F'ort  Sumter.  All  was  silent, 
and  as  the  party  cautiously  entered  the  ruins  they  were 
not  challenged.  The  fort  was  deserted,  and  they  un- 
furled over  it  the  flag  of  the  52nd  reginu-nt.  The  party 
at  once  proceeded  to  the  cily,  which  they  entered  before 
the  last  of  the  rebel  soldiers  had  evacuated  it. 

Captain  R.  W.  Uannahan,  of  Tunkhanno<  k,  and  Lieu- 
tenant T.  M.  Burr,  of  Meshoppen,  were  ot  this  party. 
The  former  was  left  in  command  of  the  party  that  gar- 
risoned the  fort. 

The  regiment  joined  the  .^.rmy  of  General  Sherman  as 
it  marched  north  after  crossing  Georgia,  and  was  with 
him  when  the  rebel  General  Johnston  surrendered.  \ 
week  later  it  returned  to  Harrisburg,  where  on  the  i2lh 
of  July,  1865,  it  was  mustered  out  the  service. 

The  52nd  was  comjiosed  of  men  who  entered  the  ser- 
vice for  three  years.  Those  who  remained  in  the  regiment 
to  the  close  of  the  war  were  mustered  out  July  12th,  1865, 
except  members  of  Company  A,  who  were  mustered  out 
three  days  later.  Where  a  date  immediately  follows  the 
name  of  a  man  in  the  subjoined  list,  it  is  the  date  of  his 
being  mustered  in.  Comi)anies  A,  H  and  I  were  recruited 
in  Luzerne  county,  the  first  at  Wilkes-Barre;  Company 
B  in  Wyoming  county;  Company  F  in  Lu/.erne  and  Brad- 
ford, and  Company  K  in  Luzerne  and  Schuylkill. 


Ci>/oii<-/s.—] ohn  C.  Dodge,  jr..  .Vug.  i.  '61;  resigned 
Nov.  5,  '63.  Henry  M.  Hoyt,  Aug.  14,  "Oi;  promoted 
from  lieutenant  colonel  to  colonel  Jan.  9,  '64;  brevet 
brigadier  general  March  13,  '65;  mustered  out  Nov.  5, '64. 

Lieutemint  Colonels. — John  B.  Conyngham,  Sept.  28, 
'61;  promoted  from  major  to  lieutenant  colonel  Jan.  9, 
64;  colonel  June  3,  '65.  John  .V.  Hennessey,  Dec.  2;  pro- 
moted from  captain  Company  K  to  major  Jan.  5,  "65; 
lieutenant  colonel  June  3d,  '65;  brevet  colonel  and  briga- 
dier general  March  13,  "65. 

Majors. — Thomas  B.  Jayne,  Oct.  11,  '61;  promoted 
from  cajnain  Company  B  to  major  Jan.  9.  '64;  mustered 
out  Nov.  5,  '64.  George  R.  Lennard.  .\ugust  16,  Yii; 
promoted  from  captain  Company  .\  to  major  July  9,  '65. 

Ailjiilaiits. — Nathaniel  Pierson,  .\ugust  15,  '6t;  pro- 
moted to  captain  Company  G  May  19.  '63.  George  H. 
Sterling,  Oct.  11,  '61;  promoted  from  sergeant  major 
to  adjutant  May  19,  '63;  transferred  to  Company  K 
Oct.  10,  '64.  Henry  A.  Mott.  Oct.  2.  '61;  promoted 
from  first  lieutenant  Company  K  to  adjutant  Sept.  i,  '64; 
captain  Company  K  Dec.  6,  '64;  not  mustered. 

Quartermasters. — Charles  F.  Dodge,  Aug.  i,  '6i;  re- 
signed July  4,  '6.^.  Charles  P.  Ross,  August  15,  '61; 
promoted  from  commissary  sergeant  to  first  lieutenant 
and  R.  Q.  M.  August  10,  '63;  mustered  out  Feb.  25, 
'65.  John  W.  (iilchrist,  Aug.  16,  '61;  promoted  from 
first  lieutenant  Company  A  Feb.  26,  '65;  commissioned 
captain  Company  A  March  i,  '65;  not  mustered. 

Surgeons. — William  S.  Woods,  Sept.  7,  '61,  resigned 
April  20,  '63.  J.  B.  Crawford,  May  1,  '63;  resigned 
May  30,  '64;  John  Flowers,  Dec.  15,  '63;  promoted  from 
assistant  surgeon  to  surgeon  March  23,  '65. 

Assistant  Surgeons. — John  G.  M"Candless,  Oct.  15, 
'61;  resigned  July  21,  '62.  Charles  H.  Dana,  August  4, 
'62;  resigned  October  12,  '63.  Rufus  Sargent,  July  31, 
'62;  resigned  March  13,  '64.     Jonas  H.   Kauffman,  May 

Chaplains. — John  H.  Drum,  Sept.  28,  '61-  resigned 
Aug.  I,  '62.     William  H.  Gavitt,  Sept.  28,  '63. 

Sergeant  Majors. — Henry  N.  Sterling,  Oct.  11,  '61; 
promoted  from  sergeant  Company  B  Nov.  5,  '61:  dis- 
charged on  surgeon's  certificate  May  11,  '62.  George 
H.  Sterling,  Oct.  11,  '61;  promoted  from  sergeant  Com- 
pany B  Nov.  14,  '62,  to  first  lieutenant  and  adjutant 
May  19,  '63.  Edward  W.  Tracy,  Aug.  16,  '61;  pro- 
moted from  sergeant  Company  A  Dec.  20,  '63;  second 
lieutenant  Nov.  4,  '64,  and  first  lieutenant  Mar.  i,  '65; 
not  mustered;  veteran. 

Quartermaster  Sergeants. — Frank  C.  Bunnell,  Sept.  20, 
'61;  promoted  from  private  Company  B  Mar.  i,  '62;  dis- 
charged on  surgeon's  certificate  April  2,  '63.  Smith  B. 
Mott,  Nov.  4,  '61;  promoted  from  sergeant  Company  K 
Nov.  5,  '64;  quartermaster  Mar.  i,  '65;  not  mustered; 

Cown/issarv  Sergeants. — Charles  P.  Ross,  Aug.  15, 
'61;  promoted  from  private  Company  H  Nov.  5,  '61,  to 
regimental  quartermaster  Aug.  10,  '63.  Linton  T.  Rob- 
erts, Nov.  4,  '61;  promoted  from  sergeant  Company  H 
Aug.  10,  '63;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Peter  B.  Walter, 
Nov.  4,  '61;  promoted  from  sergeant  Company  H  Nov. 
5,  '64;  veteran. 

Hospital  Steivard. — Peter  Alldred,  Oct.  11,  '61;  veteran. 

Principal  ATusicians. — Allen  M.  Haight,  Oct.  29,  '61; 
promoted  from  musician  Company  E  Aug.  26,  '64;  mus- 
tered out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Albert  N.  Barney,  Oct.  24,  '61; 
promoted  from  musician  Company  F  July  4,  '64;  veteran. 
Peter  J.  Moreland,  Nov.  4,  '63;  drafted;  promoted  from 
Company  E  Nov.  5,  '64. 


Officers. — Captain,  George  R.  T-ennard,  Aug.  16,  '61; 
resigned  Sept.  23,  '62;  recommissioned  Mar.  30,  '63; 
promoted  major  July  9,  '65.  First  lieutenants — Edwin 
W.  Finch,  August  16,  '61;  resigned  July  21,  '62.  John 
W.  Gilchrist,  August  16,  '61;  |)ronioted  from  second  to 
first  lieutenant  July  21,  '62;  quartermaster  February  26, 
'65.  Second  lieutenants — Reuben  H.  Waters,  August 
16,  '61;  promoted  from  first  sergeant  to  second  lieu- 
tenant July  21,  '62;  first  lieutenant  Nov.  4,  '64;  not 
mustered;  discharged  by  special  order  Feb.  i,  '65. 
Philip  G.  Killian,  Aug.  29,  '61;  promoted  from  cor|)oral 
to  first  sergeant  Nov.  6,  '64;  second  lieutenant  June  3, 
'65;  mustered  out  with  conqjany  July  15.  '65;  veteran. 
First  sergeant,  John  S.  Linn,  Sept.  2,  '61;  promoted 
from  corporal  to  sergeant  Sept.  i,  '62;  to  first  sergeant 
Sept.  15,  '64;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64;  expiration  of 
term.  Sergeants — Thomas  W.  Aregood,  Sept.  24,  '61; 
promoted  from  corporal  to  sergeant  Nov.  6,  '64; 
mustered  out  with  company  July  15,  '65;  veteran. 
Daniel  H.  Harrison,  Sept.  21,  '61;  captured  July  3, 
'64;  veteran.     Daniel  W.   Holby,  Sept.  21,  '61;   veteran. 

Peter  Allabach,  Sept.  2,  '66;  promoted  from  corporal 
to  sergeant  June  25,  '65;  veteran.  Edward  W.  Tracy, 
August  16,  '61;  promoted  sergeant  major  Dec.  20,  '63. 
Irwin  E.  Finch,  Aug.  16,  '61;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64. 
Corporals — Thomas  Ray,  August  20,  '61;  promoted  cor- 
poral June  25,  '65;  veteran.  Philip  Boyle,  Aug.  29, 
'61;  promoted  corporal  Nov.  6,  '64;  veteran.  Henry 
S.  Mash,  Sept.  16,  '61;  promoted  corporal  Nov.  6, '64; 
veteran.  Loren  D.  Rozell,  Sept,  7,  '61;  promoted  cor- 
poral Nov.  6,  '64;  veteran.  Ezra  O.  West,  Sept.  23, 
'61;  promoted  corporal  Nov.  6,  '64;  veteran.  Freemon 
Souder,  August  28,  '61;  promoted  corporal  May  i, 
'65;  veteran.  John  R.  Wiley,  Sept.  9,  '61;  promoted 
corporal  May  i,  '65;  veteran*  Solomon  W.  Taylor,  Oct. 
14,  '61;  veteran.  Frank  Gallagher,  Sept.  21,  '61; 
captured;  died  at  Florence,  S.  C,  Oct.  15,  '64.  John 
Scott,  Sept.  6,  '61;  mustered  out  Nov.  6,  '64.  Musician, 
Gilbert  G.  Parker,  Sept.  10,  '61;  discharged  on  surgeon's 
certificate.  Mar.  18,  '63. 

Privates. — Sidney  Albert,  Oct.  8,  '61;  veteran.  Ed- 
ward W.  Allabach,  Oct.  g,  '61;  discharged  Aug.  i,  '62, 
for  wounds  received  at  Seven  Pines,  Va.,  May  24,  '62. 
Wellington  Ager,  Oct.  9,  '61;  killed  at  Fair  Oaks  May 
31,  '62.  Abraham  Barber,  Sept.  17,  '62;  discharged 
by  general  order  Aug.  7,  '65.  David  Barber,  Feb.  13, 
'65.  John  Brown,  October  15,  '63;  drafted.  Jame.s 
Brown,  Sefit.  24,  '63;  drafted.  Patrick  Bennett,  Oct. 
29,  '63;  drafted;  deserted  June  8,  '64.  Henry  Barnes, 
Sept.  2,  '61;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Martin  \. 
Barber,  Oct.  9,  '61;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate 
Sept.  21,  '62.  William  G.  Burke,  Oct.  9,  '61;  dis- 
charged on  surgeon's  certificate  July  20,  '63.  Charles 
A.  Briggs.  Oct.  9,  '61;  died  at  Washington,  D.  C,  Jan. 
21,  '62.  Lewis  Blackman,  Oct.  23,  '6i;  deserted  June 
I,  '62.  Francis  E.  Carman,  Sept.  9,  '61;  veteran. 
Thomas  Cassiday,  Sept.  23,  '63;  drafted.  Stephen  Cil- 
fris,  Sept.  23,  1863;  drafted.  William  Cilfris,  Sept.  21, 
'63;  drafted.  Frank  Cilfris,  Jan.  23,  '65.  Hamilton 
H.  Carey,  Sept.  25,  '62;  discharged  by  general  order 
June  25,  1865.  George  B.  Carey,  September  17,  '61; 
mustered  out  November  5,  '64.  William  Castello, 
Sept.  24,  '61;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Robert 
Clark,  Nov.  10,  '63;  drafted;  transferred  to  U.  S.  Navy 
June  8,  '64.  Lewis  Cilfris,  Sept.  23,  '63  ;  drafted; 
died  at  Morris  Island,  S.  C.,  Nov.  13,  '64.  James 
Countryman,  Sept.  28,  '63;  drafted:  died  at  Morris 
Island,  S.  C,  Nov.  24,  '64.  Searight  Conner.  Oct.  9, 
1861;  deserted  Mar.  25,  '62.  A.  M.  Dalloway,  Mar. 
3,  '65.  William  T.  Delzell,  Sept.  23,  '63  ;  drafted. 
Benjamin  F.  Dunn,  Nov.  4,  '63;  drafted.  George  S. 
Dash,  Mar.  14,  '64.  Frederick  H.  Ducel,  Mar.  11, 
1864.  John  Y.  Davis,  Mar.  22,  '64;  never  joined  com- 
pany. Charles  G.  Dilts,  Oct.  9,  '61 ;  discharged  on  sur- 
geon's certificate  Oct.  29,  '6t,.  Elias  Davis,  Oct.  9, 
1S61;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  May  25,  '63. 
Charles  M.  Dodson,  Oct.  9,  '61;  discharged  on  sur- 
geon's certificate  Sept.  4,  '62.  Samuel  Everett,  Oct.  15, 
'63;  drafted.  Nelson  S.  Eveland,  Sept.  2,  '61;  dis- 
charged by  general  order  June  21,  '65;  veteran.  James 
Eddy,  Oct.  9,  '61;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate 
Feb.  26,  '62.  Jacob  Frace,  Oct.  24,  '62;  absent,  sick, 
at  muster  out.  William  Frace,  Mar.  18,  '64.  George  H. 
Frace,  Mar.  11,  '64.  William  H.  Frace,  Mar.  18,  '64; 
discharged  by  general  order  June  8,  '65.  Thomas  H. 
Farrell,  Oct.  9,  '61;  discharged  on  writ  of  habeas  corpus, 
Oct.  10,  '61;  minor.  John  Frace,  Oct.  9,  '61;  captured; 
died  at  Andersonville,  Ga.,  Dec.  26,  '64;  veteran.  George 
Greenwalt,  Mar.  14,  '64.  Charles  M.  Greenwalt,  Feb. 
23,  '64.  George  derringer,  Oct.  12,  '63.  John  Gaven, 
Sept.  9,  '61;  veteran.  Frederick  Grumm,  Oct.  14,  '61; 
mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.     Prentis  Gavitt,  Sept.  10,  '61; 


I 'J 

died  Nov.  17,  '61.  John  C.illniore,  Oct.  15, '63;  drafted; 
died  at  Morris  Island,  S.  C,  June  28/64.  John  Ciriffin, 
Oct.  9,  '61;  deserted  Aug.  16,  "62.  John  Huntsman, 
Oct.  8,  '61;  veteran.  Henry  Hopes,  Nov.  9,  '63;  drafted. 
William  Home,  Nov,  6,  '63;  drafted.  William  Hypher, 
Nov.  6,  "63;  drafted.  Joseph  A.  Harter,  Mar.  14,  '64. 
Michael  Halpin,  Sept.  ii,  '62;  discharged  June  13,  '65. 
William  Huff,  Sept.  26,  '61;  discharged  June  25,  '65. 
Nelson  B.  Hedden,  Aug.  27,  '61;  mustered  out  Nov.  5, 
'64.  Jacob  Hess,  Aug.  27,  '61;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64. 
Thomas  Haley,  Aug.  20,  '61;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64. 
.Arthur  B.  Hedden,  Oct.  9.  '61;  discharged  Sept.  23,  '62, 
for  wounds  received  at  Fair  Oaks,  Va.,  May  31,  '62.  Jo- 
seph Housel,  Oct.  9,  '61;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certi- 
ficate Sept.  18,  '62.  Thomas  Hoover,  Oct.  9,  '61;  dis- 
charged on  surgeon's  certificate  Aug.  ii,  '62.  Henry 
Harrington,  Oct.  9,  '61;  transferred  to  veteran  reserve 
corps,  Nov.  15,  '63.  Edward  J.  Hudson,  Aug.  16,  '64; 
died  at  Hilton  Head,  S.  C,  Jan,  19,  '65.  Samuel  W. 
Hess,  Oct.  9,  '61;  died  at  Washington,  I).  C.,  Dec.  28,'6i. 
Reuben  Hoffman,  Oct.  9,  '61;  died  June  9,  '62;  buried 
at  Annapolis,  .Md.  John  S.  Jenkins,  Apr.  7,  '62;  mus- 
tered out  May  5,  '65.  Robert  Jenkins,  Oct.  23,  '61;  dis- 
charged Sept.  30,  '62,  for  wounds  received  at  Fair  Oaks, 
Va.,  May  31,  '62.  Thomas  J.  Jenkins,  Oct.  9,  '61;  died 
July,  '64,  of  wounds  received  at  Fort  Johnson,  S.  C,  July 
3,  '64.  Thomas  Killian,  Mar.  7,  '65.  Michael  Keef,  Aug. 
16,  '61;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64,  Benjamin  Krother, 
Oct.  9,  '61;  discharged  Sept.  26,  '62,  for  wounds  received 
at  Fair  Oaks,  Va.,  May  31,  '62.  James  Kitchen,  Oct.  9, 
'61;  died  at  Washington,  D.  C".,  Dec.  6,  '61.  Daniel 
Learch,  Oct.  15,  '63-.  drafted.  Francis  S.  Lope,  Oct.  15, 
'63;  drafted.  Thomas  G.  T,itts,  Sept.  2,  '63;  drafted; 
discharged  June  28,  '65.  Martin  P.  Lutz,  Oct.  9,  '61; 
discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Dec.  3,  '62.  Frederick 
Laubach,  Oct.  9,  '61;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate 
Oct.  27,  '62.  Patrick  Lynch,  Sept.  17,  '61;  deserted  Sept. 
24,  '61.  Chester  B.  Monega,  Oct.  7,  '61;  veteran.  John 
Miller,  Sept.  24;  '63;  drafted.  Nelson  P.  Morgan,  Sept. 
23,  '63;  drafted.  John  F.  Mahler,  Mar.  22,  '64.  Albert 
J.  Meeker,  Mar.  31,  '64.  Freeman  Mock,  Mar.  22,  '64. 
J.  A.  Megargal,  Oct.  17,  '64.  William  Millham.  Mar.  28, 
'62;  mustered  out  May  5,  "65.  Reeder  D.  Myers,  Aug. 
29,  '61;  captured  July  3,  '64;  died  at  Andersonville,  CJa., 
Dec.  22, '64.  Jonas  Miller,  Sept.  5,  '61;  mustered  out 
Nov.  5,  '64.  William  R.  Mott,  Sept.  9,  '61;  mustered  out 
Nov.  5,  '64.  Michael  Mulrey,  Oct.  8,  '61;  prisoner  from 
July  3,  to  Dec.  i,  '64;  mustered  out  Mar.  i,  '65,  to  date 
Dec.  5,  '64.  Nicholas  Miller,  Oct.  9,  '61;  discharged  on 
surgeon's  certificate  Sept.  18,  '62.  Joseph  P.  Murray, 
Oct.  9,  '61;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Nov.  1,  '61. 
Ambrose  Myers,  Oct.  9,  '61;  died  at  Baltimore,  Md., 
June  22.  '62.  Charles  W.  Marks,  .Sept.  23,  '63;  drafted; 
deserted  June  8,  '64.  Thomas  M'Ciarle,  Oct.  8,  '61;  vet- 
eran. John  R.  M'Cool,  Nov.  7,  '63;  drafted.  Thomas 
M'Cann.Oct.  9,'6i;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  May 
9,  '63.  Franklin  M'Bride,  Oct.  9,  '61;  discharged  on  sur- 
geon's certificate  Jan.  15,  '62.  Thomas  M'Cormick,  Oct. 
9,  '61;  deserted  Aug.  16,  '62.  Christian  Orts,  Sept.  18, 
■61;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Elirtet  Orts,  Sept.  16, '61; 
died  at  Hilton  Head,  S.  C,  Mar.  15,  '64;  veteran. 
George  S.  Pierce,  Mar.  21,  '64.  James  M.  Petty,  P'eb.  23, 
'64.  William  Payne,  Feb.  23, '64.  John  H.  Palmer,  Oct. 
9,  '61;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Aug.  31,  '62. 
Abraham  D.  Patterson,  ( )ct.  9, '61 ;  discharged  on  surgeon's 
certificate  June  2,  '63.  Edward  Rogers.  Nov.  6,  '63; 
drafted.  Samuel  Roberts,  Oct.  17, '61 ;  veteran.  George 
Race,  .\pr.  9,  '64.  Patrick  Riter,  Sept.  24,  63; 
drafted.  George  W.  Russell,  Mar.  7,  '65.  Wil- 
liam Renshaw,  Oct.  10,  '62;  discharged  on  surgeon's 
certificate  Mar.  17,  '65.     David   M.    Reese,   Sept.    2,  '61; 

mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Charles  S.  Rainow,  Sept.  17, 
'61;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  James  Russell,  Sept. 
2,  '61;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  George  W.  Runer, 
Oct.  9,  '61;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Oct.  21. 
'61.  Jacob  Smith,  Nov.  2,  '61;  drafted.  George  W, 
Smith,  Nov.  4,  '63,  drafted;  absent  in  parole  camp  at 
muster  out.  Earnest  Smith,  July  15,  '63;  drafted 
John  A.  Stiers,  Oct.  17,  '63;  drafted.  .Moses  Sender. 
Mar.  21,  '64.  Peter  Swariwood,  Mar.  31,  '64.  Wash- 
ington St.  Clair,  .Aug.  29,  '64;  discharged  June  25, '65 
John  Seely,  Oct.  9,  '61;  discharged  on  surgeon's  cer- 
tificate .\ug.  II,  '62.  William  Simmons,  Sept.  16,  '61; 
discharged  June  15,  '65,  to  accept  promotion  in  io4lh 
U.  S.  colored  troops,  .\braliam  St.  Clair,  Oct.  9,  '61: 
discharged  on  sugeon's  certificate  July  15,  '62.  Bern- 
Bernard  P.  Smith,  Oct.  9,  '61;  discharged  .Vug.  14.  '62, 
for  wounds  received  at  Fair  Oaks,  \'a..  May  18,  "62. 
Joseph  T.  Stach,  Oct.  9,  '61;  discharged  on  surgeon's 
certificate  .\ug.  11, '62.  Robert  M  Stepliens,  .\ug.  zS. 
'61;  transferred  to  i2th  N.  V.  artillery  .April  9,  '62. 
Matthew  Smith,  Sept.  24,  '63;  drafted;  transferred  to 
U.  S.  navy  June  8,  '64.  William  Smith.  Oct.  9.  '63; 
John  F.  Thomas,  Sept.  9,  '61;  mustered  out  Nov.  5, 
'64.  David  W.  Turner,  Aug.  28,  '61;  mustered  out 
Nov.  5,  '64.  John  M.  Taylor,  May  5,  '62;  mustered 
out  May  25,  '65.  Patrick  Tahan,  Oct.  9,  '61;  dis- 
charged on  surgeon's  certificate  Feb.  26,  '62.  Robert 
Troup,  Oct.  9,  '61;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate 
June  14,  '63.  Thomas  Timms,  Sept.  16,  '61;  di^- 
charged  Sept.  21,  '61.  Shadrack  Vanhorn,  Oct.  9. 
'61;  died  at  Harveyville,  Luzerne  county.  Pa.,  .April  17. 
'62.  William  Ward,  .Aug,  16,  '64;  discharged  June 
30,  '65;  William  S.  Withers,  Oct.  9,  '61;  discharged 
on  writ  of  /ia/>eas  corpus  Oct.  10,  '61;  minor.  Lewis 
Whitaker,  Oct.  23,  '61;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certifi- 
cate April  20,  '61.  Thomas  Williams,  Nov.  4,  '63: 
drafted  ;  deserted  March  17,  '65.  .Augustus  Weeks. 
Oct.  9,  '61;  deserted  October  30,  '61.  Fletcher  D 
Yaple,  Oct.  9,  '61;  |)romoted  to  hospital  steward  U.  S 
A.  May  9,  '63. 

COMP.^NV    R. 

Most  of  the  members  of  this  company  were  mustered 
in  on  the  nth  of  October,  1861,  and  that  date  will  be 
understood  when  no  other  is  given. 

Officers. — Captains — Thomas  B.Joncs;  promoted  major 
lanuary  9,  '64.      R.  W.  Bannatyne;    jiromoted  from  first 
sergeant   to   second  lieutenant  Sept.  27,  '62;  to  first  lieu- 
tenant   Mardi    31,    '63;    capt.  Jan.  9,  '64.      ist  lieuts. — 
Charles  Russell;  resigned  Oct.  29, '62.     Norman  P.  Farr. 
promoted   from  cnrp.  to  sergt.;    2nd  lieut.  June  13.  '63: 
ist   lieut.  Jan.  9,  '64.     2nd    lieuts.— Joseph    L.    Bemler; 
resigned  Feb.  26.   '62.      Pliilo   M.   Burr;  promoted  from 
1st  sergt.  to  2d  lieut.  Jan.  9,    '64;    ca\A.  company  C  June 
I,  '65;  not  mustered.     1st  sergt.,  William  J.  Vaughn;  com 
missioned   2nd  lieut.  June  i,  '65;  not  mustered;  veteran. 
Sergts. — H.  W.  Robinson;  veteran.     Henry    D.   Kasson; 
promoted    from    corp.    to   sergt.    Nov.    6,    '64;    veteran. 
Oscar  P.   Hulbert;  promoted    from    corp.  to  sergt.  Nov 
6,  '64;    vet.       Alden  M.   Wilson;  promoted    from  corp 
to  sergt.  Nov.  6,  '64.      Wesley  Billings;    promoted   from 
corp.  to  sergt.  April  19.   '62;    mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64 
Joseph  Shannon;  promoted   from  corp.  to  sergt.  Dec.    1. 
■63;    absent,  sick,  at  muster  out.     Harry  B.  Brown;  pro 
moted  from  corp.  to  sergl.  Jan.  9,  '64;  mustered  out  Nov 
5,  '64.        Jerome    T.    Furman;    promoted   2n(l   lieut.    is; 
[egiment   S.     C.   C.   T.    Aug.    29,    '63.       Alva    Fasceti 
discharged  Aug.  11,  '62,  from  wounds  received  in  action 
George  D.  Lott;  promoted  sergt.  April  19. '62;  discharg 
ed  Sept.  22,  '62,  from  wounds  received  at  Fair  Oaks  May 


31,  '62.  Henry  N.  Sterling;  jiromoted  sergt.  maj.  Nov. 
5,  '61.  George  H.  Sterling;  promoted  sergt.  maj.  Nov.  14, 
"'62.  Frank  C.  Hnnnell.  Sept.  20,  '61;  promoted  Q.  sergt. 
March  i,  62,  Corporals— Culb't  B.  Robinson,  Feb.  29, 
'64;  veteran.  Thomas  W.  Evans;  veteran.  Nelson  N. 
Moody;  promoted  corp.  Nov.  6,'64;  vet.  Abel  A.Carter, 
F'eb.  29, '64;  promoted  corp  Nov.  6, '64;  vet.  William  H. 
Kishbangh;  jtromoted  corp.  Nov.  6,  '64;  vet.  Edwin  A. 
Dewoif;  promoted  corp.  Nov.  6,  '64;  vet.  Daniel  C. 
Low,  Feb.  29,  '64;  promoted  cor|).  Nov.  6,  64;  vet.  Levi 
F.  Drake,  Feb  29,  '64;  promoted  corp.  Nov.  6,  '64;  vet. 
George  W.  Jayne;  promoted  corp.  Aug.  '62;  mustered 
out  Nov.  5.  '64.  George  L.  Kennard;  promoted  corp. 
Jan.  19,  '64;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  James  P.  K. 
Wilson;  jiromoted  corp.  Aug.  i,  '62;  mustered  out  Nov. 
5,  '64.  Allen  E.  Fassett;  promoted  corp.  Nov.  19,  '61; 
discharged  on  surg's  certificate  May  19,  '62.  Jacob  A. 
Cook;  killed  at  Fair  Oaks,  Va.,  May  19,  '62.  Ammond 
Hatfield;  died  at  Yorktown,  Va.,  May  31,  '62.  Theo- 
dore Barton;  killed  at  Fair  Oaks,  Va.,  May  31,  '62. 
Musician,  Benjamin  Bullock;  discharged  on  surg's  cer- 
tificate Sept.  24,  '62. 

Privates. — Augustus  .-^shton,  Feb.  24,  '65.  Nelson  B. 
Allen,  Sept.  16,  '62;  discharged  by  general  order  June 
24,  '65.  Elisha  K.  Adams;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64. 
Oscar  R.  .Adams;  absent,  sick  at  muster  out.  Gilbert  H. 
Adams;  Mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Thomas  Adams; 
mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Seril  A.  Adams;  mustered  out 
Nov.  5,  '64.  Peter  Alldred;  promoted  hosp.  st.  A]:iril  30, 
'64;  vet.  Daniel  Adams,  Mar.  23,  64;  died  at  Hilton 
Head,  S.  C,  June  7,  '64.  Chand.  N.  Burgess;  vet. 
Benjamin  Baker,  Sept.  22^,  '63;  drafted.  Hiram  Brink, 
Seiit.  23,  '63;  .drafted.  \Villiam  .\.  ISates,  Sept.  12,  '62; 
discharged  on  surg's  certificate  June  4,  '63.  Thaddeus 
F.  Bullard,  Sept.  12,  '62;  discharged  on  surg's  certificate 
Dec.  27,  '62.  Jonathan  Brewer,  Sept.  16,  '62;  discharged 
June  2,  '65.  Richard  D,  Bird,  Sept.  16,  '62;  discharged 
on  surg's  certificate  Oct.  31,  '62.  William  S.  Beebe,  .\ug. 
16,  '64;  discharged  June  24,  '65.  Solomon  Burke,  Sept. 
26,  '64;  drafted;  discharged  June  24,  65.  Edwin  Robin- 
son, jr.;  absent  on  detached  duty  at  muster  out.  Frank 
M.  Buck;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  William  Craft,  July 
24,  '63;  drafted.  Richard  Cook,  Feb.  24,  '65.  Isaac  V. 
Cooper,  March  7, '65.  Nathan  Colb,  Sept.  24,  '63;  draft- 
ed. Thomas  Crompton,  Sept.  16,  '62;  discharged  on 
surg's  certificate  Jan.  12,  '63.  John  L.  Cole,  Sept.  16, 
'62;  discharged  June  24,  '65.  Martin  H.  Conger,  Sept. 
16,  '62;  discharged  on  surg's  certificate  Feb.  12,  '63. 
.•\lanson  Carrier,  Aug.  i,  '64;  discharged  June  24,  '65. 
Michael  Cover,  Sept.  26,  '64;  drafted;  discharged  June 
24,  '65.  James  Cleary;  transferred  to  Fitch's  N.  Y. 
battery  July  25,  '62.  Clanson  L.  Cool;  discharged 
on  surg's  certificate  Jan.  11,  '63.  Philip  H.  Cole,  Mar. 
7,  '64;  died  at  Morris  island,  S.  C,  Nov.  23,  '64.  John 
J.  Colberson,  Sept.  24,  '63;  drafted;  died  at  Morris 
island  Nov.  23,  '64.  Nathaniel  F.  Dickinson;  veteran. 
Charles  L.  Dood,  July  24,  '63;  drafted.  Winfield 
S.  Davis,  Jan.  24,  '65.  Richard  Davis,  Jan.  19,  '65. 
Morgan  Deiner,  Sept.  28,  '63;  drafted;  discharged  June 
24,  '65.  C.  M.  Eggleston,  March  8,  '64.  Miles  East- 
man; mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Earl  Ellis;  dis- 
charged Feb.  12,  '63,  from  wounds  received  in  action. 
Thomas  Ellis,  transferred  to  5th  U.  S.  artillery,  '62. 
Miner  Ellis,  deserted  May  4,  '62.  Wm.  H.  Furman, 
mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  John  C.  F'raley,  mustered  out 
Nov.  5,  '64.  Ebenezer  Fisk,  discharged  on  surgeon's 
certificate  Nov.  5,  '61.  Asa  H.  Frear,  discharged  on  sur- 
geon's certificate  Sept.  9,  '63.  Nelson  F'inney,  discharged 
on  surgeon's  certificate  May  19,  '62.  Henry  Ferris,  died 
Dec.  25,  '61.  Levi  L.  F'erris,  killed  at  Fair  Oaks,  Va., 
May  31,  '62.     Thomas   Griffith,    Feb.    25,  '6,s.     John  G. 

Gilmartin,  Oct.  29,  '63;  drafted.  George  H.  Gaylord, 
Sept.  16,  '62;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certificate  March 
10,  '63.  William  H.  Gavitt,  Sept.  28,  '63;  drafted;  pro- 
moted chaplain  May  21,  64.  James  W.  Gavitt,  ."Xug.  24, 
'64;  discharged  June  24,  '65.  Aaron  I),  Grow,  dis- 
charged on  surgeon's  certificate  Jan.  11,  '63.  Daniel 
Graves,  died  at  Yorktown,  Va.,  June  10,  '62.  Jude 
Goodale,  deserted  Oct.  i,  '62.  George  W.  Graham,  Nov. 
9,  '63;  drafted;  deserted  June  17,  '64,  N.  Hilderbrand, 
Mar.  31,  '64.  Adam  Heller,  Nov.  7,  '63;  drafted.  Jos. 
Hendrickson,  Sept.  24,  '63;  drafted.  Charles  Hile,  Sept. 
24,  '63;  drafted.  James  Hoagland,  Sept.  24,  '63; 
drafted.  John  B.  Heller,  Sept.  28,  '63;  drafted;  dis- 
charged June  24,  '65.  Lewis  Hautz,  Aug.  20,  '62;  dis- 
charged June  24,  '65.  Miles  Hadsall,  discharged  on  sur- 
geon's certificate  April  16,  '63.  Alonzo  Hart,  discharged 
on  surgeon's  certificate  Feb.  25,  '62.  DeWitt  Haynes, 
died  June  5,  '62,  from  wounds  received  at  Seven  Pines 
May  24,  '62.  Charles  Hunsinger,  died  at  Beaufort,  S.  C, 
Dec.  19,  '63.  Nathaniel  Josling,  Mar.  14, '64.  Jonathan 
Jones,  veteran.  William  Joes,  Aug.  21,  '62;  discharged 
June  24,  '65.  John  C.  Jaynes,  Sept.  16,  '62;  discharged 
June  24,  '65.  Harman  M.  Jaynes,  Sept.  '16,  62;  dis- 
charged on  surgeon's  certificate  Jan.  11,  63.  Jud'son  W. 
Jaynes;  discharged  on  surg.  certificate  Sept.  27,  '63. 
Albert  Jennings;  discharged  Sept.  i,  '62,  for  wounds 
received  in  action.  John  M.  Johnston;  discharged  on 
surg.  certificate  Aug.  i,  '63.  Nelson  Kresse,  Nov.  2,  "63; 
drafted.  Jacob  Kale,  Sept.  21,  '73;  drafted.  Levi  R. 
Kisler,  Sept.  24, '63;  drafted.  Lew  Keller,  Sept.  25,  'dy, 
drafted.  Gustavus  A.  Kerlin,  Feb.  24,  '65.  Darius 
Knappin;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Charles  Living- 
ston, Sept.  24,  '63.  drafted;  discharged  July  7,  '65. 
George  Lock,  Se]5t.  25,  '63;  drafted.  Charles  O.  Light, 
Aug.  15,  '64;  discharged  Aug.  26,  '65.  George  M.  Lull, 
Mar.  S,  '62;  discharged  on  surg.  certificate  Mar.  30,  '65. 
Anson  Lathrop,  Mar.  28,  '62;  discharged  June  9,  '65. 
Jared  Lillie,  Aug.  27,  '64;  discharged  June  24,  '65.  George 
L.  Low;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Delaven  Leroy;  dis- 
charged on  surg.  certificate  Feb.  12,  '63.  Jacob  C.  Max- 
well, Aug.  29,. '64.  Myron  Ma.xwell,  Mar.  9,  '64.  Philip 
Miller,  Mar.  15,  '65.  Uriah  H.  Mourey,  -Aug.  i,  '64;  dis- 
charged June  24,  '65.  Joseph  B.  Maxwell;  mustered 
out  Nov.  5,  '64.  John  1).  Maxwell;  mustered  out  Nov. 
5,  '64.  John  F.  Miller;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  George 
S.  Martin;  discharged  on  surg.  certificate  Sept.  26,  '62. 
William  B.  Morgan,  Mar.  24,  '64;  died  at  Morris  island, 
S.  C,  Dec.  26, "'64.  Joab  M'Garr,  Aug.  27,  '62;  dis- 
charged on  surg  certificate  Dec.  27,  '62.  Roland 
Nease,  Nov.  2,  '63;  drafted.  Calvin  G.  Newman,  Feb. 
24,  '65.  John  P.  Orchard,  Feb.  24,  '65.  Samuel  K. 
Osborn,  Feb.  19,  '62;  discharged  on  surg's  certificate 
June  4,  '63.  Paul  J.  Overfield;  mustered  out  Nov.  5, 
'64.  George  W.  Oliver;  absent,  sick,  at  muster  out. 
Charles  JA.  Oliver;  died  Jime  11,  '62,  from  wounds  re- 
ceived at  Fair  Oaks,  Va.,  May  31,  '62.  Jo.seph  Ogden, 
Mar.  28,  '64;  died  at  Morris  Island,  S.  C,  June  27,  '64. 
Silas  H.  Pierson,  Sept.  20,  '62.  Edward  Place;  mus- 
tered out  Nov.  5,  '64.  William  Pnewman,  Sept.  22,  '62; 
transferred  to  vetera.i  reserve  corps  Mar.  15,  '65.  John 
H.  Riker,  Mar.  14,  '64;  absent,  sick,  at  muster  out. 
Henry  Rhoads,  Mar.  14,  '65.  Abrini  Rinker;  mustered 
out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Wilson  Russell;  discharged  on  surg. 
certificate  Nov.  20,  '62.  Jacob  W.  Sharp,  Nov.  24,  '63; 
drafted.  Henry  Sower,  Feb.  24,  '65.  James  Sweeney, 
Sept.  23,  '63;  drafted,  Andrew  Snowden,  Nov.  5,  '63; 
drafted.  John  O.  Shingler,  Sept.  24,  '63;  drafted.  Joel 
15.  Sherwood,  Mar.  8,  '64.  Michael  SliKer,  Jan.  24,  '65. 
Edward  G.  Sterling.  Sept.  16,  '62;  discharged  June  24, 
'65.  Edward  B.  Sturdevant,  Sept.  16,  '62;  discharged 
June  24,  '63.     Josiah    Sterling,    Mar.    7,  '64;  discharged 

COMTAW    I',   III'TY-SECONI)    Rl'.C  I  MIA" 

on  siirg.  certificate  Feb.  4,  '65.  Jonathan  Snyder,  Sepi, 
26,  '64;  drafted;  discliarged  June  24,  '65.  JJiirrows  1). 
Stocker,  Feb.  25,  '62;  mustered  out  Mar.  18,  '65.  Porter 
Sumner;  transferred  to  gun-boat  service  Feb.  18,  '62. 
Davenport  Shoemaker;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64,  Daniel 
Slianer;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Daniel  Sniitli;  dis- 
charged on  surg.  certificate  Nov.  i  r,  '61.  Tilleston  D. 
Smith,  Sept.  16,  '62;  deserted  Nov.  i,  '64.  Joshua 
Trowbridge;  deserted;  returned  July  12,  '65.  .\bram 
L.  Tiffany.  George  \V.  Thurber,  Sept.  24,  '63; 
drafted.  Daniel  B.  Tompkins,  Sept.  16,  '62;  discharged 
June  24,  '65.  William  'I'hatcher,  Aug.  20,  '62;  dis- 
charged on  surg"s  certificate  Mar.  29,  '63.  Jacob  Tripp, 
Aug.  30,  '64;  discharged  June  24,  '65.  George  1'.  Tif- 
fany, mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  George  H.  Titus, 
mustered  out  Nov.  5,  "64.  Solomon  N'ansicle,  Sept.  16, 
'62;  discharged  June  24.  '65.  William  ^'anosedale, 
Sept.  I,  '62;  discharged  June  24,  '65.  Robert  Vanduzen. 
Mar.  28,  '64;  died  at  Nlorris  island,  S.  C,  July  13.  '64. 
George  D.  Wright,  Daniel  .M.  Wright,  John  I,.  Woodruff, 
Mar.  31,  '64.  Giles  K.  Wilcox,  iMar.  3,  '62;  niuslerod 
out  Mar.  18,  '65.  Daniel  W.  Warner,  Mar.  3,  '62;  dis- 
charged on  surg's  certificate  Dec.  3,  '62.  Alfred  Wil- 
liams, mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Charles  Wright, 
discharged  Sept.  5,  '62,  for  wounds  received  in  action. 
Danford  \\akefield,  discharged  on  surg's  certificate 
Dec.  28,  '62. 


Most  of  the  members  of  this  company  were  mustered 
October  24th,  1861,  and  that  date  will  be  understood 
where  none  is  given. 

Officers. — Captains- — James  Cook,  Sept.  5. '61;  resigned 
Oct.  2r,  '63.  Treat  B.  Camp,  Sept.  21,  '61;  promoted 
from  first  lieutenant  to  captain  Oct.  22,  '63.  First  lieu- 
tenants— Burton  K.  Gustin;  promoted  from  first  sergeant 
to  first  lieutenant  Dec.  21, '63;  mustered  out  Jan.  27,  '65. 
Charles  E.  Britton:  promoted  from  first  sergeant  to  first 
lieutenant  June  3,  '65;  veteran.  Second  liei:tenants— 
Ransom  W.  Luther,  Sept.  19.  '61;  resigned  June  21,  '62. 
Nelson  Orchard;  jiromoted  from  sergt.  to  2nd  lieut. 
Sept.  27,  '62;  dismissed  Sept.  13, '63.  Alson  Secor;  pro- 
moted from  ist  sergt.  to  2nd  lieut.  Mar.  27,  '64;  mustered 
out  Jan.  27,  '65;  veteran.  First  sergeants — Niram  A. 
Fuller;  promoted  from  sergt.  to  ist  sergt.;  veteran. 
Charles  L.  Camp;  discharged  on  surg's  certificate  June  2, 
'63.  Sergeants — Andrew  Mellville;  promoted  from  corp. 
to  sergt.  Jan.  17,  '64;  veteran.  Stephen  C.  Hall;  i)ro- 
moted  Corp.  Jan.  17,  '64;  sergt.  Alay  i,  '65;  veteran. 
Charles  W.  Keller;  jaromoted  corp.  Jan.  17,  '64;  sergt. 
May  I,  '65;  veteran.  Leander  Overjieck;  prisoner  from 
July  3,  '64,  to  Feb.  24,  '65;  mustered  out  Mar.  1,  '65. 
Ale.xander  Nealy;  i)risoner  from  July  3,  '64,  to  l-eb.  26, 
'65;  mustered  out  Mar.  3,  '65.  Luther  W.  Welch;  pro- 
moted from  corp.  to  sergt.  April  13,  '62;  discharged 
on  surg's  certificate  Nov.  16,  '62.  Corporals — John 
M'Carty,  Nov.  2,  '63  ;  drafted  ;  promoted  cor- 
poral Nov.  23,  '64.  Harrison  N.  Molt;  promoted 
cori)oral  Jan.  i,  '65;  captured  at  Fort  Johnson 
S.  C.,  July  3,  '64;  dbsent  at  muster  out;  veteran.  Lewis 
D.  Town;  promoted  corporal  Jan.  i,  '65;  captured  at 
Fort  Johnson,  S.  C,  July  3.  '64;  returned  May  26.  '65. 
George  Fink;  ijromoted  corporal  NLny  t,'65;  veteran 
Edward  P.  M'Kittrick,  July  15,  '63;  drafted;  promoted 
corporal  ^L^y  i,  '65.  Samuel  ,\L  Sorber,  Mar.  11,  '64; 
promoted  corporal  July  i,  '65.  Charles  Hallstead,  Feb. 
16,  '65;  promoted  corporal  July  i,  '65.  Rufus  I'.  Lind- 
ley;  discharged  June  12,  '65 ;  veteran.  Jeremiah  Gillin- 
ger;  promoted  corporal  A|)ril  13,  '62;  mustered  out  Nov. 
5,  '64.     D.ivis  Brooks;  promoted    corporal    Dec.    i.   '63: 


mustered  out.  Retiben  H.  Di.\on;  promoted  corp.  Dec. 
I,  '63;  cai>tured  July  3,  '64;  absent  at  muster  out. 
George  H.  Wheat;  promoted  corp.  April  5, '64;  captured 
July  3,  '64;  absent  at  muster.  George  S.  Goodwin;  dis- 
<  h.irged  on  surgeon's  certificate  July  27,  '62.  .Marshall 
\\  heeler;  dischargeti  on  surgeon's  certificate  May  23, 
'62.  Samuel  Duncan;  discharged  on  surgeon's  certifi- 
vite  Feb.  12,  '63.  Ebcnezer  Ch.ise;  died  at  Brooklyn, 
N.  Y.,  July  28.  '62.  Musicians — Russell  Miller;  dis- 
charged on  surgeon's  certificate  April  20,  '64.  Albert  N. 
Barney;  promoted  principal  musician  July  4,  '61;  veteran. 
Privatcf. — John  Avery;  prisoner  from  July  3  to  Nov. 
30,  '64;  mustered  out  D;i\  5.  '64.  Jacob  Agnew;  died 
at  N'oiktown,  Va.,  Nov.  28.  '62.  Lucius  .Adams;  died  at 
\orktown.  Va.,  Oct.  12,  '62.  Lewis  Botzcn,  Sept.  24, 
'63;  drafted;  captured  Julv  3,  '64;  absent  ai  muster  out. 
John  O.  Baker,  Sept  24,  '63;  drafted.  Alonzo  Bell, 
Sept.  24,  '63;  drafted;  captured  July  3,  '64;  absent  at 
muster  out.  Daniel  Butcher,  Oct.  15, '63;  drafted.  Orel 
Bailey;  captured  July  3,  '64;  absent  at  muster  out. 
Frederick  Burgess;  discharged  on  surg.'s  certificate  Sept. 
27,  '62.  T.  C.  Buffington;  transferred  to  veteran  reserve 
corps  Nov.  15, '63.  John  Bailey;  died  NLiy  17. '62.  Levi 
Barnttt;  died  at  Washington.  I).  C,  I*"eb.  25,  '62.  Ver- 
non C.  Capwell.  Sept.  27,  '63;  drafted.  John  Conway, 
Sept.  24,  '63;  drafted.  James  Canince.  Sept.  24,  '63; 
drafted;  captured  July  3,  '64;  absent  at  muster  out. 
Edward  Cavanee,  NLir.  14,  '64;  captured  July  3,  '64;  re- 
turned May  14,  '65.  Henry  Cavanee,  NLar.  23,  '64.  John 
Caterson;  veteran.  Almon_  F.  Camp;  mustered  out  Nov, 
5,  '64.  Benjamin  Cornell;  prisoner  from  July  3,  '64,  to 
Mar.  3,  "65;  mustered  out  .\Lir.  8,  '65.  Daniel  L.Clark; 
captured  July  3,  '64;  absent  at  muster  out.  Jonathan  A. 
Clark;  captured  July  3,  '64;  absent  at  muster  out.  Wil- 
liam A.  Campbell;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Thomas 
Conner,  Sept.  24, '63;  drafted;  discharged  on  surg's  cer- 
tificate Oct.  26,  '64.  Lawrence  Connelly;  discharged  on 
surg's  certificate  June  2, '63.  Vernon  C.  Capwell;  dis- 
charged on  surg's  certificate  Oct.  7,  '63.  Curtis  R.  Dun- 
more;  transferred  to  8lh  N.  V.  artillery  July  6,  '62. 
Patrick  Devaney,  William  Dougherty  and  James  Duffy; 
captured  luly  3.  '64;  absent  at  muster  out.  Chester 
Dodge;  died  at  Georgetown,  D.  C..  Jan.  31,  '62.  Henry 
Esterbrook,  Feb.  16, '65;  discharged  June  14, '65.  Dan- 
iel Engle;  discharged  on  surg's  certificate  Nov.  6,  '61. 
James  Flinn;  discharged  on  surg's  certificate  .Aug.  10. 
'62.  Thomas  Ferguson,  Nov.  13, '63;  drafted:  discharg- 
ed on  surg's  certilicate  Sept.  i,  '64.  Ebene/.er  Freeland; 
died,  1862,  of  wounds  received  at  explosion  of  gunboat 
"  Mound  City,"  at  Fort  Henry,  Tenn.  Alfred  Forrest;  de- 
serted Oct.  24, '61.  Casper  G.  Griffin;  veteran.  William 
Gensle,  ^L^r.  14,  '64.  John'Gearns;  transferred  to  7th  N.V. 
artillery  .-Vpr.  6, '62.  Herman  S.  Graeff,  Sejjt.  28,  '63;  draft- 
ed; died  at  .Morris  island,  S.  C,  July  i,'64.  Ezra  Grub,  Mar. 
7,  '64;  died  at  Morris  island,  S.  C.,  Aug.  26,  '64.  Judge 
(iustin;  killed  at  Fort  Johnson,  S.  C.  July' 3,  '64.  Leslie 
Hawley,  Sept.  3o,'63;  drafted;  cai)tured  July  3,  '64;  absent 
at  muster  out.  John  NL  Hartman,  Sept.  30,  '63;  drafted; 
cajjtured  Julv  3.  '64.  Henry 
drafted.  Miller  Hilton,  Aug.  15 
luly  6,  64.  Richard  Hallstead, 
captured  July  3,  "64;  returned 
Haring,    July    22,    '63;    drafted; 

Horn,  Sept.  25,  '63; 
'63;  drafted;  captured 
Oct.   31.   '63;  drafted; 

May    15, 


3.    '64- 

David"H.illeck;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  W.J  N.  Hen- 
son;  discharged  on  surg's  certificate,  Oct.  14, '62.  Sirnon 
B.  Henson;  disch.irged  on  surg's  certificate,  Nov.  17,  '61. 
lleorgeW.  Harper,  Sept.  30, '63;  drafted;  deserted  March 
17,  '65.  J.nmes  H.  Howe,  NLirch  11.  'O4;  deserted  May 
29,  '64.  c;harlcs  A.  Howe,  April  12,  '65;  discharged 
June  23,  '65.  Harlan  Howe,  April  12,  '65;  discharged 
"lune  2^.  '6;      Albert  V.  lerauld,  March  10,  '65.     Albert 



V.  Jenkins,  Oct.  3,  '61;  discharged  on  surg's  certificate 
May  9/63.  (ieorge  H.  Knii;ht;  veteran.  Jacob  Kiall,  Oct. 
27,  '63;  drafted.  William  Kennedy,  Sept.  24,  '63;  drafted; 
prisoner  from  July  3,  '64,  to  May  7,  '65;  discharged  June 
25,  '65.  Henry  Kerns;  died  at  Philadel]ihia,  Pa.,  Ang. 
15,  '63.  Peter  Klausen,  Sept.  23,  '63;  drafted;  captured; 
died  at  Florence,  S.  C,  Oct.  4,  '64.  Wm.  Linderman, 
Sept.  24,  '63;  drafted;  captured  July  3,  '64;  returned 
May  14,  '65.  David  Lake,  July  24.  '63;  draf 
tured  July  3,  '64.  James  K.  Lunger,  March 
drafted;  captured  July  3,  '64;  returned  May 
William  Love,  April  13,  '64.  Burton  Luther, 
July  3,  '63;  absent  at  muster  out.  Hiram  Lathro|i,  dis 
charged  on  surgeon's  certificate  Oct.  8,  '62.  M\ron  La 
throp,  discharged  on  surg's  certificate  Feb.  28, 
Sylvester  Moyars,  Mar.  22,  '64.  Milo  Moyers,  Mai 
'64;  captured  July  3,  '64.  Nelson  Ming,  Mar.  21, 
Newell  M.  Mattison,  discharged  on  surg's  certificate 
April  19,  '62.  John  Murphy,  Oct.  24,  '64;  discharged 
on    surg's    certificate,  April'  6,  '64.     Royal  Morton 

ed;  cap- 
Mi  '64; 
14.   '65. 





,  dis- 

charged  on  surg's  certificate  Feb.  27, 
ler,  Sept.  26,  63;  drafted;  died  July  10,  '64,  at  Charles- 
ton, S.  C,  of  wounds  received  at  Fort  Johnson,  S.  C, 
July  3,  '64.  Edwin  S.  Muidock,  Sept.  24,  '63;  drafted; 
died  at  Annajjolis,  Md.,  April  11,  '65.  John  M'Clerkin, 
Sept.  24,  '63;  drafted.  William  M.  M'Donald,  Sept.  24, 
'63;  drafted;  captured  July  3,  '64.  William  Newman, 
Sept.  25,  '63;  drafted;  captured  July  3,  '64.  S\lvanus 
Nicholas,  prisoner  from  July  3  to  Dec.  10,  '64;  mustered 
out  Dec.  16,  '64.  Solomon  Nelson,  died  at  Washington, 
D.  C,  Feb.  15,  62.  John  O'Neil,  Sept.  24,  '64;  drafted; 
deserted  June  3,  '64.  Jesse  Foley,  June  22,  '63;  drafted. 
Alfred  Parsons,  Sept.  24,  '64;  drafted.  Daniel  B.  Pal- 
mer, Sept.  29,  '64;  discharged  June  4,  '65.  Jacob  A. 
Palmer,  captured;  died  at  Florence,  S.  C,  Nov.,  '64;  vet- 
eran. Clarence  Piatt,  discharged  on  wrh  of  //n/'cas ivr/'us. 
Isaac  T.  Pelham,  discharged  on  surg's  certificate  Mar.  21, 
'63.  Martin  G.  Palmer,  discharged  on  surg's  certificate 
Mar.  2,  '63.  John  Pruyne,  killed  at  Lee's  Mills,  Va.,  May 
4,  '62.  James  Riley,  Sept.  25,  63;  drafted;  captured 
July  3, '65;  absent  at  muster  out.  Nicholas  Raber,  Sept. 
24,  '63;  drafted;  captured  July  3,  '64;  discharged  by 
general  order  July  18,  '65.  L.  E.  Richardson,  Feb,  16, 
'65.  John  Smith,  Sept.  24,  '63;  drafted;  cajitured 
July  3,  '64.  Thomas  Smith,  Oct.  26,  '63;  drafted. 
Henry  Schopback,  Sept.  24,  '63;  drafted.  Josiah  Stout, 
July  22,  '63,  drafted;  died  at  Harrisburg,  Pa.,  Aug.  2,  '65. 
Frederick  Slagle,  July  24,  '63;  drafted.  Thomas  H. 
Shaw,  Oct.  29, '63;  drafted;  captured  July  3,  '64.  James 
B.  Spencer,  Feb.  16,  '65;  absent,  sick,  at  muster  out. 
D.  G.  Sturdevant,  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Andrew 
Singer,  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Benjamin  F.  Sayer, 
Oct.  30'  '63;  drafted;  discharged  on  surg's  certificate 
ALay  31,  65.  Peter  Shaffer,  Sept.  23,  '63;  drafted;  cap- 
tured; died  at  Andersonville,  Ga.,  April  28,  '64. 
John  I,.  Shove;  discharged  on  surg's  certificate  June  16, 
'62.  Benjamin  L  Towne,  March  17,  '64.  Edwin  Thatcher, 
Feb.  16,  '65.  Thomas  Tinglebaugh;  discharged  on  surg's 
certificate  June  4,  '62.  James  Tattersall;  discharged  on 
surg's  certificate  Aug.  13,  '62.  John  Tamm,  Sept.  24, 
'63;  drafted;  died  at  Morris  island,  S.  C,  June  26,  '64. 
George  W.  Tamm;  died  at  Washington,  D.  C,  Feb.  4,  '62. 
James  H.  Westcott,  Oct.  28,  '63;  drafted.  Louis  Werner, 
Nov.  II,  '63;  drafted.  Orlando  Watrous,  Feb.  16,  '65. 
Henry  Whitney,  Feb.  17,  '65.  Benjamin  S.  Welter,  Feb. 
17,  '65.  John  S.  White;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64. 
Richard  Wolley;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Samuel  A. 
Warner;  died  at  Annapolis,  Md.,  December  11,  '64. 
Charles  Williams,  Sept.  23,  '63;  died  at  Germantown,  Pa., 
Dec.  24.  '64.  William  Walker;  discharged  on  surg's  cer- 
tificate  Feb.    16,  "63.     Nathan    K.  White;   discharged  on 

surg's  certificate  June  i,  '63.  Robert  O.  Wilson;  dis" 
charged  on  surg's  certificate,  Jan.  23,  '63.  D.  T.  White- 
head; died  at  Newport  News,  Va.,  April  20,  '62.  Frank 
Yeager,  Sept.  24,  '63;  drafted;  captured  July  3,  '64;  ab- 
sent at  muster  out. 

COMP.'VNY     H. 

Officers. — Captains — Erwin  R.  Peckens,  Aug.  22,  '61; 
resigned  April  28,  '63.  John  B.  Fish,  Aug.  31,  '61;  pro- 
moted from  ist  lieut.  to  capt.  July  i,  '63;  mustered  out 
Jan.  27,  '65.  C.  C.  Brattenberg,  Nov.  4,  '61;  promoted 
from    ist  sergt.  to  2nd  lieut.  June  3,  '64;   ist  lieut.   June 

3,  '65;  capt.  June  24,  '65;  veteran,  ist  lieut.,  James 
G.  Stevens,  Sept.  ig,  '61;  promoted  from  2nd  to  ist 
lieut.  Nov.  13,  '63;  captured  July  3,  '64;  died  at  Blakley, 
Luzerne  county.  Pa.,  April  7,  '65.  2nd  lieut.,  David 
Wigton,  Nov.  4,  '61;  promoted  from  sergt.  to  2nd 
lieut.  Nov.  13.  '63;  resigned  March  it^,  '64.  ist 
sergts. — Joseph  R.  Roberts,  Nov.  4,  '61;  promoted 
from  sergt.  to  ist  sergt.  Nov.  5,  '64;  commissioned 
2nd  lieut.  March  26,  '65,  and  ist  lieut.  June  5,  '65;  not 
mustered;  veteran.  Joseph  Bell,  Nov.  4,  '61;  promoted 
Corp.  Jan.  11.  '62;  sergt.  Aug.  5,  '62;  1st  sergt.  June  3,  '64; 
mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Sergts. — William  W.  Archer, 
Nov.  4,  '61;  commissioned  2nd  lieut.  June  4,  '65;  not 
mustered;  veteran.  Abram  C.  Greiner,  Nov.  4,  '61;  pro- 
moted  from  Corp.  to  sergt.  Nov.  5,  '64;   veteran.     Moses 

D.  Fuller,  Nov.  '61;  promoted  from  corp.  to  sergt.  Nov. 
5,  '64;  veteran.  Enos  Boyntcn,  Oct.  24,  '65;  promoted 
corp.  June  3,  '64;  sergt.  Nov.  5,  '64;  mustered  out  with 
company,  July  12,  '65.  George  W.  Wilder,  Nov.  4  '61; 
promoted  from  corp.  to  sergt.  Jan.  i,  '63;  mustered  out 
Nov.  5,  '64.  Reese  Williams,  Nov.  4,  '61;  discharged  on 
surg's  certificate,  July  18,  '62.     Chauncey  W.  Watt,  Nov. 

4,  '61;  discharged  on  surg's  certificate,  Nov.  9.  '62.  Peter 
B.  Walter,  Nov.  4,  '61;  promoted  com.  sergt.  Nov.  5,  '64; 
veteran.  Linton  T.  Roberts,  Nov.  4,  '61;  promoted  com. 
sergt.  Aug.  10,  '63.  Corps. — John  A.  Stoddard.  Oct. 
25,  '62;  promoted  corp.  Nov.  5,  '64.  Levi  K.  Kauffman, 
Nov.  6,  '63;  drafted;  promoted  corp.  Nov.  5,  '64.     James 

E.  Albree,  Nov.  9,  '63;  drafted;  promoted  corp.  Nov.  5, 
'64.  David  Gerhard,  Nov.  7,  '63;  drafted;  promoted 
corp.  Nov.  5,  '64.  Charles  Wagner,  July  28,  '63; 
drafted;  promoted  corp.  March  1,  '65.  John 
L.    Hull,    Nov.    4,    '62;    promoted    corp.    May    i,   '65. 

5,  S.  Penterbaugh,  Nov.  4,  '61;  promoted  corp.  Nov. 
5,  '64;  discharged  July  25,  '65;  veteran.  Robert  Barnes, 
Nov.  4,  '61;  promoted  corp.  Jan.  i,  '63;  mustered  out 
Nov.  5,  '64.  Herman  C.  MilUr,  Nov.  4,  '61;  promoted 
corp.  Nov.  13,  '63;  '63;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64. 
Amasa  R.  DeWolf,  Nov.  4,  '61;  promoted  corp.  June 
14,  '64;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  William  S.  Hopkins, 
Nov.  4,  '61;  promoted  corp.  Nov.  13,  '63;  mustered 
out  Nov.  4,  '64.  Nelson  l^aRose,  Nov.  4,  '61;  promoted 
corp.  Nov.  13,  '64;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  John 
.Ayers,  Sept.  24,  '62;  drafted;  discharged  June  24,  '65. 
Charles  M.  A])pleman,  Nov.  4,  '61;  promoted  corp. 
Jan.  II.  '62;  discharged  on  surg's  certificate  Sept.  18, 
'62.  Nathan  Brown,  Nov.  4,  '61;  promoted  corp, 
Aug.  5,  '62;  discharged  on  surg's  certificate  March  8,  '63. 
Isaac  H.  Hermans,  Nov.  4,  '61;  discharged  on  surg's 
certificate  Oct.  31,  '62.  Harvey  Steele,  Oct.  28,  '62, 
drowned  at  Newbern,  N.  C,  April  5,  '65.  Stephen  D. 
Bidwell,  Nov.  4,  '6t;  died  at  Washington,  D. C,  Dec. 
I  I,  '61.  George  C.  Atherton,  Nov.  4,  '61;  died  at  Wash- 
ington, D.  C,  Dec.  14,  '61.  Edmund  Jones,  Nov.  4,  '61; 
deserted  Aug.  16,  '62.  Musicians — Chester  Brown,  Nov. 
4,  '61;  discharged  on  surg's  certificate  Sept.  17,  '62. 
Francis  J.  Furman,  Nov.  4,  '61;  discharged  on  surg's 
certificate  Oct.  4,  '62. 

Privates. — Jason  .Ayers,  Sept.  i,  '64.     Mortimer  Alton, 



Hunting,    Nov. 
Sept.  1 1,  '62. 
transferred   to 
Oct.    2^,    '62: 

Nov.  4, 



H.  M. 

'64.  lames 
'64.  Edwin 
Nov.  5,  '64. 
June  24,  '65. 

Nov.  4,  '61;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  John  C.  .Adams, 
Nov.  4,  '61;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Edward  H. 
Ashelman,  Oct.  15,  '63;  drafted;  died  at  Morris  island, 
S.  C,  July  12,  '64.  David  Hryant,  Oct.  23,  '62;  absent, 
sick,  at  muster  out.  J.  S.  Buckwalter,  Nov.  i,  '63; 
dratted.  David  Baker,  Oct.  13,  '63;  drafted.  Conrad 
Bacliman,  March  23,  '64;  drafted.  Jefferson  Betz,  Mar. 
7,  '64;  drafted.  Michael  Blair,  March  31,  '64;  drafted. 
J.  A.  A.  Burschel,  Jan.  24,  '65.  Aaron  Bishop, 
'61;  discharged  on  surg's  ceriilicate  July  3,  '65. 
Barnes,  Nov.  4,  '61;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64. 
Brown,  .\pril  i,  '62;  mustered   out   June  12,  '65. 

4,  '61;  discharged  on  surg's  certificate, 
James  K.  Bunyon,  July  24,  '63;  drafted; 
U.  S.  navy,  June  29,  '64.  Adam  Barili, 
died  at  Beaufort,  S.  C,  Oct.  iS,  '64, 
of  wounds  received  at  Eort  Wagner  Oct.  13,  '64. 
Thomas  Burke,  Sept.  24,  '63;  draftecl;  deserted  May  24, 
'64.  Charles  Bisbing,  Nov.  4,  '61;  deserted  March  24, 
'62.  Thomas  Coates,  Sept.  24,  '63;  drafted.  Peter  Con- 
nelly, Sept.  24,  63;  drafted.  Henry  T.  Coleman^  March 
26,  '64.  Minor  C.  Connor,  Feb.  27,  '65.  Pieman  B. 
Carey,  Nov.  4,  '61;  mustered  out  Nov.  5, 
Coggins,  Nov.  4,  '61;  mustered  out  Nov.  5, 
D.  Cam[)bell,  Nov.  4,  '61;  mustered  out 
.•Vndrew  G.  CoUum,  Sept.  i,  "64;  discharged 
John  Carpinger,  Nov.  4,  '61;  discharged  on  surg"s  certifi- 
cate Nov.  26,  '62.  David  Cole,  Oct.  23,  '62;  died  at 
Vorktown,  Va.,  Dec.  16,  '62.  \\'illiam  H.  Cramer,  Oct. 
15,  '63;  drafted;  died  at  Morris  island,  S.  C,  July  16,  '64. 
Thomas   Cooper,  March  22,  '64;   died  at   Morris  Island, 

5.  C,  Sept.  13,  '64.  Richard  R.  Clift.  Nov.  4,  '61;  died 
at  Washington,  D.  C,  Feb.  28,  '62.  Elihu  M.  Dwight, 
March  15,  '64.  Michael  Doyle,  April  4,  '64.  William 
H,  Dolph,  Feb.  25,  '65,  William  Evans,  Nov.  4,  '61; 
mustered  out  Nov,  3,  '64,  Charles  Evans,  Sept.  24,  '63; 
drafted;  deserted  May  29,  '64.  John  H.  Fell,  Nov.  4, 
'61;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Simeon  Ferris,  Nov.  4, 
'61;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Michael  Flomm,  Sept. 
26,  '64:  drafted;  discharged  June  24,  '65.  Edward  D. 
Finney,  Nov.  4,  '61;  died  at  Vorktown,  Va.,  Oct.  25,  '62. 
Nicholas  Flomm,  Sept.  26,  "64;  drafted:  discharged  June 
24,  '65.     Conrad   Grab,  Nov.  4,  '61.     John   Gantz,  Nov. 

6,  '62;  drafted.  John  D.  Griffith,  Nov.  4,  '61;  mus- 
tered out  Nov.  5  '64  ;  William  C.  Gaylord, 
Nov.  4,  '61;  absent  on  detached  duty,  at  e.x- 
piration  of  term.  Harvey  H.  Gray,  March  24,  '64;  dis- 
charged on  surg's  certificate  Dec.  24,  '62.  Martin  Groner, 
Sept.  30,  "63;  drafted:  discharged  June  7,  '65.  Michael  Gil- 
bride,  Aug.  13, '64;  discharged  June  24, '65.  Henry  Greiner, 
Nov.  4,  '61:  discharged  on  surg's  certificate,  Dec.  6,  '62. 
David  S.  Gallatin,  Stpt.  20,  '63;  drafted;  transferred  to 
U.  S.  navy  June  9,  '64.  John  M.  Gainor.  Sept.  24,  '63; 
drafted;  deserted  |une  29,  '64.  George  Hines,  May  30, 
■64.  Stephen  P.  "Hull,  Oct.  24,  '62.  Elliott  Harris, 
March  25,  '64;  drafted.  Benjamin  Houtz,  Nov.  4,  '61: 
mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Daniel  Howell,  Nov.  4,  '61; 
transferred  to  gunboat  service  Feb.  26,  '62.  Edward  L. 
Hubler,  Aug.  22,  '64;  discharged  June  24,  '65.  Jacob 
Hines,  Aug.  17,  '62;  discharged  June  24,  '65.  Peter  M. 
Harvey,  Nov.  4,  '61;  discharged  on  surg's  certificate 
Sept.  20,  '62.  George  Hancock,  Oct.  30,  '63;  drafted; 
died  at  Hilton  Head,  S.  C,  Sept.  22,  '64.  Charles  Heath, 
Nov.  4,  '61;  died  at  Washington,  D.  C,  Jan.  4,  '62. 
Wayne  Harding,  Nov.  4,  '61;  died  at  Hilton  Head,  S.  C., 
May  2,  '63.  Edward  Jones,  March  29.  '64.  William 
James,  Nov.  4,  '61;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Edward 
Jones,  Nov.  4,  '61;  discharged  on  surg's  certificate  Mar. 
13,  '63.  Harry  King.  Sept.  24,  '63;  drafted.  John  M. 
Kapp,  Feb.  21,  '65.  Theodore  Keeney,  March  28,  '64. 
William    Kelley,   Nov.   4,  '61:    transferred   to  7th  N.  V. 

artillery  July  25,  '62.  Charles  Keech,  Nov.  4,  '6t;  dis- 
charged on  surg's  certificate  Dec.  25,  '62.  Jacob  C.  Kint- 
ner,  Nov.  4,  '61;  transferred  to  signal  corps  April  28,  '63. 
Richard  Lee,  Sept.  20,  '63;  drafted;  absent  at  Fort 
("linch,  Fla.,  by  sentence  of  general  court  martial. 
Thomas  Lynch,  Oct.  30,  '63;  drafted.  Redmond  Line. 
March  31,  '64.  Anthony  Long,  Feb.  24,  '65.  John  J. 
La  France,  Nov.  4,  '61;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64, 
Aaron  Lamberson,  Aug.  22,  '64;  discharged  June  24, 
'65.  Benjamin  Myers,  Sept.  26,  '63;  drafteti. 
William  Mutchler,  March  18,  '64.  Simon  Markey, 
Nov.  4,  'Oi;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Owen 
Moyless,  Nov.  4,  "6:;  mastered  out  Nov.  5,  "64. 
Daniel  Mahen,  Sept.  i,  '62;  discharged  June  24, 
'65.  Herbert  D.  Nliller,  Nov.  4,  '61;  discharged  on 
surg's  certificate  Oct.  28,  '63.  Thomas  Monlon,  Nov.  2, 
'63;  drafted;  transferred  to  V.  S.  navy  June  9.  '64. 
Peter  M'Cluskey,  Oct.  13,  '63;  drafted.  A.  K  M'Mur- 
ray,  Sept.  25,  '63;  drafted;  absent  on  furlough  at  muster 
out.  John  M'Lane,  Aug.  17,  '64;  discharged  June  24, 
'65.  Peter  M'.Afee,  Nov.  4,  '61;  discharged  on 
surg's  certificate  F'eb.  12,  '63.  Arthur  M'Gowan, 
Sept.  23,  '63;  drafted;  transferred  to  U.  S.  navy 
June  9,  '64.  Patrick  NLDonald,  Sept.  24,  '63; 
drafted;  died  at  Morris  island,  S.  C,  Feb.  12,  '65. 
Collin  M'Callum,  Nov.  4,  '61;  deserted  Mar.  28,  '62. 
James  Nelson,  Oct.  23,  '62.  Nemison  Northrop,  Mar. 
25,  '64.  Joseph  Nash,  F'eb.  24,  '65.  Michael  O'Neil, 
SejJt.  29,  '63;  drafted;  absent,  sick,  at  muster  out.  Jerry 
O'Neil,  Sept.  24,  '63;  drafted;  discharged  Mar.  10,  '64. 
Adam  Oustead,  Sept.  26,  '63;  drafted;  discharged  June 
24,  '65.  Joseph  Ollendick,  Nov.  4,  '61;  discharged  on 
surg's  certificate  Aug.  5,  '63,  John  Patrick,  Mar.  26,  '64. 
Charles  R.  Potter,  Mar.  26,  '64;  absent,  sick,  at 
muster  out.  F'rancis  Pickering,  Nov.  4,  '61;  mustered 
out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Meschack  Phillips,  Nov.  4,  '61; 
mustered    out     Nov.    5,     '64.      John     E.     Perry,    Sept. 

23,  '62;  discharged  June  24,  '65.  Simon  Rhoads, 
F'eb.  21,  '65.  John  Rodimer,  Nov.  4,  '61;  mustered 
out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Charles  P.  Ross,  Aug.  15,  61; 
promoted  to  com.  sergt.  Nov.  5,  '61.  Charles  W.  Rus- 
sell, Nov.  4,  '61;  died  at  Washington,  D.  C,  Nov.  18, 
'61.  Joseph  A.  Starner,  Mar.  15,  '64.  William  Stage, 
Mar.  31,  '64.  Henry  M.  Sieger,  Jan.  25,  "65.  James 
Sieger,  Feb.  i,  '65.  Daniel  C.  Staples,  Feb.  25,  '65. 
William  H.  Scull,   Feb.  27,  '65.     William  N.  Smith,  Nov. 

4,  '61;  wounded  at  Fort  Putnam,  S.  C.;  absent  at  muster 
out.      Philitus  Snedicor,  Nov.  4,  '61;  mustered  out   Nov. 

5,  '64.     John  F.  Smith,  Sept.   25,   '61;    discharged   June 

24,  '65.  David  Spangler,  Sept.  26,  '64;  drafted;  dis- 
charged June  24,  '65.  Philip  Shrock,  Sept.  26,  '64; 
drafted;  discharged  June  24,  '65.  Henry  W.  Skinner, 
.\ug.  18,  '64;  discharged  June  24,  '65.  George  Smith, 
Sept.  24,  '63;  drafted;  discharged  on  surg's  certificate 
Dec.  12,  '64.  Joseph  Seger,  Nov.  4,  '61;  discharged  on 
surg's  certificate  June  26,  '63.  Benjamin  Saver. 
Nov.  4.'  61;  discharged  on  surg's  certificate  Feb. 
11,  '63.  Leonard  Torpyn,  Nov.  4,  '61.  Charles  Trent, 
Sept.  26,  '64;  drafted;  discharged  June  24,  '65.  Zebu- 
Ion  P.  Travis;  not  on  muster-out  roll.  Dillon  N.  Tay- 
lor; Nov.  30,  '63;  died  Mar.  14,  '64.  William  H.  Tur- 
ner, Sept.  24,  "63;  drafted;  deserted  June  16,  '64,  Horace 
L  Vangilder,  Oct.  27,  '63:  drafted.  Holden  T.  Vaughn, 
Oct.  29,  '63;  drafted.  Thomas  White,  Se))t.  z^,  '63; 
drafted.  Henry  Ward,  Feb.  24,  '65.  Henry  Williams 
ist.  Mar.  17.  '65.  M.  G.  Woodward,  Mar.  22,  '65.  Frede- 
rick Whitehead,  Nov.  4,  '61;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  'C4. 
Henry  Williams  2nd,  Nov.  4,  '61:  mustered  out  Nov.  5, 
'64.  Peter  Weaver,  Nov.  4,  '61;  mustered  out  Nov.  5, 
■64.  John  Walsh,  Sept.  24,  '63;  drafted;  discharged 
Mar.  26,  '64.   William    Winchester.  Nov.     -,.  '63:  drafted; 

transferred  to  U.  S.  navy  June  9,  '64.  Elias  WoodrLiff, 
Oct.  22,  '62;  died  Mar.  7,  '65.  Samuel  Zerfos,  Sept. 
26,   '64;  drafted;  discharged  June  24,  '65. 

coMP.^N^•  1. 

Officers. — Captains — Beaton  Smith,  Aug.  22,  '61;  re- 
signed May  II,  '63.  Henry  H.  Jenks,  Aug.  22,  '61; 
promoted  from  ist  lieut.  to  capt.  Nov.  i,  '63;  absent,  on 
detached  duty,  at  muster  out.  First  lieutenants — Frede- 
rick Fuller,  Aug.  22,  '61;  promoted  from  2nd  to  ist 
lieut.  Nov.  I,  '63;  transferred  to  signal  cor])s  Jan.  11, 
'62.  Thomas  Evans,  Sept.  23,  '61;  promoted  from  corp. 
to  sergt.  Feb.  5,  '62;  istsergt.  Sept.  2,  '62;  ist  lieut.  Mar. 
25,  '64;  captured  July  3,  '64;  mustered  out  May  6,  '65. 
Second  lieutenant,  Edward  W.  Smith,  Sept.  23,  '61; 
promoted  from  corp.  to  sergt.  Dec.  6,  '61;  isl  sergt. 
Nov.  6,  '63;  2nd  lieut.  Oct.  24,  '64;  commissioned 
ist  lieut.  June  8,  '65;  not  mustered.  First  sergeants — 
Frank  Early,  Sept  23,  '61;  promoted  from  private  to 
ist  sergt.    Nov.    i,     64;    commissioned    2nd    lieut.  June 

8,  '65;  not  mustered;  veteran  Benjamin  F.  Jones, 
Sept.  23,  '61;  killed  at  Fair  Oaks,  Va.,  .May  31,  '62. 
Sergeants — Matthew  Richards,  Sept.  23,  '61;  promoted 
from  corp.  to  sergt.  Nov.  6,  '64.  David  Evans,  Sept.  23, 
'61;  promoted  from  corp.  to  sergt.  Nov.  6,  '64.  Richard 
Davis,  Sept.  23,  '61;  promoted  from  jjrivate  to  sergt. 
Nov.  I,  '64;  veteran.  John  Edmonds,  Sept.  24,  '63; 
drafted;  promoted  from  corp.  to  sergt.  Nov.  4,  '64. 
William  H.  Harris,  Sept.  23,  61;  mustered  out  Nov.  5, 
'64.  John  Reason,  Sept.  23,  '61;  promoted  from  corp 
to  sergt.  Sept.  12,  '64;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64. 
Erastus  Sowers,  Sept.  23,  61;  promoted  from  corp.  to 
sergt.  Nov.  27,  '62;  prisoner  from  July  3  to  Nov.  30,  '64; 
mustered  out  Dec.  5,  '64.  William  H.  Merritt,  Sept.  23, 
'61;  promoted  from  corp.  to  sergt.  Nov.  '63;  mustered 
out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Samuel  Seitzinger,  Oct.  5,  '61; 
transferred  to  96th  Pennsylvania  volunteers  Nov. 
6,  '61.  Corporals  —  William  Wood,  July  24,  '63; 
drafted;  promoted  corp.  Nov.  6,  '64,  John 
Timball,  July  22,  '63;  drafted;  promoted  corp. 
Nov.  6,  '64.  Henry  Colkert,  Nov.  2,  '63;  drafted;  pro- 
moted corp.  Nov.  6,  '64.  George  W.  Garrison,  Sept.  24, 
'63;  drafted.  Joseph  Morgan,  July  17,  '63;  drafted; 
promoted  corp.  Nov.  6,  '64,  Thomas  Morris,  Oct.  29, 
'63;  drafted;  promoted  corp.  Nov.  6,  '64.  John  Gleason, 
Mar.  9,  '64;   cajJtured  July   3,    '64;   promoted  corp.  June 

9,  '65.  Morris  Hoover,  Aug.  7,  '64;  discharged  June  2, 
'65.  John  P.  Davis,  Sept.  23,  '61;  promoted  corj). 
Dec.  I,  '63;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  Thomas  Davis, 
Sept.  23,61;  promoted  corp.  Dec.  i,  '63;  mustered  out 
Nov.  5,  '64.  Thomas  A.  Edwards,  Sept.  23,  '61; 
promoted  corp.  Dec.  i,  '63;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64. 
John  Gallon,  Sept.  23,  '61;  promoted  from  corp.  Dec.  i, 
'63;  prisoner  from  July  3  to  Dec.  13,  '64;  mustered  out 
Dec.  18,  '64.  Samuel  Smith,  Sept.  23,  '61;  prisoner 
from  July  3  to  Dec.  13,  '64;  mustered  out  Dec. 
18,  '64.  Samuel  Williams,  Sejjt.  23,  '61  ;  jjromoted 
corp.  Sept.  2,  '62;  mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.  David  Da- 
vis, Sept.  23,  '61;  discharged  on  surg's  certificate  June  i, 
'63.  William  Jones,  Sept.  23,  '61;  discharged  on  surg's 
certificate,  Jan.  20,  '63.  Daniel  Walters,  Sept.  29,  '61; 
discharged  on  surg's  certificate  May  8,  '63.  Thomas 
Cosgrove,  Sept.  23,  '61;  promoted  to  corp.  Feb.  5,  '62; 
died  June  3,  '62.  Alex.  M'Gregor,  Sefit.  23,  '61;  pro- 
moted corp.  Aug.  27,  '62;  died  at  YorktoWn,  Va.,  Sept. 
20,  '62.  Musician,  Henry  C.  Neis,  Sept.  23,  '61;  mus- 
tered out  Nov.  3,  '64. 

Privates.- — Henry  Ackerman,  Oct.  12,  '61;  deserted 
Oct.  28,  '61.  Albert  Barrick,  Sept.  24,  '63;  drafted. 
Charles  Blatz,  July  24,  '63;  drafted;  captured  July  3,  '64; 

absent  at  muster  out.     George  Bainbridge,  Sept.  23,  '61; 
discharged   on   surg's  certificate   June    i,    '63.     Thomas 
Berckle,  Sept.   23,    '61;   discharged   on   surg's   certificate 
July  27,  '62.     Samuel   Bryant,  Sept.  23,   '61;  discharged 
on   surg's  certificate   Dec.    23,   '62.     W.   H.   M.   Barron, 
Sept.    26,    '64;   drafted;    discharged    June   2,    '65;    John 
Barkbile,  Sept.   26,  '64;  drafted;  discharged  June  2,  '65. 
John    M.    Bonelby,    Sept.    26,   '64;   drafted;    discharged 
June  2,  '65.     John   Blakely,  Sept.  23,   '63;   drafted;   died 
Dec,  19,  '64.     Herman  Bartouch,  Sept.  23,  '61;  killed  at 
Fair  Oaks,  Va.,  May  31,    '62.     William   Boyd,  Sept.    26, 
'63;    drafted;   deserted    May   31,    '64.     John   Rroadbent, 
Oct.  12,  '61;  deserted  Oct.  14,  '61.     Thomas   Ball,  Sept. 
23,  '61;  deserted  Sept.  25,   '61;   deserted   Sept.    25,   '61. 
C.  W.  Constantine,  July  24,  '63;  drafted.     Jacob  Court- 
wright,  Sept.  24,  '63;  drafted;  absent,  sick,  at  muster  out. 
Morgan    E.   Coon,  Oct.  14,  '63;   drafted.     William  Cole, 
Oct.   14,   '63;   drafted.     Michael   Cadden,    Sept.  23,   '61; 
mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.      Francis  Cadden,  Oct.  15,  '61: 
mustered  out  Nov.  5,  '64.     Abraham  Carver,  Sept.  26,  '64: 
drafted;  discharged  June  10,  '65.    Henry  F.  Clay,  Sept.  26, 
'64;  drafted;  discharged  June  2,  '65.     Thomas  B.  Clark, 
Feb.  15,  '62;  mustered  out  June  14,  '65.    John  S.  Compton, 
Aug.  24,  '64;  discharged  June  12,  '65.    George  W.  Cromis, 
Sept.  26,  '61;  discharged  on  surg's  certificate  April  2,  '64. 
Henry  Clinton,  July  30,  '63;  drafted;    deserted  Aug.  19, 
'64.     David  H.  (Patterson,  Sept.  23,    '61;    deserted  Sept. 
23,  '5i.     Jabez  Cole,  Sept.  23,  '61;  deserted  June  i,  '62. 
William    Caslett,    Sept.    23,    '61;    deserted    July    3,    '62. 
Reese  H.  Davis,  Mar.  26,  '64;  absent,  sick,  at  muster  out. 
Patrick  Donnelly,  Nov.  13,  '64.     Patrick    Dunn,   Mar.  i, 
'64.     Daniel   Davis,    Oct.   5,  '61;  absent,  sick,  at    muster 
out.     Jonathan  Davis,  SejM.  it,,  '61;  mustered  out   Nov. 
5,  '64.     James  Davis,  Sept.  23,  '61;  mustered  out  Nov.  5, 
'64.    James  Dougherty,  Sept,  24,  '63;  drafted;  discharged 
/^pril    28,  '65.      William   Domer,    Sept.    26,  '64;  drafted; 
discharged  June  2,  '65.     James  Douglass,    Sept.  24,   '63; 
drafted;  transferred  to  U.  S.  navy,  June  21,  '64.      David 
I),  Davis,  Mar.  23,  '64;  captured;  diedat  Florence,  S.  C, 
Oct.  II,  '64.     Joseph   Dale,  Sept.  27,  '61;  died   at    Balti- 
more,  Md..    May  29,  62.     John    Decker,    Nov.    31,    '63; 
drafted;  deserted    Aug.   19,    '64.     John    Evans,  Mar.  21, 
'64;     Richard   Evans,  Oct.  5,  61;  mustered   out   Nov.  5, 
'64.     Josiah    Engle,    Sept.    26,    '64;  drafted;  discharged 
June   2,  '65.     John    Folan,    Sept.    24,  '63;  drafted;  cap- 
tured July  3,  '64.     Joshua  Fonicy,  Sept.  26,  '64;   drafted; 
discharged  June  2,  '65.     Henry    Gerger,    Sept.    26,    '64; 
drafted;  discharged  June  2,  '65.     James  Griffith,  Jan.  10, 
'64;  discharged  on  surg's  certificate  Nev.  15,  '64.     Fran- 
cis   Green,    Nov.    13,    '63;    drafted;    died    Aug.    9,  ■ '64. 
William    H.   Hadley,    Mar.  17,  '64;   Isaac    Hall,  July   21, 
'63;  drafted;  discharged  July    10,    '65.     Joseph    Holden, 
Sept.  24,  63;  drafted;  prisoner  from  July  3,  '64,  to   May 
12,  '65;  discharged  June  22,  '65.     Patrick  Horrigan,  Oct. 
31,  '63;  drafted;   captured  Jidy  3,  '64.     Edward  Howells, 
Mar.  21,  '64.     George  Hares,  Sept.  23,  '61;  mustered  out 
Nov.  5,  '64.     George   W.    Hunter,   Sept.  23,    '61;  absent, 
in    arrest,    at  muster    out.      Solomon    Hembaugh,   Sept. 
26,     '64;     drafted;    discharged     June    2,    '65.      Miihael 
Hutzle,     Sept.     26,     '64;     drafted;       discharged     June 
2,     '65.       Frank     Hurly,      not     on     muster     out     roll. 
Wm.  H.  Hughes,  Sept.  23,  '6 1 ;  discharged  on  surg's  certifi- 
cate, Dec.    5,  '62.     Thad.  W.  Hunter,  Sept.    23,  '61;   dis- 
charged on  surg's  certificate  Jan.  5,  '62.     Michael  Hurley 
Sept.  23,  '61;   discharged   on    surg's    certificate  Jan.,  '63. 
Benjamin  Havert,  March  21,  '64;  captured;  died  at  An- 
dersonville,    Ga.,    Aug.     21,    '64;     grave,    7,422.       Wm. 
Hum|)hrey,    Sept.    23,  '61;    died    at    VV'ashington.   D.  C, 
June  26,  '62.     David  James,  March  11,  '64.     William  H. 
Jones,  Feb.  29,  '64;  prisoner  from  July  3,  '64  to  March  17, 
'65.     William    J.   Jones,  March    18,  '64.     John    P.  Jones, 


Feb.  28,  '65.  Jeremiali  James,  Sept.  2.?,  '61;  mustered 
out,  Nov.  5,  '64.  Henry  James,  Oct.  12,